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IT is to be regretted that so charming a writer as M. Louis 
Figuier should be often somewhat inaccurate in statement, 
especially in treating of scientific subjects. In the present 
work some passages had to be written anew, but for the most 
part the necessary corrections and interpolations have been 
made so as. to break as little as possible the current and 
continuity of M. Figuier's characteristic style. M. Figuier's 
opinions have been retained as far as possible, but where 
necessary the work has been harmonised with the accepted 
results of modern scientific generalisation and research. His 
opinions and statements have often been allowed to stand 
unaltered, even when doubtful. It was only when they were 
obviously and glaringly erroneous or antiquated, that the 
Editor of this work felt justified in modifying them. 

The Editor is indebted to Dr. Robert Brown for much 
valuable information, which has been incorporated in that 
portion of the work treating of the North American Indians 
— a department of ethnology in which that eminent naturalist 

is regarded as one of the best authorities living. 

R. W. 




CHAPTER I. — Definition of Man— How he differs from other Animals- 
Origin of Man— In what Parts of the Earth did he first appear? — Unity 
of Mankind —Evidence in Support — What is Understood by Species in 
Natural History— Man forms but one Species, with its Varieties or 
Kinds — Classification of the Human Race ...... 

CHAPTER II. — General Characteristics of the Human Race — Organic 
Characteristics — Senses and the Nervous System — Height — Skeleton—: 
Cranium and Face — Colour of the Skin — Physiological Functions — Intel- 
lectual Characteristics — Properties of Human Intelligence— Languages 
and Literature — Different States of Society — Primitive Industry — The 
two Ages of Pre-historic Humanity ....... 







European Branch . 

. 4O 

Teutonic Family . 


Latin Family 
Slavonian Family 


Greek Family 




Aramean Branch . 


Libyan Family 
Semitic Family . 


Persian Family . 


Georgian Family . 


Circassian Family 




Hyperborean Branch . 
Lapp Family 
Samoiede Family. 
Kamtschadale Family . 



Esquimaux Family 


Temisian Family . 


Jukaghirite and Koriak 

Families ... 



Mongolian Branch 


Mongol Family . 


Tungusian Family . 


Yakut Family 


Turkish Family . 



Sinaic Branch 


Chinese Family . 


Japanese Family . 


Indo-Chinese Family . 




Hindoo Branch . . . 384 

Hindoo Family . . . 386 

Malabar Family . . . 409 





Ethiopian Branch. 

. 407 


Abyssinian Family 

. 40S 

Fellan Family 

• 417 


Malay Branch 

. 4i3 

Malay Family . . 

. 418 

Polynesian Family 

• 435 

Micronesian Family 

• 455 




Southern Branch . 
Andian Family . 
Painpean Family. 
Guarani Family , 



;rn Branch. 
Southern Family . 
North-Eastern Family . 
North- Western Family 



n Branch . 
Kaffir Family 
Hottentot Family 
Negro Family 

Central African Negroid 
Tribes .... 


Eastern Branch . 
Papuan Family . 
Andaman Family 


5 l 4 













3 2 - 

Neapolitan Iced- water Seller 113 


Crow Chief from the Rocky 


Neapolitan Peasant Woman 113 

Mountains, in his Gala 


Itinerant Trader of Naples 

• "5 

Dress . . . Frontispiece 


An Acquajolo, at Naples 

• 117 


Men and Women of Anatolia 



Wallachian . 

. 119 


Wake of Icelandic Peasants 


Lady of Bucharest 

• 123 

in a Barn .... 



Wallachian Woman . 

• 125 


Women of Stavanger, Nor- 


Noble Bosniak Mussulman 

. 126 

way ..... 



Russian Sentinel, Riga 

. 127 


Citizen of Stavanger . 



Russian Devotees, Riga 

• 131 


Women of Christiansund 


Traffic in St. Petersburg 

• 133 




A Russian Tavern 

• 134 


Costumes of the Telemark 


Interior of an Isba 

• 135 




Livonian Peasants 

. 136 


Boy and Girl of the Lawer- 


Tartar of Kasak . 

■ 137 

grand (Norway) 



Tartar of the Caucasus 



10. Suabians (Stuttgard) 



Tartar of the Caucasus 

• 139 


12. Suabians (Stuttgard) 



Russian North-sea Pilot 

. 141 


Bavarians .... 



Ostiak Hut. 

• 143 


Badeners .... 



Tsigane of Voakovar . 

• 145 


Druid, Gauls, and Franks . 



Slavonian Peasant 



French Soldier . 



A Peasant of Essek 



Cattle-dealer of Cordova 



Herdsmen of the Militar) 


Natives of Toledo 


Confines . 

■ 152 


Spanish Peasant . 



Woman of the Militar) 



Interior of a Madrid Wine- 

Confines . 


shop .... 



Granzers, and their Guard- 


Spanish Lady and Duenna . 





The Fandango 



Tsigane Prisoner 



The Bolero . 



Bosniak Peasant . 



Fish- vendors at Oporto 



Bosniak Peasant Woman 


2 5- 

Roman Peasant Girl . 



Bosniak Merchant 



Roman Peasants. 



Women of Pesth. 



Young Girl of the Tran- 




stevera .... 



A Hungarian Gentleman 



Street at Tivoli . 






A Cardinal entering the 


Greeks of Athens 


Vatican .... 



A Greek Household . 



Exaltation of Pope Pius IX. 



Interior of the Agora at 


A Macaroni Shop at Naples 


Athens .... 







Fete of the Temple of Jupi 





Albanian Woman 




Moorish Coftee-house 


Sidi-Bow-Sadi, near Ti 




Grinding Wheat in 


Kabylia . 




Kabyle Jewellers. 




Kopts of the Temple 





A Fellah Woman and 

Children. . 



A Fellah Donkey-boy. 



A Lady of Cairo . 




Alma or Dancing-girl . 




Nomadic Arabs . 




Jew of Bucharest. 








Maronites at a Convent 




Hady-Merza-Aghazzi . 




Persian Types 




Persian Noblemen 




Persian Women . 




Louty and Baktyan 




An Armenian Drawing-room 



. Head of an Armenian 




Georgians . 




89. Laplanders .... 237 

90. A Lapp Cradle . . . 238 

91. Samoiedesofthe North Cape 239 

92. Samoiedes .... 242 

93. Esquimaux Summer En- 

campment . . . 244 

94. Esquimaux Winter Encamp- 

ment .... 245 

95. Esquimaux Village . . 246 

96. Esquimaux Chief . . 247 

97. Esquimaux Bird-catcher . 249 

98. Young Esquimaux . . 250 

99. A Mongol Tartar . -253 

100. Buriats Escorting Miss 

Christiani. . . . 255 

10 1. Manchus Soldiers . . 259 

102. Yakuts . . . .261 

103. A Yakut Woman . . 263 

104. Yakut Villagers . . . 265 

105. Yakut Priests . . . 267 


106. Turkoman Encampment 

107. Kirghis Funeral Rites. 

108. A Harem . 

109. A Harem Supper 

1 10. Turkish Ladies paying 

in. A Turkish Barber 

112. Turkish Porter . 

113. Indo-Chinese of Stung Treng 

114. Indo-Chinese of Laos . 

115. A Young Chinese 

116. Chinese Shopkeeper . 

117. Chinese Lady 

118. Chinese Woman . . 

119. Mandarin's Daughter . 

120. Chinese Boudoir . 

121. Chinese Sitting-room . 

122. Opium Smokers . 

123. Chinese Agricultural La 

bourers at Work 

124. Chinese Fishing . 

125. The Custom-house at Shang 

hai .... 

126. Chinese Bonze . 

127. Chinese Schoolmaster . 

128. Chinese Locomotion . 

129. A Chinese Play . 

130. A Chinese Junk . 

131. Chinese Beggars . 

132. Chinese Punishments . 

133. Chinese Punishments . 

134. A Chinese Court of Justice 

135. Chinese Soldiers . 

136. Chinese Trooper. 

137. The Great Wall of China 

138. Japanese 

139. A Japanese Father 

140. Japanese Soldier . 

141. Japanese Noble . 

142. Japanese Palanquin 

143. The Ta'i Koon's Guards 

144. A Lady of the Court . 

145. A Kamis Temple, Japan 

146. Japanese Pagoda. 

147. Burmese Nobles . 

148. Burmese Lady 

149. Women of Bankok 

150. Siamese Domestic 

151. Siamese Ladies Dining 

152. Tomb of a *3onze, at Laos 

153. Cambodians . 
















154. The Prince Royal of Siam 

155. Chinese Girl 



156. Natives of Hyderabad . 

157. A Banian of Surat 

158. An Aged Sikh . 

159. A Parsee Gentleman . 

160. Sir Salar Jung, K.S.I. 

161. Nautch Girl of Baroda 

162. A Coolie of the Ghats. 

163. Pagoda at Sirrhingham 

164. Palanquin . 

165. Abyssinian . 

166. Nouers of the White Nile 

167. A Nouer Chief . 

168. Chief of the Lira. 

169. Malay "Running a Muck " 

170. Malay. 

171. Javanese 

172. Javanese Dancing-girls 

173. Javanese Wedding 

174. Dyaks. 

175. A Dyak Hut 

176. New Zealand Chief . 

177. Native of Tahiti . 

178. Native of the Sandwich 

Islands .... 


179. Huascar, Thirteenth Em- 

peror of the Yncas . 

180. Coya Cahuana, Empress of 

the Yncas 

181. Type of Head of an Antis 

Indian .... 

182. Type of Head of an Antis 

Indian .... 

183. Summer Shed of the Antis . 

184. Antis Indians Fishing . 

185. Peruvian Interpreter . 

186. Type of Head of Araucanian 
1S7. Picheray Huts . 

38. Type of Head of Patagonian 





189. A 


Horse Sa- 









190. A Bolivian Chief 

191. A Boat on the Rio Negro . 

192. Examinador of Chili . 

193. A Paraguayan Messenger . 

194. Brazilian Negro . 

195. Indian Woman of Brazil 
191. Native of Manaos, Brazil . 

197. Brazilian Negresses 

198. Brazilian Dwelling 

199. Negroes of Bahia 

200. Natives of French Guiana . 

201. Botocudos . . . . 

202. Indian of the Mexican Coast 

203. Indian of the Mexican Coast 

204. Indian of the Mexican Coast 

205. Mexican Indian Worn: 

206. Mexican Picador 

207. The Roldau Bridge Market, 


208. Mexican Hatter . 

209. Mexican Hawker 

210. Creek Indians 

211. Encampment of Sioux 

Indians . • 

212. Sioux Warrior 

213. A Sioux Chief . 

214. Crow Indians in Council 

215. Pawnee Indians . 

216. A Cheyenne Chief 

217. A Yute Chief . 

218. Choctaw Indians plavine 

Ball . . . 

219. Comanche Indians 

220. A Comanche Camp 

221. A Buffalo Hunt . 

222. Mohave Indians . 

223. Flat-head Indians 

224. Naya Indians 

225. A Crow Chief . 











226. A Kaffir . . -565 

227. Native of the Mozambique 

Coast .... 567 

228. The Hottentot Venus . . 569 

229. A Negro Village. . . 577 

230. Fishing on the Upper 

Senegal . . 579 




"-3 >■ 



A Zambesi Negress . . 585 


Thakombau, late King of 

the Fiji Islands . • 591 


Native of Fiji . . -593 


Native of Fiji . . 595 

A Temple of Cannibalism . 597 


A Fijian Dance . . • 599 


Young Native of New Cale 

Native of New Caledonia 
Encampment of Native Aus 

Native Australian 
An Australian Grave , 

60 r 


The Human Race. 


Definition of Man — How he differs from other Animals — Origin of Man — In 
what parts of the Earth did he first appear ? — Unity of Mankind, evidence 
in support — What is understood by species in Natural History — Man forms 
but one species, with its varieties or kinds — Classification of the Human 

What is man ? A profound thinker, Cardinal de Bonald, has said, 
" Man is an intelligence assisted by organs." We would fain adopt 
this definition, which brings into relief the true attribute of man, 
intelligence, were it not defective in drawing no sufficient distinction 
between man and the brute. It is a fact that animals are intelli- 
gent, and that their intelligence is assisted by organs ; but their 
intelligence is infinitely inferior to that of man. It does not extend 
beyond the necessities of attack and defence, the power of seeking 
food, and a small number of affections or passions, whose very 
limited scope merely extends to material wants. With man, on the 
other hand, intelligence is of a high order, although its range is 
limited, and it is often arrested, powerless and mute, before the 
problems it proposes. In bodily formation, man is an animal, he 
lives in a material envelope, of which the structure is that of the 
mammalia ; but he far surpasses the animal in the extent of his 
intellectual faculties. The definition of man must therefore establish 
this relation which animals bear to ourselves, and indicate, if pos- 
sible, the degree which separates them. For this reason we shall 
define man : an organised, intelligent being, endowed with the faculty 
o f abstraction . 

To give beyond this a perfectly satisfactory definition of man is 
impossible : first, because a definition, being but the expression of 
a theory, which rarely commands universal assent, is liable to be 
rejected with the theory itself; and secondly, because a perfectly 
accurate definition supposes an absolute knowledge of the subject, 


of which absolute knowledge our understanding is incapable. It 
has been well said that a correct definition can be furnished by none 
but Divine power. Nothing is more true than this, and were we 
able to give of our own species a definition rigorously correct, we 
should indeed possess absolute knowledge. 

The trouble we have to define aright the being about to form 
the subject of our investigation, is but a forecast of the difficulties 
we shall meet when we endeavour to reason upon and to classify 
man. He who ventures to fathom the problems of human nature, 
physical, intellectual, or moral, is arrested at every step. Each 
moment he must confess his powerlessness to solve the questions 
which arise, and at times is forced to content himself with merely 
suggesting them. This can be explained. Man is the last link of 
visible creation ; with him closes the series of living beings which 
we are permitted to contemplate. 

These reflections have been called for in order to supply an 
explanation of the frequent admissions of hopelessness which we 
shall be obliged to make in this cursory Introduction, when we 
investigate the origin of man, the period of his first appearance on 
the globe, the unity or division of our species, the classification of 
the human race, &c. If to many of these questions we reply with 
doubt and uncertainty, the reader must not lay the blame at the 
feet of science, but must search for the cause in the impenetrable 
laws of nature. 

And first, whence comes man? Wherefore does he exist? To 
this we can make no reply ; the problem is beyond the reach of 
human thought. But we may at least inquire, since this question 
has been largely debated by the learned, whether man was at once 
constituted such as he is, or whether he originally existed in some 
other animal form, which has been modified in its anatomical 
structure by time and circumstances. 

This question is capable of most exhaustive treatment, but it will 
be sufficient for our present purpose to say that it can be shown 
that man is not derived, by a process of organic transformation, 
from any animal, and that he includes the ape not more than the 
whale among his ancestry ; but^ that he is the product of a special 

Nevertheless, whether its creation be special or the result of 
modification, the human species has not always existed. There is, 
then, a first cause for its production. What is this? Here is again 
a problem which surpasses our understanding. Let us say that 
the creation of the human species was an act of God, that man is 

man's first appearance. 3 

one of the children of the great Arbiter of the universe, and we shall 
have given to this question the only response which can content 
at once our feelings and our reason. 

But let us consider questions more accessible to our compre- 
hension, with which the mind is more at ease, and upon which 
science can exercise its functions. To what period should we refer 
the first appearance of man upon the globe? Many writers who 
have turned their attention to this most intricate question have given 
it as their opinion that the first appearance of man must be carried 
as far back as the tertiary period. Rejecting this date on account 
of the insufficiency of the evidence produced, we, in common 
with most naturalists, admit that man appeared for the first time 
upon our globe at the commencement of the quaternary period, 
that is to say, before the geological phenomenon of the deluge, and 
previous to the glacial period, which preceded this great terrestrial 

By saying that man appeared for the first time upon the globe at 
the commencement of the quaternary period, we establish the fact, 
which is agreeable to the cosmogony of Moses, that man was formed 
after the other animals, and that by his advent he crowned the 
edifice of animal creation. 

At the quaternary period almost all the animals of our time had 
already seen the light, and a certain number of animal species 
existed, which were shortly to disappear. When man was created, 
the mammoth, the great bear, the cave tiger, and the cemus 
megaceros, animals more bulky, more robust, and more agile than 
the corresponding species of our time, filled the forests and peopled 
the plains. The first men were therefore contemporary with the 
woolly elephant, the cave bear, and tiger; they had to contend with 
these savage phalanxes, as formidable in their number as their 
strength. Nevertheless, in obedience to the laws of nature, these 
animals were to disappear from the globe and give place to smaller 
or different species, whilst man, persisting in the opposite direction, 
increased and multiplied, as the Scripture has said, and gradually 
spread into all inhabitable countries, taking possession of his empire, 
which daily increased with the progress of his intelligence. 

It is not necessary to recount the history of the first steps 
of humanity, and trace the origin and progress of civilisation from 
the moment when man was cast, feeble, wretched, and naked, in the 
midst of a hostile and savage brute population, to the day when his 
power, resting upon a firm basis, changed little by little the face of 
the inhabited earth, 


But there is a very different problem to the solution of which we 
shall apply ourselves in the following pages. Did man see the light 
at any one spot of the earth, and at that alone, and is it possible to 
indicate the region which was, so to say, the cradle of humanity ? 
There are two schools of anthropologists who have promulgated rival 
hypotheses explanatory of the origin of mankind. One teaches that 
mankind sprung from a single pair of human beings, whose de- 
scendants gradually peopled the earth, and became divisible into what 
are now called " races," owing to the changes in form and physique 
wrought in them by variations in the climatic and other external con- 
ditions of their existence. This is the " monogenistic " hypothesis. 
The rival school oppose to this the "polygenistic" hypothesis, viz., that 
mankind in the first instance arose, not from one stock, but from 
many, and that the well-marked persistent modifications of mankind, 
now scattered over the earth, all belong to different species, and 
originally came from different species of the human family or group. 
Some monogenists, whilst holding the specific unity of mankind, seem 
willing to admit that the race may have sprung from several pairs, all 
belonging to the same species, and that possibly these may have 
appeared at first in different parts of the globe. Ever since anthro- 
pology was a science, the followers of these opposing schools have 
carried on a war of words with each other. They seem, after a 
century and a half of strife, as far from, or as near, the true solution 
of the problem as they were when they began their controversy 
concerning it. The strength of the polygenists' position seems to lie 
in the difficulty the monogenists have of accounting for all the 
existing diversities in the races of mankind known to us, by the 
operation of varying climatic and other external conditions of 
existence to which these races may have been exposed. It is 
hardly possible for the monogenists to produce an instance of any race 
having actually suffered so much permanent modification from 
exposure to varying climatic conditions, that it lost its primitive 
characteristics and assumed those of another race altogether. A 
negro, the polygenists say, has never been changed into a European 
by being taken to live in a European climate, and Europeans, though 
their skins do darken a little under the influence of great solar heat, 
do not, even though six generations of them have been subjected to 
the influences of a West Indian climate, become transformed into a 
non-European race. On the ether hand, it is urged by the mono- 
genists that the influence of climate and the physical conditions of life 
must be allowed to operate through a longer space of time than any of 
which we have record, before the change effected on a race becomes 


so great as to transform it into what would be called another race 
altogether. Hence, they say, it is impossible for them to bring the 
proof demanded by their opponents. One question, which the mono- 
genists fail to answer satisfactorily, is, If climate can account for 
those departures from the form and physique of the first human 
progenitors, now so characteristic of their descendants, how is it that 
in different parts of the earth, the climatic conditions of which are 
nearly identical, we find indigenous races existing so radically different 
from each other, as the Negro, the South American Indian, and the 
Malay ? The polygenists assert that wherever a race exists that 
differs from the one that preceded it in the same area, they can prove 
that the primitive race was not gradually changed into the existing 
one by the operation of changes in the external conditions of 
existence, but that another race, specifically distinct from the primitive 
one, encroached upon it, crushed it out of existence, and took its 
place, or became intermixed with it, so that the distinctive features 
of both races were changed or disappeared. The only refuge the 
monogenist here has is in the imperfection of the record we have of 
the life history of the human race. The question may be un- 
answerable at present, for the only accessible evidence bearing on the 
point is that afforded by the records of 3,000 years at the most. This, 
however, is but a brief moment in the existence of mankind, if we are 
to believe the most recent scientific authorities on the subject, who 
tell us that the race has existed for from 50,000 to 150,000 years on 
the globe. It may be argued that the existing differences between 
human races are as great as many that exist betweeen some animals 
which admittedly belong to separate species. But, even allowing 
that what monogenists call the " varieties " of mankind must be held 
to belong to different species, still the resemblances which connect 
them are so much more striking than the differences which separate 
them, that it is hardly necessary to say they could not have sprung 
from one primal stock, or that they must have sprung from several, 
which ab i?iitio, belonged to different species. Carl Vogt was for a 
long time a pugnacious advocate of polygeny. Since he became a 
convert to Darwinism, his views have become curiously modified. 
He seems to hold that mankind has a threefold ape-origin — that from 
the New World apes, by variation and modification under natural 
selection, sprung the progenitors of the various American tribes; that 
from the orang came the Mongolian type of humanity ; and from the 
chimpanzee and gorilla, or troglodytic type of ape, sprung the African 
races. If progenitors so radically unlike as these apes gave birth to 
the various existing races of mankind, it is strange their descendants 


should be so much more closely allied to each other than are the 
three great ape-progenitors. Professor Huxley says sensibly, "Surely 
no one can now be found to assert that any two stocks of mankind 
differ as much as a chimpanzee or an orang do." * When Carl Vogt 
says the races of mankind have not had a common origin, but have 
descended in " several parallel series, more or less limited locally, 
which may have been developed from the different parallel series of 
the apes," he seems to forget that at the point where each of the 
" parallel series " of human forms issued out of apedom, they must 
have had Caliban like ancestors who could hardly be specifically 
different from each other. One ape might produce the "missing link ;" 
and one " missing link " might produce the various races as easily as 
three. Polygenists say there is no way of accounting for the diversities 
that separate existing races, save by assuming they have originated 
from many specifically distinct stocks. But Mr. Darwin's recent 
researches show that differences as great as any that separate the 
higher from the lower human races can be produced within the limits 
of one single species — say dogs or pigeons — by artificial selection. It 
may be held that mankind has for fully 50,000 years been subjected 
to the operation of vast and ever-varying diversities of external 
influences, the sum of which makes up that evolutionary force called 
"natural selection." If Mr. Darwin produced within a lifetime, in 
pigeons, by the operation only of artificial selection, diversities as 
great as any that exist between the races of mankind, could not 
natural selection, operating not within a lifetime, but during 50,000 
years and upwards, produce in the descendants of one primal human 
stock those existing diversities in form and physique which polygenists 
say can only be accounted for by assuming several different human 
species to have peopled the world from the first ? The late Professor 
Agassiz held that mankind sprang from eight specific primal stocks, 
each rising in a distinct " province of creation," where their descen- 
dants now exist. It is difficult to understand how this theory would 
account for the peopling of the Arctic province of creation, or even of 
the central African province. One would think that the climate in 
these provinces would have killed off the original human pairs ere 
they had learned how to protect themselves against its inclemency in 
the one case, and its insalubrity in the other. 

Of late a third school of authropologists has arisen, whose views 
on the origin of mankind have attracted much attention — though 
they are not very generally accepted, and not capable of accurate 

* Critiques and Addresses. 1S75, p. 163. 


demonstration. Founding on the doctrines Mr. Darwin has pro- 
mulgated as to the gradual evolution of the higher species .of animals 
from the lower, they have suggested an hypothesis as to the origin of 
mankind which seems to unite or reconcile the monogenistic and 
polygenistic theories. M. Georges Pouchet, celebrated as an ardent 
polygenist, now admits the unity of the origin of mankind so far as to 
say, " In the night of time there existed a certain species, less perfect 
than the most imperfect man, and itself ascending by a certain number 
of intermediate species, the nature of which it is impossible for us to 
suspect, to that primal vertebrate form we assume. This species, a 
rude sketch of what man is now, gave birth, after the lapse of con- 
siderable time, to several other species, the parallel and unequal 
evolution of which, in accordance with what we have said of animals, 
has now for its contemporary (but not final) expression the different 
human species commonly called races." Thus some polygenists 
have " changed their front," to use a military expression, and though 
they preserve their consistency by still maintaining the specific dis- 
tinctness not only of races as they exist, but of their progenitors at 
the time they became endowed with the attributes of humanity, they 
concede the unity of origin contended for by the monogenists, by 
carrying it back beyond this stage into what may be called the 
Caliban epoch, making the Calibans, or missing links that connect 
our race with its primal brute progenitors, spring from one and not 
from many different species. Dr. Ernst Haeckel, of Jena, a well-known 
transcendental naturalist, also solves the problem of human origin in 
a somewhat similar fashion. According to him, however, we must 
assume that at a very early period a number of races existed with 
well-marked diversities, but these were only branches of two primitive 
stocks, one characterised by woolly hair, the other by smooth hair. 
These two primitive stocks were the most divergent and persistent of 
the various human stock forms that branched off from the Caliban- 
like transition form between man and the ape. This homo primi- 
genius arose somewhere, Haeckel thinks, in Southern Asia, or a con- 
tinent still further south, now submerged, and his progenitor would be 
some species of the narrow-nosed apes, a form now long extinct, and 
not yet traceable in the records of the rocks. The woolly and 
smooth-haired races, the descendants of this ape, in the struggle for 
existence, survived its other descendants, and gradually spread over 
the world. The woolly-haired branch went south of the equator; 
the srjnooth-haired branch went northward towards Asia, sending 
offshoots towards Australia. From the former came the Negroes, 
Negritos, Hottentots, and Tasmanians. From the smooth-haired 


branch sprung the Australians, American Indians, Mongols, and Indo- 
Europeans. The White Caucasian race being more favoured by 
climate, &c, attained the highest development of all the descendants 
of the primitive smooth-haired branch, and sprung, Dr. Haeckel 
thinks, either from a branch of the Malayan or a ramification of the 
Mongolian race. From Southern Asia it spread westward, and at a 
very early time divided into two branches, the Semitic, which spread 
southwards, giving rise to the Jews, Arabs, Phoenicians, Abyssinians ; 
and the Aryan, which spread towards the north-west, giving rise to 
the Hindoos, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Sclavs, &c. 
These views are, as we say, not generally accepted, and are discussed 
chiefly as curious speculations characterised by great ingenuity and 
suggestiveness. As a recent writer says, " Science as yet affords no 
certain conclusion whether mankind is derived from one pair of 
human beings or from several. But whichever view be adopted, 
there can be little doubt the balance of evidence does not favour the 
idea that the nations of the earth are specifically distinct, or however 
many pairs they may be derived from, belong to different species. 
Zoologically speaking, the races of men are of one blood and one 

Can we now extend our investigation and determine the par- 
ticular spot of the earth whence man first came ? It is probable 
that man first saw the day on the plains of Central Asia, and that it 
was from this point that by degrees he spread over the whole earth. 
We shall proceed to state the facts which support this opinion. 

Around the central table-land of Asia are found three organic 
and fundamental types of man, that is to say, the white, the yellow, 
and the black. The black type has been somewhat scattered, 
although it is still found in the south of Japan, in the Malay 
Peninsula, in the Andaman Isles, and in the Philippines, at 
Formosa. The yellow type forms a large portion of the actual 
population of Asia, and it is well-known whence came those white 
hordes' that invaded Europe at times pre-historic, and in more 
recent ages ; those conquerors belonged to the Aryan race, and 
they came from Central Asia. We shall see later on, that the 
different languages of the globe resolve themselves into three 
fundamental forms : monosyllabic languages, in which each word 
contains but one syllable ; agglutinative languages, in which the 
words are connected ; and inflected languages, which are the same 
as those spoken in Europe. Now, those three general forms of 
language are, at the present day, to be met with around the 
central table-land of Asia. The monosyllabic language is spoken 



throughout China, and in the different states connected with that 
empire. The agglutinative languages are spoken to the north of 
this plain, and extend as far as Europe. And, lastly, inflected 
languages are found in all that portion of Asia which is occupied by 
the white race. 

Around the central table-land of Asia, we thus find not only 
the three fundamental types of the human species, but the three 
types of human speech. Does not this, therefore, afford ground for 
presumption, if not actual proof, that man first appeared in this very 
region, which Scripture assigns as the birthplace of the human race ? 

It is from this central table-land of Asia, radiating, so to say, 
around this point of origin, that Man has progressively occupied 
every part of the earth. 

Migration commenced at a very early period; the facility with 
which our species becomes habituated to every climate, and 
accommodates itself to variations of temperature, taken in con- 
nection with the nomadic character which distinguished primitive 
populations, explains to us the displacement of the earlier inhabi- 
tants of the earth. Soon, means of navigation, although rude, 
were added to the power of travelling by land, and man passed 
from the continent to distant islands, and thus peopled the archi- 
pelagoes as well as the mainland. By means of transport, effected in 
canoes formed from the trunks of trees barely hollowed out, the 
archipelagoes of the Indian Ocean, and finally Australia, were 
gradually peopled. 

The American continent formed no exception to this law of the 
invasion of the globe by the emigration of human phalanxes. It 
would be a matter of no great difficulty to pass from Asia to 
America, across Behring's Straits ; and this communication of one 
terrestrial hemisphere with the other is less surprising, when we 
consider what modern historical works have shown, namely, that 
already about the tenth century, which would be nearly 400 years 
before Christopher Columbus, navigators from the coast of Norway 
had penetrated to the other hemisphere. The inhabitants of Mexico 
and Chili possess most authentic historical archives, which prove 
that a very advanced civilisation flourished there at an early period. 
Gigantic monuments, which still remain, bear witness to the great 
antiquity of the civilisation of the Yncas (Peru) and of the Aztecs 
(Mexico). It is not unreasonable to suppose that the inhabitants of 
America, who thus advanced at a rapid pace in the path of civilisa- 
tion, descended from the hordes of Northern Asia which reached the 
New World by traversing the ice of Behring's Straits. 


To explain, therefore, the presence of man upon all parts of the 
continent, and in the islands, it is not necessary to insist upon the 
existence of several centres, where our species was created. If 
popular traditions went to show that all the regions now inhabited 
have always been occupied by the same people, and that those who 
are found there have constantly lived in the same places, there 
might be reason to admit the hypothesis of multiple creations of the 
human race ; but, on the contrary, traditions for the most part teach 
us that each country has been peopled progressively by means of 
conquest or emigration. Tradition shows that the nomadic state of 
existence has universally preceded fixed settlements. It is. therefore, 
probable that the first men were constantly on the move. A flood 
of barbarians, coming from Central Asia, overflowed the Roman 
Empire, and I he Vandals penetrated even into Africa. Modern 
migrations have been conducted on a still vaster scale, for at the 
present day we find America almost wholly occupied by Europeans ; 
English, Spanish, and other people of the Latin race, fill the vast 
American hemisphere, and the primitive populations of the New 
World have almost entirely disappeared, annihilated by the iron 
yoke of the conqueror. 

The continent of Asia was peopled, little by little, by branches 
of the Aryan race, who came down from the plains of Central Asia, 
directing their course towards India. As to Africa, that continent 
received its contingent of population through the Isthmus of Suez, 
the valley of the Nile, and the coasts of Arabia, by the aid of 

There is, therefore, nothing to show that humanity had several 
distinct nuclei. It is probable that man started from one point 
alone, and that through his power of adapting himself to the most 
different climates, he has, little by little, covered the whole face of 
the inhabitable earth. 

St. Paul proclaimed, long before the studies of modern anthro- 
pologists made it known, this principle of the unity of the human 
species, when he said, God " hath made of one blood all nations of 
men for to dwell on the face of the earth." * 

Innumerable dissertations have been written with a view of 
explaining the origin of the three chief races — the white, yellow, and 
black — and of tracing their origin to the influence of the climate or 
the soil. But it must be admitted that the problem is hardly 
capable of solution. The influence which a warm climate exercises 

• Acts xvii. 26. 


upon the colour of the skin is a well-known fact, and it is a matter 
of common observation that the white European, if transported into 
the heart of Africa, or carried to the coast of Guinea, becomes 
bronzed, even though he only remains there a short time. Richard- 
son, in his " Travels in the Great Desert of Sahara" (vol. i., p. 265), 
says, " When I arrived at Ghadames I had a rosy colour, now I am 
like these yellow men." There is no proof that sun-tanning, like 
that which the European gets in the tropics, becomes hereditary. 
But the colour of the skin is not the only characteristic of a race ; 
the Negro differs from the white, less by the colour of his skin, than 
by the structure of the face and cranium, as also by the proportion 
of his members to one another. Is it not, moreover, a fact that the 
hottest countries are inhabited by people with white skins ? Such, 
for instance, are the Touaricks of the African Sahara, and the Fellahs 
of Egypt. On the other hand, men with black faces are found in 
countries enjoying a mean temperature, as, for instance, the in- 
habitants of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. 

Let us conclude that science is unable to explain to us the 
difference which exists between the different types of the human 
species, that neither the temperature nor the action of the soil 
furnishes an explanation of this fact, and that we must limit our- 
selves to noting it, without further comment, in spite of the 
mania which prompts the savants of our day in a desire to explain 

We have now another question to consider. Should these white, 
yellow, or black men, to whom we must add, as we shall see later 
on, those who are brown and red, all of whom differ one from 
another in the colour of their skin, in height, in their physiognomy, 
and in their outward appearance, be grouped into different species, 
or are we to regard them merely as varieties of species — that is to 
say, races ? To fully understand this question, and to form a 
judgment of what will result from it, we must ascertain what is 
understood in natural history by the word species, and by the word 
race or variety of species. We will therefore commence by explaining 
the meaning of species in zoology. 

The hare and the rabbit, the horse and the ass, the dog and the 
wolf, the stag and the reindeer, &c., are not likely to be taken one 
for another. Yet how greatly do dogs differ among themselves in 
size, in colour, and in their proportions. What a difference there is 
between the mastiff and the Pyrenean dog ! The same observation 
applies to horses. How different we find in size and outward 
appearance the large Normandy horse, the London dray horse, or 


the omnibus horse of Paris, and the small Corsican or Shetland 
horses which we can carry in our arms ! And yet no one is mistaken 
in them : whether he differ in size, or in the colour of his hair, we 
always recognise a horse, and never mistake him for an ass j in the 
mastiff as well as in the bull-dog, we shall always recognise a dog. 
However greatly a rabbit may vary in size and colour, it will never 
be taken for a hare. The Breton cow, slight and frail, is neverthe- 
less as much a cow in the eyes of a farmer, and the rest of the 
world, as a full-sized Durham. The same reflection applies with 
equal force to birds. The turkey which exists in the wild state in 
America certainly differs very much from the black or white turkey 
acclimatised in Europe ; but there is no mistake that both of them 
are turkeys, and nothing else. 

The vegetable kingdom will furnish us with similar facts. Take, 
for instance, the cotton plant on its native soil in America, and you 
will find that it differs from the cotton plant cultivated in Africa and 
Asia. The coffee-plant of the South American plantations is not 
similar to the same shrub which exists in Arabia, whence it came in 
the first instance. Wheat varies in latitude to a most extraordinary 
extent, &c. The cotton plant, however, is always the cotton plant, 
whatever be the soil upon which it grows ; the coffee-plant and wheat 
are always the same vegetables, and one is not liable to be deceived 
in them. The action of climate and soil upon vegetables, these same 
causes taken in connection with nutrition upon animals, and finally 
the mixture which has taken place between different individuals, ex- 
plain all these differences, which affect the external appearance, but 
not the type itself. 

We mean by species, when applied either to animals or vegetables, 
the fundamental type, and by variety or race the different beings 
which result from the influence of climate, of nutriment, and of 
mixture with individuals of the same species. The species dog gives 
birth to the varieties or races known under the names of bull-dog, 
spaniel, mastiff, &c. The species horse gives birth to the races or 
varieties known under the names of the Arabian, English, Normandy, 
Corsican, &c. The species turkey produces the varieties known as 
the wild turkey, the black and the white turkey. In the vegetable 
kingdom, the cotton plant species produces the American and the 
Indian cotton ; the bramble produces the innumerable varieties which 
are known to us as rose-trees. 

But, the reader will say, does there exist any practical means of 
deciding whether the animal under consideration belongs to a species 
or a race ? We reply that such a means does exist, which enables 


us to speak with certainty in every case. It is of importance that 
this should be made known, in order that every one may test it for 

Take the two animals in question, unite them, and if that con- 
nection of the sexes results in the production of another individual, 
capable of reproduction, this will indicate race or variety. If, 
however, the union of the two individuals is unproductive, or 
the offspring is itself barren, this will indicate two individuals of 
different species. 

In spite of observations and experiments made in the course of 
many thousand years, reproduction has never been procured by 
mixture of a rabbit with a hare, a wolf with a dog, a sheep with a 
goat. It is true that hybrids are obtained between the horse and 
she-ass, and between the ass and the mare, but it is well known that 
the individuals produced by this mixture, namely, the quadrupeds 
termed mules, are barren animals, incapable of reproduction with one 

This rule is not confined to the animal kingdom, but it obtains 
also among vegetables. You can obtain artificial production from a 
pear-tree by applying, with suitable precautions, the pollen of the 
flowers of one pear-tree to the stamens of those of another. Fruit 
will be formed, and the seed which that produces will in its turn be 
productive. But if you attempt to perform the same operation be- 
tween a pear-tree and an apple-tree, you will obtain no result what- 
ever. This, again, is the practical method which enables botanists 
to distinguish varieties from species. The test of artificial fecunda- 
tion between one plant and another, which it is desired to distinguish 
as regards their species, serves to solve the difficulties which are met 
in attempting to determine the position of a plant in botanical classi- 

The word species, therefore, is not a fictitious term, a conventional 
expression invented by the learned to designate the classifications of 
living beings. A species is a group arranged by Nature herself. 
Fruitfulness or barrenness in the products of the mixture are charac- 
teristics which Nature usually attaches to variety or to species ; those 
groups therefore appear to us as though they had a substantial foun- 
dation in the laws which govern living beings, and we do but render 
in speech what we observe in Nature. 

When, moreover, we reflect, we easily understand that if Nature 
had not instituted species, the most complete disorder would have 
reigned throughout living creation. By intermixture the animal 
kingdom would have been overrun by mongrels who would have 


confused every type, thus permitting of no discernment in this crowd 
of incoherent products. The whole animal kingdom would have 
been given over to inextricable confusion. In like manner, if plants 
had been capable of infinite variety through the mixture of different 
species, brought about by the industry of man, or by the effect of the 
wind bearing through the air the fertilising pollen, there would be 
nought but trouble and disorder among the vegetable population of 
the globe. 

Species, therefore, has a necessary, providential, and fixed exist- 
ence. Reproduction is, as a rule, possible only between members 
of the same species ; and the differences produced in their offspring 
by the soil, nutriment, and surrounding circumstances, determine 
what we call race, or variety. 

The principle which we have just enunciated will, in its applica- 
tion to man, enable us to decide whether the individuals that people 
the globe belong to different species of men, or simply to races or 
varieties ; in other words, whether the human species is unique, and 
whether the different human types known to us — the white, black, 
yellow, brown and red-man — belong or not to races of the human 

The reply to this question will doubtless have been anticipated. 
If we apply the rule stated above, all men that inhabit the globe 
belong to one and the same species, since it is a fact that men and 
women, whatever be their colour, can marry, and their offspring is 
always reproductive. The Negro and white female by their union 
produce mulattoes ; mulattoes and mulattresses are reproductive, as 
are also their descendants ; marriages between members of the red or 
brown races are fruitful. Some writers — such as M. Paul Broca — 
assert that mongrel races are either sterile or less fertile than the 
parent stocks, and that a mixed race is certain to die out unless it 
gets new blood infused into it from one of its parent races. It is 
just possible that crosses between the most divergent races may not 
be very fertile, or possessed of much persistent vitality, but even of 
this there is no very good evidence. The Pitcaim Islanders, descen- 
dants of the mutineers of the Bounty, are examples of how 
thoroughly fertile the progeny of a mongrel race may be, for they 
sprung from marriages between English sailors and Tahitian women 
— widely-divergent stocks — and yet, though they made consanguineous 
marriages, the mongrel progeny of this crossing showed no signs of 
want of fertility. 

Unless, therefore, we regard men as a solitary exception among all 
living beings, unless we withdraw them from the operation of the 


universal laws of Nature, we must come to the conclusion that they do 
but form a certain number of races of one and the same species, and 
all descend from one primitive unique species. 

We are unable to state exactly, or to explain with any degree of 
accuracy, how it is that man, as he was first created, has given birth 
to races so widely different as the white, black, yellow, brown, and 
red, which people the earth at the present day. We can but furnish 
a general explanation of what we see in the widely-varying conditions 
of existence, and in the opposite character of the media through 
which man, for ages past, has dragged his existence, frequently with 
much difficulty and uncertainty. If the dog, the horse, the rabbit, 
and the turkey, through the agency of human industry applied to 
them during a period of scarcely two thousand years, have given 
birth to so many varieties, how much more would man, whose 
appearance upon the globe is of such antiquity that we cannot assign 
to it even approximately a date — man, whose fate it has been to pass 
through so many different climates, such various physical and social 
positions, expect to see his own type become modified and trans- 
formed ? We should, with more reason, feel surprised at finding that 
the differences between one variety and another are not much wider 
than they appear to be. 

The principle that the human species is one, and what follows as 
a natural conclusion, namely, that all men who inhabit the earth are 
but races or varieties of this one species, will, therefore, appear to die 
reader to be the most in accordance with the present state of scientific 

These different races which originate in one species, the primitive 
type having been modified by the operation of climate, food, soil, 
intermixture, and local customs, differ, it must be admitted, to a 
marvellous extent, in their outward appearance, colour, and physi- 
ognomy. The differences are so great, the extremes so marked, and 
the transitions so gradual, that it is well-nigh impossible to distribute 
the human species into really natural groups from a scientific point of 
view, that is to say, groups founded upon organic characteristics. The 
classification of the human races has always been the stumbling-block 
of anthropology, and up to the present time the difficulty remains 
almost undiminished. 

A cursory examination of the various classifications, which have 
been brought forward by the most important of those who have 
essayed the task, will make this truth apparent to all. 

Button, in his chapter upon " Man," a work which we can always 


read again with admiration and advantage, contents himself with 
bringing forward the three fundamental types of the human species, 
which have been known from the first under the names of the white, 
black, and yellow race. But these three types in themselves do not 
exemplify every human physiognomy. The ancient inhabitants of 
America, commonly known as the Red-Skins, are entirely overlooked 
in this classification, and the distinction between the Negro and the 
white man cannot always be easily pointed out, for in Africa the 
Abyssinians. the Egyptians, and many others, in America the Cali- 
fornians, and in Asia the Hindoos, Malays, and Javanese are neither 
white nor black. 

Blumenbach, the most profound anthropologist of the last century, 
and author of the first actual treatise upon the natural history of man, 
distinguished in his Latin work, "De Homine," five races of men, the 
Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, Malay, and American. It is not to 
be supposed that the inhabitants of the Caucasus really represent the 
highest type of humanity. Their languages seem to have so many 
resemblances to the monosyllabic tongues, that some good ethnologists 
class them as Mongolians. The high place assigned to the Caucasians 
in Blumenbach's scheme was due to the odd accident that the finest 
skull Blumenbach had in his museum happened to be that of a 
Georgian woman. Though it is not a skull of average form, it was 
erroneously made the type of the highest race, and, as Dr. Latham 
says, "never has a single head done more harm to science, by way of 
posthumous mischief, than was done by the head of this well-shaped 
female from Georgia." Another anthropologist, Prochaska, adopted 
the divisions pointed out by Blumenbach, but united under the name 
of the white race Blumenbach's Caucasian and Mongolian groups, 
and added the Hindoo race. 

The eloquent naturalist, Lacepede, in his " Histoire Naturelle de 
1' Homme," added to the races admitted by Blumenbach the hyperborea7i 
race, comprising the inhabitants of the northern portion of the globe 
in either continent. 

Cuvier fell back upon Buffon's division, admitting only the white, 
black, and yellow races, from which he simply derived the Malay and 
American races. 

A naturalist of renown, Virey, author of " L'Histoire Naturelle du 
Genre Humain," "L'Histoire Naturelle de la Femme," being unfavour- 
able to the unity of our species, was led to entertain the opinion that 
the human species was twofold. This was the starting-point of an 
erroneous deviation in the ideas of naturalists who wrote after him. 
We find Bory de Saint Vincent admitting as many as fifteen species 



of men, and another naturalist, Desmoulins, doubtless influenced by 
a feeling of emulation, distinguished sixteen human species, which, 
moreover, were not the same as those admitted by Bory de Saint 

This course of classification might have been followed to a much 
greater extent, for the differences among men are so great, that if strict 
rule is not adhered to, it is impossible to fix any limit to species. 
Unless, therefore, the principle of unity has been fully conceded at 
starting, the investigation may result in the admission of a truly 
indefinite quantity. 

This is the principle which pervades the writings of the most 
learned of all the anthropologists of our age, the late Dr. Prichard, 
author of "The Natural History of Man." 

Dr. Prichard held that all people of the earth belonged to the same 
species. He was a partisan of the unity of the human species, but was 
not satisfied with any of the classifications already proposed, and which 
were founded upon organic characteristics. He, in fact, entirely 
altered the aspect of the ordinary classifications which are to be met 
with in natural history. He commenced by pointing out three 
families, which, he asserted, were in history the first occupants of the 
earth : namely, the Aryan, Semitic, and Egyptian. Having described 
these three families, Prichard passes to the people who, as he says, 
radiated in various directions from the regions inhabited by them, and 
proceeded to occupy the entire globe. 

M. de Quatrefages, in his course of anthropology at the Museum 
of Natural History, Paris, makes a classification of the human race 
based upon the three types, white, yellow, and black; but he appends 
to each of these three groups, under the head of mixed races attached 
to each stein, a number of races more or less considerable and arbitrary 
which were excluded from the three chief divisions. 

Dr. Latham's classification is a useful, if not thoroughly perfect one, 
and it has long been popular in England. He divides mankind into 
three primary varieties : — (1) Mongolidae, (2) Atlantidae (3) Japetidae. 
The Mongolidae include the Asiatic, Polynesian, and American 
peoples ; the Atlantidae, the tribes of Africa, Syria, and Arabia ; and 
the Japetidae, the Indo-European nations. 

The most recent classification is the highly ingenious one of 
Professor Huxley. Like Haeckel, he divides mankind into crisp or 
woolly-headed peoples ( Ulotrichi), and smooth-haired peoples (Lei- 
otrichi). In the first division the colour varies from yellow to black, 
and the skull is longer than it is broad (Dolichocephalic ), e.g., Negroes, 
Bushmen, Malays, &c. The smooth-haired division is subdivided 


into the Australoid group, with "dark skin and eyes, very black hnir, 
eminently long prognathous skulls, with well-developed brow-ridges, 
who are found in Australia and the Dekhan." The ancient Egyptians, 
he thinks, belonged to this group, and from certain discoveries 
Colonel Lane Fox recently made as to resemblances in the form of 
weapons, implements, &c, in use amongst the ancient Egyptians and 
those now in use amongst Australian and Dravidian hill tribes, 
Professor Huxley's novel ideas on the subject have received un- 
expected confirmation. The Mongoloid group forms the second 
subdivision, including Chinese, Polynesians, Eskimos, and American- 
Indians. The third is the Xanthochroic group, with pale skins, blue 
eyes, and fair hair, including few Celtic-speaking nations, also Sclavs 
and Teutons. The fourth subdivision is the Melanochroic group, 
dark-complexioned white peoples, probably a mixture of the Aus- 
traloids and the Xanthochroic stock, e.g., Iberians, and the in- 
habitants of the Mediterranean coasts, Western Asia, and Persia. 

The classification of the human race which we propose to follow, 
modifying it where in our opinion it may appear to be necessary, is 
due to a Belgian naturalist, M. d'Omalius d'Halloy. It acknowledges 
five races of men : the white, black, yellow, brown, and red. 

This classification is based upon the colour of the skin, a charac- 
teristic very secondary in importance to that of organisation, but 
which yet furnishes a convenient framework for an exact and me- 
thodical enumeration of the inhabitants of the globe, permitting a 
clear consideration of a most confused subject. In the groups, 
therefore, which we shall propose, the reader will fail to find a truly 
scientific classification, but will meet with merely such a simple 
distribution of materials as shall permit us to review methodically the 
various races spread over every portion of the earth's surface. 



General Characteristics of the Human Race — Organic Characteristics — Senses 
and the Nervous System — Height — Skeleton — Cranium and Face — Colour 
of the Skin — Physiological Functions — Intellectual Characteristics — Properties 
of Human Intelligence — Languages and Literature— Different States of 
Society — Primitive Industry — The Two Ages of Pre-historic Humanity. 

Before entering upon a minute description of each of the human 
races, we shall find it well to lay before the reader a generalisation of 
the characteristics which are common to all. 

Since man is an intelligent being, living in an organised frame, 
our attention has to be directed to the consideration of his organs 
and intellect, that is, in the first place, we must investigate the 
physical ; in the second,- the intellectual and moral elements of his 

The physical characteristics bear but secondary importance among 
those of the human race. Man is a spirit, which shines within the 
body of an animal, and the only difficulty is to ascertain in what 
manner the organism of the mammalia is modified, in order to become 
that of man ; to compare the harmony of this organism with the 
object in view, namely, the exercise of human intellect and thought. 
We shall see that the organs of the mammalia are greatly modified in 
the human subject, becoming, either on account of their individual 
excellence, or the harmony of their combination, greatly superior to 
the associations of the same organs among animals. 

Let us first consider the brain and organs of sense. When we 
examine the form and relative size of the brain in ascending the 
series of mammiferous animals, we find that this organ increases in 
volume, and progresses, so to say, toward the superior characteristics 
which it is to display in the human species. Disregarding certain 
exceptions, for the existence of which we cannot account, but which 
in no way alter the general rule, the brain increases in importance 
from the mollusc to the ape. But, in comparing the brain of the 
ape with that of man, an important difference becomes at once 
apparent. The brain of the gorilla, orang-outang, or chimpanzee, 
winch are the apes that bear the greatest resemblance to man, and 


which for that reason are designated anthropomorphous* apes, is very 
much smaller than that of man. The cerebral t lobes in man are much 
longer than in the anthropomorphous apes, and their vertical measure 
is out of all proportion with the height of the cerebral lobes in apes ; 
this is what produces the noble frontal curve, one of the characteristic 
features of the human physiognomy. The cerebral lobes are con- 
nected behind with a third nervous mass, called the cerebellum. The 
large volume of these three lobes, the depth and number of convolu- 
tions of the whole brain mass, and other anatomical details of the 
brain, upon which we are unable here to treat at greater length, place 
the brain of man very far above that of the animal nearest to him in 
the zoological scale. Professor Schauffhausen holds that the dif- 
ference in respect of volume between the brains of the highest apes 
and the lowest man, is so far beyond any similar differences that 
separate the higher apes from each other, that alone it would be 
enough to create an impassable gulf between the higher apes and 
man. Whether intermediate forms, such as Haeckel and Pouch et 
assume, once bridged this gulf and have since become extinct, it is 
impossible to say, for geologists have not yet found their fossil 
remains. Still it is not improbable that such beings may have existed, 
for it is a curious and noticeable fact that as time goes on, the gulf 
between man and the apes is ever widening, owing to a tendency 
exhibited by both the higher apes and the lower races of man to die 
out and become extinct, even in our own day. 

The senses, taken individually, are not more developed in man 
than they are in certain animals ; but in man they are characterised 
by their harmony, their perfect equilibrium, and their admirable 
appropriation to a common end. Man, it will at once be admitted, 
is not so keen of sight as the eagle, nor so subtle of hearing as the 
hare, nor does he possess the wonderful scent of the dog. His skin 
is far from being as fine and impressionable as that which covers the 
wing of a bat. But while among animals one sense always predo- 
minates to the disadvantage of the rest, and the individual is thus 
forced to adopt a mode of existence which works hand in hand with 
the development of this sense, with man all the senses possess 
almost equal delicacy, and the harmony of their association makes up 
for what may be wanting in individual power. Again, the senses of 
animals are employed only in satisfying material necessities, while in 

* From the Greek anthropos, man ; and morphe, shape, 
f From the Latin cerebrum, the brain ; of which the diminutive is cerebellum, 
the little brain. 



man they assist in the exercise of eminent faculties whose develop- 
ment they further. 

Let us consider shortly in detail our senses. 

Man is certainly better off, as regards the sense of sight, than a 
large majority of animals. Instead of being placed upon different 
sides of his head, looking in opposite directions, and receiving two 
images which cannot possibly be alike, his eyes are directed forwards, 
and regard similar objects, by which means the impression is doubled. 
The sense of sight thus brings to his conceptions a complete image 
of what surrounds him ; it is his most useful sense, the more so when 
it is guided in its application by a clear intellect. 

The sense of touch in man reaches a degree of perfection which 
it does not attain in animals. How marvellous is the sense of touch, 
when exercised by applying the extremities of the fingers, the part of 
the body the best suited to this function, and how much more won- 
derful is the organ called the hand, which applies itself in so admir- 
able a manner to the most different surfaces whose extent, form, or 
qualities we wish to ascertain ! 

A modern philosopher has attributed to the hand alone our intel- 
lectual superiority. This was going too far. We find enthusiasm 
allied with justice in the views expressed in the excellent pages which 
Galen has consecrated to a description of the hand, in his immortal 
work " De usu Partium." 

" Man alone," says Galen, " is furnished with hands, as he alone 
is a participator in wisdom. The hand is a most marvellous instru- 
ment, and one most admirably adapted to his nature. Remove his 
hand, and man can no longer exist. By its means he is prepared for 
defence or attack, for peace or war. What need has he of horns or 
talons ? With his hand he grasps the sword and lance, he fashions 
iron and steel. Whilst with horns, teeth, and talons animals can only 
attack or defend at close quarters, man is able to project from afar 
the instruments with which he is armed. Shot from his hand, the 
feathered arrow reaches at a great distance the heart of an enemy, or 
stops the flight of a passing bird. Although man is less agile than 
the horse and the deer, yet he mounts the horse, guides him, and 
thus successfully hunts the deer. He is naked and feeble, yet his 
hand procures him a covering of iron and steel. His body is unpro- 
tected against the inclemencies of climate, yet his hand finds him a 
convenient abode, and furnishes him with clothing. By the use of 
his hand he gains dominion and mastery over all that lives upon the 
earth, in the air, or in the depths of the sea. From the flute and 
lyre with which he amuses his leisure, to the terrible instruments by 


means of which he deals death around him, and to the vessel which 
bears him, a daring seaman, upon the bosom of the deep — all is the 
work of his hand. 

" Would man without hands have been able to write out the laws 
which govern him, or raise to the gods statues and altars ? Without 
hands could he bequeath to posterity the fruit of his labours, and the 
memory of his deeds ? Could he (had man been created handless) 
converse with Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and the different great men, 
children of bygone ages ? The hand is then the physical cha- 
racteristic of man, in like manner as intelligence is his moral 

Galen, having shown in this chapter the general formation of the 
hand and the special disposition of the organs which compose it ; 
having described the articulations and bones, the muscles and 
tendons of the fingers ; and having analysed the mechanism of the 
different movements of the hand, cries, full of admiration for this 
marvellous structure : 

" In presence of the hand, this marvellous instrument, cannot we 
well treat with contempt the opinion of those philosophers who saw 
in the human body merely the result of a fortuitous concourse of 
atoms ? Does not everything in our organisation most clearly give 
the lie to this false doctrine? Who will dare to invoke chance 
in explanation of this admirable disposition ? No, it is no blind 
power that has given birth to all these marvels. Do you know 
among men a genius capable of conceiving and executing so perfect a 
work ? There exists not such a workman. This sublime organisation 
is the creation of a superior intelligence, of which the intellect of man 
is but a poor terrestrial reflection. Let others offer to the Deity 
reeking hecatombs, let them sing hymns in honour of the gods ; my 
hymn of praise shall be the study and the exposition of the marvels 
of the human frame!" 

The sense of hearing, without attaining in man the perfection 
which it reaches in certain animals, is nevertheless of great delicacy, 
and becomes an infinite resource of instruction and pure enjoy- 
ment. Not only are differences of intonation, intensity, and timbre 
recognised by our ear, but the most delicate shades of rhythm and 
tone, the relations of simultaneous and successive sounds, which 
give the sentiment of melody and harmony, are appreciated, and 
furnish us with the first and most natural of the arts — music. Thus 
the perfection and delicacy of our senses, which permit of our 
grasping faint and slightly varying impressions, the harmony of these 
senses themselves, their perfect equilibrium, their capability of 


improvement by exercise, place us at a considerable distance above 
the animal. 

Let us now pass to the bony portion of the human body, and 
consi !er first of all the head. The head is shared by two regions, 
the cranium and the face. The predominance of either of these 
regions over the other depends upon the development of the organs 
which belong to each. 

The cranium contains the cerebral mass, that is, the seat of the 
intellect ; the face is occupied by the organs appertaining to the 
principal senses. In animals, the face greatly exceeds the cranium 
in extent ; the reverse is, however, the case with man. It is but 
rarely that with him the face assumes importance at the expense of 
the cranium — in other words, that the jaws become elongated, and 
give to the human face the aspect of a brute. 

We find in works upon anthropology some expressions which call 
for an explanation here ; they are frequently employed, since they 
enable us to express by a single term the relation which exists 
between the dimensions of any particular skull. The term dolicho- 
cepJialoas (from the Greek dolichos, long ; cephate, head) is applied to a 
cranium which is elongated from front to rear, or, to express the idea 
numerically, the cranium whose longitudinal diameter bears to its 
vertical diameter the proportion of ioo to 68. A short cranium is 
styled brachyophalous (from brachys, short; cephate, head), which term 
is applied when the relation between the longitudinal and vertical 
diameters is ioo to 80. 

The attribute of length or shortness of the cranium is of less 
importance than is generally believed. All Negroes, it is true, are 
dolichocephalciis ; but it must not be supposed from this that the 
production backwards of the cranium is an indication of inferiority ; 
since, in the white race, heads are sometimes very long, and some- 
times very short. The North Germans are dolichocephalous ; those 
inhabiting Central Germany being brachycephalous. This character- 
istic cannot therefore be regarded as a criterion of intellectual 

There is in the human face an anatomical characteristic, of greater 
importance than any taken from the elongation of the cranium ; that 
is, the projection forwards, or the uprightness of the jaws. The term 
prognathism (from pro, forward ; and gnathos, jaw) is applied to this 
jutting forward of the teeth and jaws, and orthognathism (from orthos, 
straight ; gnathos, jaw) to the latter arrangement. 

If was long admitted that prognathism, or projection of the jaws, 
was peculiar to the Negro race. But this opinion has been forced to 


yield to the discovery that projecting jaws exist among people in no 
way connected with the Negro. In the midst of white populations 
this characteristic is frequently met with ; it is occasionally found 
among the Irish, and is by no means rare at Paris, especially 
among women. Prognathism would appear to be characteristic of a 
small European race dwelling to the south of the Baltic Sea, the 
Esthonians, and which itself is but the residue of the primitive 
Mongolian race to which frequent allusion has already been made, 
and which was the first race that, according to M. Pruner-Bey, 
peopled the globe. It is probably the mixture of Esthonian blood 
with that of the inhabitants of Central Europe which causes the appear- 
ance in our large cities of individuals whose faces are prognathous. 

We cannot close our remarks upon the face without speaking 
of a curious relation between it and the cranium, which has been 
much abused ; we allude to the jacial angle. By facial angle is 
meant the angle which results fiom the union of two lines, one of 
which touches the forehead, the other of which, drawn from the 
orifice of the ear, meets the former line at the extremity of the front 

The Dutch anatomist Camper, after having compared Greek and 
Roman statues, or medals of either nationality, assumed that the 
cause of the intellectual superiority which distinguished Greek from 
Roman physiognomies was to. be found in the fact, that, with the 
Greeks, the facial angle is larger than in Roman heads. Starting 
with this observation, Camper pursued his inquiries until it occurred 
to him to advance the theory that the increase of the facial angle 
may be taken in the human race as a sign of superior intelligence. 

This observation was correct, insomuch as it separated men from 
apes, and carrion birds from other birds. But its application to 
different varieties of men, as a measure of their various degrees of 
intelligence, was a pretension doomed to be sacrificed to future 
investigations. Dr. Jacquart, assistant-naturalist in the Museum 
of Natural History at Paris, calling to his aid an instalment he- 
invented, by which the facial angle is rapidly measured, has, in our 
day, made numerous studies of the facial angle of human beings. 
M. Jacquart found that this angle cannot be taken as a measure 
of intelligence, for he observed it to be a right angle in individuals 
who, with respect to. intelligence, were in no way superior to others 
whose facial angle was much smaller. M. Jacquart went so far as to 
show that, in the population of Paris alone, the facial angle varies 
between much wider proportions than those imposed by Camper as 
characteristic limits of human varieties. 


The measure of the facial angle, therefore, is far from bearing 
the importance which has long been ascribed to it ; but this does 
not go to prevent its application, with advantage, in ordinary cases, 
when races of men are required to be distinguished from one another. 

Erect carriage is another of the characteristics which distinguish 
the human species from all other animals, including the ape, by 
whom this position is but rarely assumed, and then accidentally and 

Everything in the human skeleton is calculated to ensure a 
vertical posture. In the first place, the head articulates with the 
vertebral column at a point so situated that, when this vertebral 
column is erect, the head, by means of its own weight, remains 
supported in equilibrium. Besides this, the shape of the head, the 
direction of the face, the position of the- eyes, and the form of the 
nostrils, all require that man should walk erect on two feet. 

If our body were intended to assume a horizontal position, 
everything connected with it would be out of place : the crown 
of the head would be the most advanced part, and this would 
operate most detrimentally to the exercise of sight ; the eyes would 
be directed toward the earth ; the nostrils would open backward ; 
the forehead and the face would be beneath the head. More- 
over, the whole muscular system, and all the tendons, are in man 
auxiliary to erect posture, without mentioning the curves which 
occur in the vertebral, column, and the exceptional formation of the 
limbs, &c. 

J. J. Rousseau was, therefore, very far from right, when he con- 
tended that man was born to go on all fours. 

The height of men, as well as the colour of their skin, are 
characteristics which must not be overlooked, since they are of 
importance as distinctive attributes of different races. 

And first, with regard to height, the differences which this 
incident may present in the human species have been greatly 
exaggerated. Much allowance must be made in admitting what has 
been written with respect to dwarfs, and what has been alleged con- 
cerning giants. The Greeks believed in the existence of a people 
they called Pygmies, but whose place of abode they always omitted 
to point out.* These were very small people, who were entirely 

* Dr. Schweinfurth, in his "Heart of Africa," describes an army formed of a 
race of dwarfs, in the service of Munza, king of the Niam-Niam nation, a race of 
Central African cannibals. We shall refer to these further on. Professors Panceri 
<Mid Gasgo brought two of these pygmies to Naples in May, 1874. 


hidden from view when they entered a field of standing wheat, 
and who passed much of their time in resisting the attacks of 
Cranes. The same fable was revived in more modern times, with 
reference to a people supposed to live in the island of Madagascar, 
who were styled Kymes. But Pygmies and Kymes are equally 

Antiquity tells us of giants, but without forming them into a 
separate race. It is rather in modern times that the existence of 
races of human giants has been put forward. In the sixteenth 
century, when Magellan had doubled Cape Horn and discovered the 
Pacific Ocean, a companion of this navigator, Pigafetta, gave an 
altogether extraordinary description of the Patagonians, or in- 
habitants of the Tierra del Fuego. He made giants of them. One 
of his successors, Leaya, adding yet more to the height of the 
Patagonians, assigned to these men a stature of from three to four 

• Modern travellers have reduced to accurate proportions the 
exaggerated statements of ancient navigators. The French naturalist 
Alcide d'Orbigny actually measured a large number of Patagonians, 
and found that their height, on an average, was a litt'e over 5 feet 
8 inches. According to Captain Musters and Dr. Cummingham, 
who recently made some very careful observations on the subject, 
the average height of the Patagonian is never over 5 feet 10 inches. 

This, then, is about the limit of the height which is reached by 
the human species. 

With reference to the extreme of smallness, we are able to arrive 
at this by referring to the Bushmen who inhabit Southern Africa. 
An English traveller, Barrow, measured all the members of a tribe of 
Bushmen, and found that their average height was about 4 feet 
4 inches. 

The human species, therefore, varies in height to the extent of 
about 1 foot 4 inches, that is to say, the difference between the height 
of the Patagonians and that of the Bushmen. It is well to make this 
observation whilst we are upon this subject, since the supporters 
of the theory of a plurality of human races have invoked these 
differences in height, in support of the multiplicity of the races 
of humanity. It is clear that, among animals, races vary in height 
to a much greater extent than they do with man ; there is, by com- 
parison, a much greater difference in size between a mastiff and 
a dog of the Pyrenees, than there is between a Bushman and a 

As regards the colour of the skin of the human race, we find it 


necessary to say a few words, since we propose to take this as the 
basis of our classification. 

The colour of the skin is a very convenient characteristic to fix 
upon in order to identify the various races, since this quality is 
peculiarly adapted to suggest itself through the eye. Its scientific 
importance must, however, by no means be exaggerated. Certain 
individuals, though they be members of the White or Caucasian 
Race, may be very darkly tinted. Arabs are often of a brown colour, 
which nearly approaches black, and yet they possess the finest marks 
of the White or Caucasian Race. The Abyssinians, although very 
brown, are not black. The American Indians, whom we rank as 
members of the Red Race, often have dark brown or almost black 
skins. Among members of the White Race in northern latitudes, 
especially women, the skin has often a yellowish tint. We must add 
that the colour of the skin is often difficult to fix, since the shades of 
colour merge into one another. All this must be said in order to 
show how difficult it is to form natural groups of the innumerable 
types of our species. 

It would be for us now to speak of the physiological characteristics 
of the human race, but our consideration of this subject will be 
limited to a few words, since the condition of physiological functions 
is almost identical among all men, whatever be their race. 

There is, nevertheless, an important difference, well worthy of 
note, presented by the nervous system when we compare the two 
extremes of humanity, namely, the Negro and the white European. 
In the white man, the nervous centres — that is, the brain and spinal 
cord — are of much greater volume than they are in the Negro. In 
the latter the expansions from these nervous centres — that is, the 
nerves, properly so called — have relatively a greater volume. 

A, similar difference, quite on a par with this, exists in the 
circulatory system. In the white man, the arterial system is more 
developed than the venous ; the reverse is the case with the 
Negro. Lastly, the blood of the Negro is more viscous, and of a 
deeper red than that of the white man. 

With the exception of these general differences, the great physio- 
logical functions proceed in the same manner among all races of 
men. The differences are not remarked except when secondary 
functions are compared, but these differences then assume propor- 
tions of some consideration. 

Climate, customs, and habits are the causes of these variations in 
the secondary functions, which at times become so similar as to 
permit of confusion in the most opposite races. Let a member of 


the white race be thrown into the midst of wild Indians, become a 
prisoner of the red-skins, and share their warlike existence in the 
midst of forests, we shall see that the sense of sight, as also that of 
hearing, will attain in this individual the same perfection which they 
enjoy in his new companions. It is by virtue of the prodigious 
flexibility of our organism, and of our powers of imitation and assimi- 
lation, that the physiological functions of secondary importance 
become capable of such modification. 

The intellectual and moral characteristics are those which take 
the lead in man. Not only are we unable to pass them over in 
silence in the general study of the human race, but much more 
importance must be assigned to them than to mere corporeal charac- 
teristics. If the naturalist, when he studies an animal, makes a 
point, when he has described its structure and organism, of con- 
sidering its habits and manner of life, how much more should he, 
when treating of man, dwell upon his intellectual faculties, the stamp 
which so truly identifies our species. 

Man makes use of language as the means of expressing his 
intelligence. If man is provided with the power of speech, which he 
has in common with no other animal, it is owing to the fact that in 
him intelligence is infinitely more developed than in the animal. It 
is through the simultaneous concurrence of all his senses that the 
faculty of speech is manifested in man ; and the proof of this is, that 
through the absence of one of his senses, he loses this faculty. 
What is meant by a person born dumb ? It is an individual similar 
in all respects to speaking man, but differing from him in this, that 
he came into the world perfectly deaf. The primary absence of the 
power of hearing has paralysed the child's intelligence with special 
reference to his imitative faculty, and, in fact, the person called deaf 
and dumb is originally simply a person born deaf. # 

Language, then, is but the expression of the highest intelligence. 
" Animals have a voice," says Aristotle, " but man alone speaks." 
Nothing can be truer than this statement of the immortal Greek 

It is well known how the languages and dialects spoken in the 
world have multiplied ; and, indeed, nothing is more difficult than to 
classify all the languages and dialects that exist. This difficulty 
becomes more insurmountable when we consider that languages vary 
in course of time to a very considerable extent. The French of 
Rabelais and Montaigne, who wrote at the time of the Renaissance, 
is not very intelligible to us, and that of French chroniclers at the 
time of St. Louis can only be understood by studying it specially 


and wnh a dictionary. Modern Italians read Dante with great diffi- 
culty, and the same may be said of the English as regards one of 
their greatest writers, Chaucer. Languages, then, alter very rapidly, 
even though the people themselves remain stationary. The alterations 
are much more serious and rapid when two peoples amalgamate. 

These considerations are sufficient to convey an idea r>f the 
problem which scholars have propounded in wishing to ascertain the 
language of primitive humanity. It may be said that such a problem 
is incapable of solution. We must, therefore, despair of finding the 
mother tongue, and limit ourselves to those which are her offspring. 

Upon a comparison of these last, it has been decided to assign to 
three fundamental groups all the languages which have been, and are 
still, spoken on the earth ; these are, as we have already said, mono- 
syllabic, agglutinative, and inflected languages. 

Chinese is the most decided example of a monosyllabic language. 
Each word comprises but one syllable, and has an absolute meaning 
in itself. Recourse must be had to the complicated combination of 
a quantity of utterances in order to impress all modifications of 
thought, all distinctions of time, place, person, condition, &c. One 
marvels to hear that the Chinese language comprehends such an 
immense number of words, that the life of a single man of letters is 
not sufficiently long to allow of his learning all. This apparent 
wealth is but the utmost poverty. This language, whose vocabulary 
is infinite, is simply detestable. To its imperfection must be attri- 
buted the smallness of the progress which the people of Asia have 
made in the direction of intelligence and commerce. 

Agglutinative languages, which are spoken by Negroes, as also by 
many people of the yellow race, are the first degree of perfection in 
human speech. In these the word is no longer unique ; variable 
terminations attached to each word modify the primitive expression. 
They contain roots and words whose function it is to modify these 

The third and last degree of perfection in human speech is found 
in inflected languages. Those languages are so called, in which the 
same word is capable of modification a great number of times, in 
order to express the different shades of thought, and to translate 
changes of time, person, or place. Inflected languages are made up 
of a series of different terms, the number of which is by no means 
large, but the modification of which, by means of adjuncts, or 
through the position they occupy, are indeed innumerable. All 
European languages, and those spoken in Asia by people of the 
white race, are inflected. 


If spoken language is the first element which served to constitute 
human societies, fixed, that is, written language, has been the funda- 
mental cause of their progress. By means of writing, one generation 
has been enabled to hand down to the other the fruits of their 
experience and investigation, and thus to lay the foundation of 
primitive science and history. 

The first forms of writing were mere mnemonic signs. Stones 
cut to a certain fashion, pieces of wood to which a conventional form 
had been imparted, and such like, were the first signs of written 
language. One of the most curious forms of mnemonic writing has 
been met with both in the Old and New Worlds ; it consisted in 
joining little bundles of cord of different colours, in which were tied 
knots of various kinds. Whoever ties a knot in his handkerchief in 
order to recall to mind some fact or intention, makes use, without 
knowing it, of the primitive form of writing. 

An advance in writing consisted in representing pictorially objects 
which it was wished to designate. The wild Indians of North 
America still make use of these rough representations of objects, as 
a means of imparting certain information. 

This very system is rendered more complete, when the design is 
supplemented by a conventional idea. It prudence is indicated by a 
serpent, strength by a lion, and lightness by a bird, we here at once 
recognise* writing properly so called. This last form of writing is 
known as the symbolical or ideographic. 

Symbolical writing existed among the ancients. The hieroglyphics 
which are engraved upon the monuments of ancient Egypt, and those 
which have been found upon Mexican remains, belong to symbolical 

And yet this is not writing in the true sense of the word, which 
does not exist until the conventional signs, of which use is made, 
correspond with the words or signs of the language spoken, and can 
actually replace the language itself. 

By the alphabet is meant the collection of conventional signs 
corresponding to the sounds which form words. The alphabet is one 
of those inventions which have called for the greatest efforts of the 
human mind, and it is not without good reason that Greek mythology 
deified Cadmus, the inventor of letters. The same admiration for the 
inventors of alphabets is, moreover, exhibited among all ancient 

It is not only through its immense superiority as regards extent 
and power that the intelligence of man is distinguished from that of 


the brute ; there is an attribute of intelligence which is strictly peculiar 
to our species. This is the faculty ot abstraction, which permits of 
our collecting and placing together the perceptions of the mind, by 
that means arriving at general results. It is through this power of 
abstraction that our intellect has created the wonders which are 
familiar to all ; that the arts and sciences have been brought to light 
and fostered by society. 

In connection with the faculty of abstraction, we must allude to 
the moral sense, which is a deduction from that same property. The 
moral sense is a special attribute of human intelligence, and it may be 
said that through this attribute man's intellect is often distinguished 
from that of animals ; for this characteristic is most peculiar to the 
mind of man, and is nowhere found so well-marked among animals. 

The abstract idea of moral good and moral evil may certainly 
differ in different people : one may admire what the other detests ; in 
one nation, that may be held in good repute which, in another, is a 
criminal offence ; yet, after all, the abstract notion of evil and good 
does not cease to exist. Observance of the right of property, self- 
respect, and regard for human life are to be found among all 
nationalities. If man, in his savage state, occasionally casts aside 
these moral notions, it is in consequence of the social condition of 
the tribe to which he belongs, and must be regarded in connection 
with the customs of war and the feeling of revenge. But, in a state of 
tranquillity and peace, which condition the philosopher and student 
must presuppose in framing their arguments, the notion of evil and 
good is always to be found. The forms which the feeling of honour 
dictates vary, for example, in the white man and the savage, but the 
feeling itself is never eradicated from the heart of any. 

The religious feeling, the notion of divinity, is another charac- 
teristic which has its origin in the faculty of abstraction. This 
sentiment is indissolubly allied to human intelligence. Without 
wishing, with an eminent French anthropologist, M. de Quatrefages, 
to make of religiosity a fundamental attribute of humanity, and a 
natural characteristic of our species, we may say that all men are 
religious, that they acknowledge and adore a Supreme Being. 
Whether the statement that certain people, such as the Australians, 
Bushmen, and Polynesians, are atheists, as we are assured by some 
travellers, and whether the reproaches bestowed upon them in con- 
sequence of this are well-founded, or whether it is the fact that the 
travellers who bore this testimony understood but little of the language 
and signs of these different people, as has been suggested by M. de 
Quatrefages, are matters of relatively slight importance. The state 


of brutality of certain tribes, buried in the midst of inaccessible 
and savage countries, and the intellectual imperfection which 
follows, concealing from them the notion of God, are nothing when 
compared with the universality of religious belief which stirs in the 
hearts of the innumerable populations spread over the face of the 

Language and writing gave birth to human associations, and 
later on, to civilisation, by which they were transformed. It is 
curious to follow out the progressive forms of human association, 
and point out the stages which civilisation has passed through in its 
forward march. 

Primitive societies assumed three successive forms. Men were, 
in the first instance, hunters and fishers, then herdsmen, and lastly 
husbandmen. We say populations were first of all hunters and fishers. 
The human race then inhabiting the earth was but small in number, 
and this explains it A group of men gaining their livelihood simply 
by hunting and fishing cannot be composed of a very large number 
of individuals. A vast extent of territory is required to nourish a 
population which finds in game and fish its sole means of subsistence. 
Moreover, this manner of living is always precarious, for there never 
is any certainty that food will be found for the morrow. This continual 
pre-occupation in seeking the means of subsistence brings man nearer 
to the brute, and hinders him from exercising his intellect upon 
ennobling and more useful objects. Hunting is, moreover, the image 
of warfare, and war may very easily arise between neighbouring 
populations who get their living in the same manner. If in these 
eventual collisions prisoners are taken, they are sacrificed in order 
that there may be no additional mouths to feed. 

So long, therefore, as human societies were composed only of 
hunters and fishers, they were unable to make any intellectual 
progress, and their customs, of necessity, remained barbarous. The 
death of prisoners was the order of battle. 

Societies of herdsmen succeeded those of hunters and fishers. Man 
having domesticated first the dog, then the ox, the horse, the sheep 
or the llama, by that means insured his livelihood for the morrow, 
and was enabled to turn his attention to other matters besides the 
quest of food. We therefore see pastoral societies advancing in the 
way of progress, by the improvement of their dress, their weapons, 
and their habitations. 

But pastoral communities have also need of large tracts of country, 
for their herds rapidly exhaust the herbage in one region, and they 
must therefore seek farther for pastures, in order that they may be 


sure of their food, when that is confined to flesh and milk. Pastoral 
populations were therefore of necessity nomadic. 

In their reciprocal migrations pastoral tribes frequently came into 
collision, and found it necessary to dispute by armed force the 
possession of the soil. War ensued. Since the prisoners taken could 
be maintained with comparative ease by the conqueror on condition 
of their lending assistance, they were forced to become slaves, and it 
is thus that the sad condition of slavery, which was later on to extend 
in so aggravated a degree as to develop into a social grievance, had 
its origin. 

The third form of society was realised as soon .as man turned his 
attention to agriculture, that is, when he began to make plants and 
herbage, artificially produced, an abundant and certain source of 

Agriculture affords man certain lei-sure time, and tends to soften 
his manners and customs. If war breaks out, its episodes are less 
cruel in themselves. The captive can, without actually being reduced 
to slavery, be added to the number of those who labour in the fields, 
and in return for a consideration contribute to the well-being of the 
tribe. The serf here takes the place of the slave ; a form of society, 
composed of masters and different degrees of servants, becomes 
definitely organised. 

Agricultural people, being relieved from the pre-occupations of 
material existence, are enabled to foster their intelligence, which 
becomes rapidly more abundant. It is thus that civilisation first took 
root in human society. 

These then are the three stages which, in all countries, mankind 
have of necessity passed through before becoming civilised. The 
progress from one stage to the. next has varied in rapidity in pro- 
portion to circumstances of time and. place, and of the country or 
hemisphere. Nations, whom we find at the present day but little 
advanced in civilisation, were on the other hand originally superior to 
other nations we may point to. The Chinese were civilised long 
before the inhabitants of Europe. They were building superb monu- 
ments, were engaged in the cultivation of the mulberry, were rearing 
silkworms, manufacturing porcelain, &c, at the very time when our 
ancestors, the Celts and Aryans, clothed in the skins of wild beasts, 
and tattooed, were living in the woods in the condition of hunters. 
The Babylonians were occupied with the- study of astronomy, and 
were calculating the orbits of the stars, two thousand years before 
Christ; for the astronomical registers brought by Alexander the Great 
from Babylon refer back to celestial observations extending over 


more than ten centuries. Egyptian civilisation dates back to at least 
four thousand years before Christ, as is proved by the magnificent 
statue of Gheffrell, which belongs to that period, and which, since it 
is composed of granite, can only have been cut by the aid of iron and 
steel tools, in themselves indicators of an advanced fonn of industry. 
This last consideration should make us feel modest. It shows 
that nations whom we now crush by our intellectual superiority, the 
Chinese and Egyptians, perhaps also the old inhabitants of Mexico 
and Peru, were once far before us in the path of civilisation. 

It is quite clear that manufactures have tended to hasten the 
progress of civilisation. It is well worthy of remark that, according 
as the matter of composing the material of these manufactures has 
undergone transformation, so the condition of society has progressed. 
Two mineral substances were the objects of primitive manufactures : 
stone and metal. Civilisation was rough-hewn by instruments made 
of stone, and has been finished by those composed of metal. 
Modern naturalists and archaeologists are therefore perfectly right in 
dividing the history of primitive man into two ages : the stone age, 
and the metal age. 

If we could have dwelt on this part of our subject, we might have 
followed step by step the course and oscillations of the primitive 
manufactures of different peoples. We might have seen first that 
man, being without any other instrument of attack or defence save 
his nails and teeth, or a stick, made use of stones, and formed them 
into arms and tools ; that afterwards he made himself master of fire, 
of which he alone understands the use ; and then that he supplied, 
with the aid of fire, the heat which in cold climates the sun denied ; 
that he created during the night artificial light, and added to the 
insufficiency of his form of diet, not to speak of the numerous ad- 
vantages which his industry enabled him to gain by the application 
of heat. 

As man progressed, the instrument formed merely of stone 
trimmed to shape, no longer sufficed him ; he polished it, and even 
commenced to adorn it with drawings and symbols. Thus the arts 
found their origin. 

Metals succeeded stone, and by their use a complete revolution 
was effected in human societies. The tool composed of bronze 
enabled work to be done, which was out of the question when the 
agent was stone. Later on iron made its appearance, and from that 
time industry progressed with giant strides. 

We have no occasion here to revert to the history of the develop- 


ment of the industry of man in pre-historic times, as that study, 
though fraught with the deepest interest, can scarcely be considered 
to come within the scope of the present work. 

To summarise what we have said : if man, in his bodily forma- 
tion, is an animal, in the exalted range of his intellect, he is Nature's 
lord. Although we show that in him phenomena present themselves 
similar to those which we encounter in vegetables and plants, yet we 
see him by his superior faculties extend afar his empire, and reign 
supreme over all that is around him in the mineral as well as the 
organised world, The faculties which properly belong to human 
intelligence, and distinguish man from the brute, namely, the abstrac- 
tive faculties, make him the privileged being of creation, and justify 
him in his pride, for, besides the physical power which he is able to 
exert on matter, he alone has the notion of duty and the knowledge 
of the existence of a God. 

After these general considerations we proceed to the description 
of the different races of men. 

We have said that we shall adopt in this work the classification 
proposed by M. d'Omalius d'Halloy, modifying it to meet our own 
views. We shall therefore describe in their order : 

i. The White Race. 

2. The Yellow Race. 

3. The Brown Race. 

4. The Red Race. 

5. The Black Race. 

We would call special observation to the fact that these epithets 
must not always be taken in an absolute sense. The meaning they 
intend to convey is, that each of the groups we establish is composed 
of men who, considered as a whole, are more white, yellow, brown, 
red, or black, than those of other races. The reader must therefore 
not be surprised to find in any given race men whose colour does 
not agree with the epithet which we here employ in order to 
characterise them. In addition to that, these groups are not founded 
solely upon the colour of the skin : they are derived from the con- 
sideration of other characteristics, and, above all, from the languages 
spoken by the people in question. 

Here we may say that language is a valuable aid to a classification 
such as the one we adopt. When we come to subdivide the great 
groups of mankind, we find that we are apt, by merely going upon 


physical characters, to have cross divisions. Thus we might feel 
disposed to classify the Osmanlis as " Caucasians," because they 
have certain well-marked physical resemblances -to the characteristic 
physique of the White Race. As we shall see when we come to the 
Black Race, we may find negro-like tribes in parts of Africa who yet 
by descent and tongue have no alliance with the true Negro of the 
West Coast. Indeed, even in Europe, the Magyar, though physically 
belonging to the Indo-European race, is but an Indo-European by 
language. As has been well said, "with language, moreover, all the 
higher manifestations of man's vital activity are closely interwoven, 
so that men receive due recognition in and by that of speech " 
(Schleicher). The actual inhabitants of the Caucasus are by Latham 
excluded from the Caucasian race, and classified as Mongolians, 
because it is seen that their language has such a strong family resem- 
blance to the monosyllabic Mongolian tongues. Still, though language 
is a good crutch to the ethnologist, it must be used with caution. It 
is impossible to doubt that a Fiji Islander is of the same race as 
a New Caledonian; yet, by his language, the former would be classed 
as a Polynesian. In fact, by slavery, conquest, and other causes, 
languages may be transferred from race to race without corresponding 
intermingling of blood. There is little that is Celtic in the speech of 
Englishmen, and a great deal that is Anglo-Saxon. Yet is it clear 
that the Englishman is more Saxon than Celt 1 ? "A vast amount of 
Celticism not found in our tongue very probably exists in our 
pedigrees." A Spaniard speaks a language that is evidently derived 
from Latin ; yet he is not a Latin so much as a mixture of Iberian, 
Goth, and Moor. Thus a physical character, such, for instance, as 
colour (though it is by no means the very best in many respects), 
yields less fallacious results than would a classification on the basis 
of language alone. As a recent writer has well said, " The value of a 
character must depend mainly on its permanence and power of 
resisting change. Hence, though men differ from each other more in 
brain power than physical characteristics, yet the latter, being the less 
ductile, and the most persistent in resisting change, are of most value 
as a means of classification." We need hardly say that language is 
far less capable of resisting change than colour. The Ethiopian 
transported to American plantations changes the form of his speech, 
and readily becomes, as regards language, a Frenchman, an English- 
man, a Dutchman, or a Dane. But he can no more change the 
colour of his skin than the leopard, by being put into a menagerie, 
can change its markings and its spots. 


This race was called by Cuvier the Caucasian, since that writer 
assigned to the mountains of the Caucasus the first origin of man. 
it is now frequently known as the Aryati race, from the name 
formerly bestowed upon the inhabitants of Persia. The Caucasian 
or Aryan race is admitted by many to be the original stock of our 
species, and it would seem that from the region of the Caucasus, or 
the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, this race has spread into 
different parts of the earth, peopling progressively the entire globe. 

The beautiful oval form of the head is a mark which distinguishes 
the Caucasian or Aryan race of men from all others. The nose is 
large and straight ; the aperture of the mouth moderate in size, 
enclosed by delicate lips ; the teeth are arranged vertically ; the 
eyes are large, wide open, and surmounted by curved brows. The 
forehead is advanced, and the face well proportioned ; the hair is 
glossy, long, and abundant. This race it is from which have pro- 
ceeded the most civilised nations, those who have most usually 
become rulers of others. 

We shall divide the White Race into three branches, correspond- 
ing to peoples who at the first successively developed themselves in 
the north-west, the south-east, and north-east of the Caucasus. 
These branches are the European, Aramean, and Persian. This 
classification is based upon geographical and linguistic considera- 
tions. M. d'Omalius d'Halloy admits a fourth branch, the Scythian, 
which we reject, since the people which it comprises belong more 
properly to the Yellow Race, or to the Aramean branch of the White 

4 o 



What we have just said with regard to the civilisation and power of 
the White Race applies with most force to the peoples who form the 
European branch. 

Proceeding upon considerations grounded chiefly upon language, 
we distinguish among the peoples forming the European branch 
three great families : the Teutonic, Latin, and Slavonic, to which must 
be added a smaller family, the Greek. 

Although great differences exist between the languages spoken by 
the peoples composing these four families, these languages are all in 
some manner connected with Sanskrit, that is, the language used in 
the ancient sacred books of the Hindus. The analogy of European 
languages with Sanskrit, added to the antiquity evidenced by the 
historical records of many Asiatic nations, and notably of the Hindus, 
brings us to the admission that Europeans first came from Asia. 

Teutonic Family. 

The people comprised in the Teutonic family are those who 
possess in the highest degree the attributes of the White Race. Their 
complexion, which is clearer than that of any other people, does not 
appear so susceptible of becoming brown, even after a long residence 
in warm climates. Their eyes are generally blue, their hair is blond ; 
they are of a good height, and possess well-proportioned limbs. 

From the very earliest times recorded in history, these people 
have occupied Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany, and a portion of 
France. They have also developed themselves in the British Isles, 
in Italy, Spain, and the north of Africa : but in these last-named 
countries they have eventually become mixed with people belonging 
to other families. What is more, these same people form at the 
present day the most important part of the white population of 
America and Oceanica, and have reduced into subjection a large 
portion of Southern Asia. 


We shall divide the Teutonic family into three leading groups : 
the Scandinavians, Germans, and English. 

Scandinavians. — The Scandinavians have preserved almost un- 
altered the typical characteristics of the Teutonic family. Their 
intelligence is far advanced, and instruction has been spread among 

Fig. 3. — Wake of Icelandic Peasants in a Barn. 

them to such an extent, that they have given a strong impulse to 
scientific progress. The ancient poems of the Scandinavians, which 
go back as far as the eighth century, are celebrated in the history of 
European literature. 

The Scandinavians comprise three very distinct populations : the 
Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes. To this group must be added the 
small population of Iceland, since the language spoken by them is 
most similar of all to the ancient Scandinavian. 



The Faroe Isles are also inhabited by Scandinavians, and many 
Swedes are also met with on the coasts of Finland. But in other 
countries, to which in former times the Scandinavians extended their 
conquests, they have, in general, mingled with the peoples they 





Fig. 4. — Women of Stavanger, Norway. 

The Icelanders are of middle height and only of moderate physical 
power. They are honest, faithful, and hospitable, independent in 
character, extremely fond of their native country, and generally dis- 
contented with the rule of the central government in Denmark. 
Their productions are small in extent, as they understand little more 
than the manufacture of coarse stuff and the preparation of leather. 

We give here some types of these people. 



Fig. 3 is a wake of the peasants. 

The Norwegians are robust, active, of great endurance, simple, 
hospitable, and benevolent. 

In Norway few differences are found in the manners and customs 
of the different classes of society. Customs here are truly democratic, 

Fig. 5. — Citizen of Stavanger. 

the peasant plays the chief part in the affairs of the country. The 
popular diet dictates its will to the government. 

M. de Saint Blaise, in his work, " Voyage dans les Etats Scandi- 
naves," describes the Norwegian as a rough and moody but reliable 
character. One thing which struck him was the absence of sociability 
between the two sexes. They marry usually before attaining twenty-five 
years of age, when the woman devotes herself entirely to her husband 
and household affairs. 



When the two sexes meet at meals, they separate immediately the 
repast is at an end. The result of this is a too familiar manner, an 
absence of constraint among the men, and a neglect in the dress of 
the women which contrasts strongly with their natural grace. 

In figures 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 we gives types of the inhabitants of 

The Danes (the old yutes or Goths) are a people proud of their 

Fig. 6. — Women of Christiansund (Norway). 

race, and full of valour and stubbornness. The men are tall and 
strong ; the women slender and active. Their hair is blond, their 
eyes are blue, and their complexion ruddy. The children are fresh 
and rosy, the old men lithesome and erect in their walk. Their 
voices are good and vigorous ; they speak in an energetic manner. 
We encounter in Denmark a strange mixture of democratic and 
feudal customs : perpetual entails are contrasted with laws whose 
object is equality. The working classes have an ardent desire to 
possess land in their own right. 

There are in Denmark three classes of peasantry : those who 

Fig. 7 — Costumes of the Telemark (Norway). 



possess both house and garden, those who possess merely a house, 
and those who only rent apartments. The first of these furnish their 
board with rich plate and utensils ; their wives and children go to 
work in the fields decorated with rings and bracelets. 

The people therefore enjoy a considerable amount of comfort. 


Tig. 8. — Boy and Girl of the 'Lawergrand (Norway). 

Add to this a general degree of instruction, which extends even to 
the peasant's cottage, and which embraces notions of agriculture, 
geography, history, and arithmetic. The civilisation of Denmark is, 
therefore, very considerable, and certainly greater than that of France, 
Spain, or Italy. 

Drunkenness is rarely met with in Denmark, and marriage is 
considered sacred. 

The marriages of the Fionian peasants last seven days. They 


dance and make merry three days before and three days after that 
on which the marriage takes place. The ceremony is performed 
amid a flourish of trumpets. The bridegroom is elegantly dressed, 
the bride still more so ; she wears, moreover, a kind of diadem in 
which flowers are seen mingling with gold. 

Germans. — When wandering as nomadic tribes in the woods, that 
is, at the time of the Roman Empire, the ancient inhabitants of Ger- 
many much resembled their neighbours, the Gauls. They were men 
of large stature and vigorous frame, with white skins. Their hair, 
however, was usually red, while among the Gauls the ruling colour 
was blond. Their head was large, with a broad forehead and blue 
eyes. But the modern descendants of the old inhabitants of Ger- 
many have undergone many modifications, which would render it 
difficult at the present day to find, in the greater portion of that 
country, general characteristics based upon the structure of the head, 
and the colour of the eyes or hair. 

The modern inhabitants of Germany, the Germans, occupy a 
very large portion of Germany proper and of Eastern Prussia, as well 
as a broad band of country to the right of the Rhine. They are 
found also in different parts of Hungary, Poland, Russia, and North 
America. The Germans of the East and South having mixed much 
with the peoples of Southern Europe, do not represent exclusively 
the Teutonic type ; some of them are met with who have brown hair 
and black eyes. 

We give in the accompanying illustrations (Figs. 9 to 14) some 
types and costumes of the inhabitants of Germany proper (Baden, 
Wiirtemberg, Suabia, and Bavaria). The national costumes of Alsace 
are also shown. 

We shall borrow from a work, published in i860, under the title of 
" Les Races Humaines et leur Part dans la Civilisation," by Dr. 
Clavel, an interesting description of the customs of modern 
Germany : — 

" Impinging, at its south-western frontier, upon the Latin world, 
at its south-eastern frontier upon the Slavonian world, and at its 
northern frontier upon Scandinavia, Germany," says Dr. Clavel, 
" does not admit of any very distinct definition. Throughout the 
whole periphery of this country there exists no identity either of 
customs, language, or religion. Its provinces on the frontiers of 
Denmark are half Scandinavian ; those bordering on Russia or 
Turkey are half Slavonic ; those which are neighbours of Italy or 
France are half Latin ; the provinces which together represent the 



frontiers of Germany form a zone more mixed and various than 
is possessed by the frontiers of any other nationality. 

" It is only toward the centre of the country that we find in all 
its purity the blond Germanic type, the feudal organisation and the 
numerous principalities which are its consequences. It is here that 
we find the conditions of climate which appear to produce this race 

Figs. 9, 10. — Suabians (Stuttgard). 

with blue eyes, red and white complexion, tall figures, and full, 
powerful frames. 

" Whilst the Latin, glorying in the light of heaven, enlarges his 
windows, builds open terraces, and clears his forests that he may 
plant vineyards in their stead, the German loves above all things 
shade and mystic retreats. He hides his house in the midst of 
trees, limits his windows in size, and lines his streets with leafy elms; 
he reveres, nay, almost worships his old oak trees, endows them with 
soul and language, and makes of them the abode of a divinity. 

" In order thoroughly to enter into the German genius, we must 



wander among the paths of their old forests, observe and analyse 
carefully the effects of light and shade, springing up in ubiquitous 
confusion, intersecting confined and narrow perspectives, lending 
isolated objects a brightness vividly contrasting with the neighbour- 
ing obscurity, changing even the appearance of the face in their 
alternations, and forming dark backgrounds, illuminated by prismatic 

Figs ii, 12. — Suabians (Stuttgard). 

tints and glowing sunbeams. Pausing beneaxh the venerable trees, 
we must listen to sounds, re-echoed a thousand times, then dying 
away among the thickets, to give place to the rustling of aspen 
leaves, to the sighing of the firs, or to the harmonious murmurs of 
rivulets which force their way amid the flags and water-lilies. We 
must inhale the air scented with the pungent odour of fallen leaves, 
or the exhilarating scent of the wild cherry blossom. It is only 
then that we come to appreciate the love of nature and the druidical 
tone which pervade German literature ; we understand Goethe's 
passion for natural history ; the poem of Faust becomes full of 



meaning ; a feeling of melancholy creeps over the mind, and leads 
us to the contemplation of things that are soft, sad, mysterious, 
fantastic, irregular, and original. 

"Being brought thus in contact with nature, the 'German is 
natural and primitive; he sympathises with the world's infancy. He 
easily goes back to .the past and the consideration of olden times ; 

rig 13. — Bavarians. 

but it is not in him to anticipate the future, and he regards progress 
with distaste. If he advances towards equality and unity, it is the 
ideal of the Latins which impels him. There is in him a resistance 
which forms part of his patient and cold nature. His movements 
are sluggish. His language is hardly formed. His literature, over- 
flowing with imagination, is wanting in elegance and purity — it is not 
ripe enough for prose, and unfit to form a book. 

"The plastic arts of Germany also possess the simplicity and 
variety which are produced by imagination; but they are wanting in 
proportion, m purity of style, and elegance; they are capable of 


arranging neither lines nor colours ; their productions often verge on 
the grotesque, or are marked by heaviness or pedantry, and they 
clearly are not the work, of children of the sun. 

" The Germans possess an ear which appreciates sound in a 
wonderful manner, and reduces with ease to melody the fleeting 
impressions of the soul. 

" . . . . He who possesses a strong and enduring constitu- 
tion brings to his means of action energy of will. His projects arc 
neither frivolously conceived, nor abandoned without good reason, 
and they are often followed out in spite of a thousand obstacles. 
This patient and continuous activity on the part of the Germans 
enables them to succeed in all forms of industry, in spite of their 
subdivision and other hindrances resulting from their political con- 

" When men are laborious, patient, and frugal, we may expect 
to see family life become strongly organised, and exercise a decisive 
influence upon national customs. 

" Love, whose duty it is to bring together the sexes into a united 
existence, is in Germany neither very positive nor very romantic; 
it is dreamy in its character. It seeks its object in youth, and speedily 
finds it ; faithfulness is then observed until the time for marriage 

" Early engagements being admitted by custom, betrothed 
couples are seen together, arm in arm, among the crowd at public 
or private festivals, or in lonely woods, or in twilight seclusion. 
Pleasure and pain they share with one another, happy in the convic- 
tion that their hearts beat in unison, and in the repetition, over and 
over again, of tender assurances. The calmness of their tempera- 
ment, and the certainty of belonging to one another some day, 
diminish the danger of these long interviews. The young man 
respects the girl who is to bear his name and rule his home with her 
virtuous example ; she, on her part, shrinks from a seduction which 
would dishonour her and compromise her future life. 

" Such customs cannot but meet with approbation. They assure 
the future of a woman, and save her from coquetry. They form a 
man for the performance of his duties as head of a family, make him 
thoughtful for the future,, save him from licentiousness, which wears 
out the heart as well as the constitution, and lastly, render his love 
permanent by reducing it to habit 

" When the wedding-day, looked forward to for so many years, 
arrives, the characters of man and woman have taken their respec- 
tive stamp. The young people know each other; they have no 

Fig. 14.— Badeners. 


ground for suspecting deceit, for the singleness of their heart admits 
of only one affection. 

" Everything here contributes to heighten the dignity of woman. 
From her girlhood, and during the years in which her beauty is 
blossoming, she feels herself an object of devotion — she is mistress. 
Whatever she grants, however slight the favour may be, acquires a 
high value. The offering sanctified by her kiss is far more costly 
than gold ; the riband she has worn becomes equal to a decoration." 

This -picture of German customs has special reference to the 
inhabitants of Central Germany, the Austrians. 

It is in the central portion of Germany that we meet with this 
patient activity, and the gentle manners described by Dr. Clavel. 
In the north and west the character of the people seems more modi- 
fied by the virtues and defects associated with enthusiastic devotion 
to commercial enterprise. The North German is honest but hard, 
and a little inclined to be selfish. In attaining his purposes he 
shows indomitable patience, and much shrewd, calculating adaptation 
of means to ends. Working as he does under the inspirations of 
enthusiasm, unattended by the drawback of fondly-cherished illu- 
sions, he meets much seldomer with failure than those whose 
misfortune it is to let their emotions counterbalance their brains in 
carrying on the business and battle of life. 

M. de Quatrefages has shown, by considerations at once linguist'ic, 
geological, ethnological, and historical, that the Prussians, properly 
so called, that is, the inhabitants of Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Bran- 
denburg, and Silesia, but result from a mixture of Slavonians and 
Finns with the primitive inhabitants of those countries. The Finns 
overran, at a very early period, Pomerania and Eastern Prussia; 
later on, the Slavonians conquered the same territory, as well as 
Brandenburg and Silesia. Certain Germanic tribes — to which add 
the results of a French Protestant immigration into Prussia, which 
took place under Louis XIV., after the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes — must be joined to the stock of Slavonians and Finns, in 
order to make up the Prussian race as it at present exists. 

Two different written languages exist among the German people ; 
that of the Netherlands and German. 

The Netherland language has given birth to three dialects — 
Dutch, Flemish, and Frieslandic. 

The Dutch, in the seventeenth century, were the greatest maritime 
commercial people in the world, and founded at that period a certain 
number of colonies. 

The Dutchman is by nature reserved and silent. Simplicity 


is the marked feature of his character. He possesses patriotic 
feeling in a high degree, and is capable of enthusiasm and devotion 
in the defence of his strange and curious territory, preserved from 
the sea by dykes and formidable constructions, and irrigated by 
innumerable canals, which form the ordinary means of communi- 
cation, and which link together the seas and the rivers, as well 
as the towns. 

English. — The English may be considered as resulting from a 
mixture of the Saxons and Angles with the people who inhabited the 
British Isles before the Saxon invasion. Who were the original in- 
habitants of Britain ? According to Professor Huxjey, it seems that 
all that can be positively stated is that, at the date of the very earliest 
records, Britain was peopled by a dark and a fair race ; the dark 
people resembling the Iberians, the fair people the Belgian Gauls. 
The dark people inhabited the western districts, the fair people 
predominated over the eastern districts of the island. The earliest 
records point to a similar state of things existing in Ireland, and at 
the time of the Roman conquest, the people of the British Islands all 
spoke a Celtic tongue; in Britain the dialect was Cymric; in Ireland 
it was Gaelic ; and it was by Irish colonists that this dialect was in- 
troduced into the Scottish West Highlands. In spite of successive 
invasions of Dane and Saxon and Norman this general division and 
distribution of dark and fair people exists undisturbed at the present 
day. Biologically, there are even yet only two races in the British 
Islands, and these are the same as exist in Ireland : a dark race and 
a fair race. Perhaps originally the islands were inhabited by the dark 
stock alone. This may, according to modern ethnologists, such as 
De Belloguet and Huxley, have been encroached on by a wave of 
Central Asiatic emigration, which brought the fair Celtic-speaking 
stock, the language of which spread far beyond the line of inter- 
mixture of blood, and supplanted the tongue of the aboriginal dark 
stock everywhere save in Spain and Aquitania. At the time of the 
Roman conquest, Britain then was as regards language wholly Celtic, 
but racially still in possession of two peoples biologically distinct. 
Subsequent invasions did not alter very much the biological relations 
of these stocks, though they spread a third wave of language 
(Teutonic) over the Celtic-speaking area, leaving only traces of the 
old tongue in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, and the Isle of Man.* 

* Vide Prof. Huxley's paper "On Some Fixed Points in British Ethnology," 
Contemporary Review, 1 87 1 ; also Huxley's "Critiques and Addresses," pp. 

Fig. 15. — Druid, Gauls, and Frank* 

ENGLISH. . 59 

Whence came and who were the Angles and Saxons 'i 
According to Tacitus, the Angles were a small nation inhabiting 
the regions next the ocean. The Saxons, according to Ptolemy, 
dwelt between the mouths of the Elbe and Schleswig. About the 
fifth century after Christ, the Angles and Saxons invaded the British 
Isles, and mingled with the Celtic-speaking inhabitants, who, along 
with the few scattered relics the Roman invasion left behind, then 
peopled Britain. During the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries, 
fresh invasions of Great Britain, by the Normans and Danes, added 
to this blood, already so mixed, another foreign infusion. 

From this medley of different peoples has sprung the English na- 
tion, in whom are found at the same time the patient and persevering 
character, the serious disposition, and the love of family life, intro- 
duced by the Saxons, and which is the peculiarity of the German 
nature, combined with the lightness and impressionability of the Celt. 
The physical type which is the result of this mixture, that is, 
the English type, corresponds with the combination of races we 
have specified. The head is in shape long and high, and is in 
this respect to be distinguished from the square heads of the 
Germans, particularly those of Suabia and Thuringia. The English 
generally possess a clear and transparent skin, chestnut hair, tall and 
slender figures, a stiff gait, and a cold physiognomy. Their women do 
not offer the noble appearance and luxurious figure of the Greek and 
Roman women; but their skins surpass in transparency and brilliancy 
those of the female inhabitants of all other European countries. 

We borrow from the work of Dr. Clavel upon " Les Races 
Humaines et leur Part dans la Civilisation," the following remarks 
upon the nature and customs of the English, and though we cannot 
agree with him in many of his statements, his observations are not 
without interest : — 

" When he examines," says Dr. Clavel, " the geographical posi- 
tion of England, a land possessing a humid rather than a cold 
climate, the observer pictures to himself beforehand that he is about 
to meet a people of imperious appetite, of a vigorous circulation, of 
a powerfully organised locomotive system, and a sanguineo-lymphatic 
temperament. The power of the digestive functions shows that the 
nervous system is unable to obtain dominion, and that there is a 
lack of sensibility : the frequent fogs, which destroy the perfumes of 
the earth, the stormy winds of the ocean, and the absence of wine, 
announce a poverty of sentiment and inspiration, and of the arts 
founded upon them. 

" The level plains, which are as a rule met with in England, 


are not favourable to the development of the lower extremities, 
and it is a fact that the power of the English lies, not so much in 
the legs, as in the arms, shoulders, and loins. The fist is an English- 
man's natural weapon, either for attack or defence ; his popular form 
of duel is boxing, while the foot plays an important part in the form 
of duel which, in France, bears the characteristic name of savate. 

" This power in the upper regions of the body gives to an English- 
man a peculiar appearance. In view of his brawny shoulders, his 
thick and muscular neck, and broad chest, we rightly divine the ready 
workman, the daring seaman, the indefatigable mechanic, the soldier 
who is ready to die at his post, but who bears up with difficulty 
against forced marches and hunger. His blond or reddish hair, his 
white skin and grey eyes, bespeak the mists of his country ; the barely 
marked nape of his neck, and the oval form of his cranium, indicate 
that Finn blood flows in his veins ; his maxillary power, and the size 
of his teeth, evidence a preference for an animal diet. He has the 
high forehead of the thinker, but not the long eyes of the artist. 

" The insular position of England, its excellent situation upon the 
Atlantic, its numerous and magnificent seaport towns, its water- 
courses, and the facilities for conducting its internal navigation, all 
suggest a large maritime commerce and the habits which accompany 
it. But neither the soil, the climate, nor the geographical position 
can account for the aptitudes imported by different races. 

" The Englishman is twofold — Celt and German — and it is only 
a superficial examination which can confound them. 

" The Celt, whom in the absence of precise notions of an earlier 
population we have come to consider as indigenous, resembles the 
Neo-Latin races, and, above all, the French. He rarely exists 
collectively, except in Ireland, and some mountainous districts of 
Wales and Scotland. His cranium and features indicate artistic 
aptitudes. He prefers Christianity in the Anglican Catholic form. 
Like the old Gauls, he delights in wine, laughter, gaming, dancing, 
conversation, raillery, and fighting. He is spirited and fond of joking, 
frank and hospitable ; but his versatility renders him incapable of 
steadily pursuing an enterprise to the end, of careful reflection, or of 
thought for the future. Through his powerlessness to combine his 
powers and act collectively, he has become a prey to enemies, who 
were superior to him neither in number, courage, nor even in intel- 
ligence. Old and joyous England and Ireland became subject to the 
Dane, the Saxon, and the Norman : they lost their proverbial gaiety, 
their bards, their democratic tendency, and their civilisation. 

"The physical and moral differences between the modero 

Fig. 16. — French Soldier. 


conquerors of England were but slight. They all came from the coasts 
of the Baltic Sea, and all possessed the elementary characteristics of 
the German and Scandinavian, and the aptitudes which they inherited 
from the old Sea Kings. They had, moreover, strength, which bade 
them regard conquest as a right, and take what they desired ; pride, 
which bade them hold up their head even against the storm; individual 
initiative, which demanded, above all things, personal liberty ; a 
tenacity that nothing discouraged ; an intelligence capable of every 
subtlety ; a general sensuality which converted the bodily necessities 
into a means of enjoyment ; a lack of sentiment which pre-supposed 
a want of aptitude for art ; and, lastly, a temperament which was calm 
and robust under all circumstances. 

" This type, which is still found among all branches of society, not 
excepting the aristocracy, has been modified by its combination with 
the Celtic element, but it still remains predominant. The Saxon, as 
a rule, absorbs or destroys the other races ; we may say, he drinks in 
their vitality, but is unable to assimilate himself to their temperament. 

" We must, therefore, expect to find the customs of England 
proper more Scandinavian than Celtic. The pleasures of olden time 
have fallen oft ; the merry gossips of those days find no place but in 
literature ; raillery, when it comes from Saxon lips, is armed with sharp 
teeth, and tears away the morsel it attacks. 

"When intelligence is averted from the ideal, and constantly 
directed towards the positive matters of life, it acquires the habit of 
considering in all things the question of profit and loss ; it becomes 
averse to waste, which destroys property unprofitably, and loves order, 
without which material prosperity is impossible; it guides the organic 
forces to productive industry, agriculture, and commerce, where they 
are fostered and matured ; and, last of all, to speculation, which 
anticipates the greater part of the fruits of commerce, agriculture, and 
manufacture. The Saxon finds everywhere the means of speculating, 
aided in his manoeuvres by the intricacy of his commercial laws. As 
a consequence of his phlegmatic temperament, he gives way neither 
to the snares of enthusiasm nor to the deceptions of discouragement. 
He reasons aright, both for the present and the future. In dealing 
craftily with his antagonist, he is well able to guard himself against 
the weaknesses of feeling. His face rarely betrays his convictions, 
and his features are devoid of the mobility which would prove 

" Thus it is that the Englishman joins subtlety to will ; hence his 
practical power ; being strong and able, he acquires a confidence in 
himself which easily degenerates into pride, and saves him from 


smallness of character. He is neither obsequious nor prone to 
flattery ; he casts on one side the refinements of politeness, which he 
regards as humiliating in one who employs them; he keeps his word, 
and considers that he would be dishonoured in breaking it ; but he 
makes the best of all his advantages. For him, life is a struggle for 
triumph, without regard for those who are unable to contend, and who 
succumb' in the attempt. He asks no pity, and gives but little; he 
cannot be called cruel, for cruelty is a form of weakness ; but he does 
not hesitate to oppress an enemy, when to do so would be productive 
of material advantage. In attaching to an Englishman the charac- 
teristic of individual initiative, which is met with among all the 
branches of the Germanic tree, we rightly expect to find him fond of 
liberty, without which his powers would have no vent. 

" But this liberty would soon lead him to destruction, did he not 
join to it the spirit of propriety, and temper it with the love of order, 
which he acquires in his industrial and commercial pursuits. 

" His arts are wanting neither in talent, observation, 

delicacy, nor humour ; they represent men and things with the most 
scrupulous accuracy ; but they lack feeling, warmth, and ideality ; 
they know not how to bring the passions into play, and are unable to 
soar above the descriptive. His stage is a failure, as is his music, 
both in themselves pure creations of feeling ; and his architecture is 
governed by the nature of materials, and the application of his 
buildings to the needs of life. This rage for practical convenience, 
which makes the London houses so unsightly, has also been instru- 
mental in simplifying his language to amphibology, and curtailing the 
accent to such an extent as to create discord. When harmony in the 
means of expressing thought is wanting, the art of talking well is no 
longer exercised in conversation, but becomes concentrated in dis- 
course. There is scarcely an intermediate between the latter form of 
speech and incorrect conversation among individuals. The result of 
this is, that the Englishman, on almost every occasion, expresses 
himself in speeches which are listened to and commented upon with 
an imperturbable patience, but which have the grave fault of im- 
parting to social relations a tone of pedantry and stiffness. As soon 
as that exists, there is no longer any room for fun and humour. 
Following out the spirit of formality, many things become no longer 
permissible, or cannot be dealt with except by reference to strict 
rules. Propriety, therefore, includes, over and above pure politeness, 
a number of conventionalities which in themselves constitute nothing 
Jess than a social tyranny. An act which, everywhere else, would be 
regarded as perfectly natural, easily becomes food for scandal ; and in 



"i "> 

ff r " I ] 

r r ^'^ fr i f I /> 

Fig. 17— Cattle-Dealer of Cordova. 


society by far the greater number of those one meets abstain from 
action, speech, or gesticulation. An icy reserve is the tone generally 

" The Englishwoman is tall, fair, and strongly built. Her skin is 
of dazzling freshness ; her features are small and elegantly formed ; 
the oval of her face is marked, but it is somewhat heavy toward the 
lower portion ; her hair is fine, silky, and charming ; and her long and 
graceful neck imparts to the movements ot her head a character of 
grace and pride. 

" So far, all about her is essentially feminine ; but upon analysing 
her bust and limbs, we find that the large bones, peculiar to her race, 
interfere with the delicacy of her form, enlarge her extremities, 
and lessen the elegance of her postures and the harmony of her 

" Woman moves about two centres, which are the head and the 
heart. The latter deals with bodily grace, roundness and delicacy of 
form, inspiration in feeling, devotion in love, sympathy, a manifold 
and indefinable seductiveness, a sort of divine radiance, which is 
grace, tenderness, and all that is charming. The former supplies 
intelligence, spirit, animation, and consistency of action. 

" If all we see in an Italian or Spanish woman tells of the supre- 
macy of heart, which Lord Byron loved so much, all in the English- 
woman reveals mental superiority. Her physical and mental powers 
are well balanced. 

" There are few mental occupations in which a daughter of Great 
Britain cannot engage. She acquires knowledge with facility ; she 
writes with elegance, and would be capable at a stretch of impro- 
vising a speech ; she is witty, and even brilliant ; capable of dealing 
with abstract sciences ; she can contend with the other sex in 
sagacity and depth ; yet her conversation does not captivate. She 
lacks a thousand feminine instincts, and this lack is revealed in her 
toilette, the posture she assumes, and in her actions and movements. 
She rarely possesses musical taste. Her language and song do not 
captivate the ear; her appreciation of colour, form, and perfume are 
at fault. She loves what is striking, and instead of attaining harmony, 
revels in discord. 

" No aristocracy can, with reference to ability, be compared with 
that of England. Having insured the influence of wealth by seizing 
the land, and substituting in its possession the eldest son for the 
father, by virtue of the right of primogeniture, it has given the legis- 
lative power to the proprietors of the soil, through the medium of a 
House of Peers, whose privileges pass to the eldest son, and of a 


House of Commons, the right to elect whose members is, in rural 
districts, centred chiefly in the tenants of large proprietors. Where 
the nobility enjoy such privileges, royalty necessarily assumes a 
dependent position, and becomes merely an instrument. Positions 
of influence in the administration, the army, the magistracy, and the 
Church fall to families of distinction, who dispose of all the strength 
of the country, and apply it, not unfrequently, for the benefit of their 
own caste. 

" . . . Before the British aristocracy could attain the import- 
ance it now possesses, many conquests were necessary, to which the 
substance of Spain, Portugal, Holland, and of nearly two hundred 
millions of Indians, has fallen a prey. The attainment of this object 
has, moreover, forced fifteen millions of English people to exist upon 
a daily stipend, when there is any stipend at all ; and, to aid it, the 
cannon has opened the frontiers of China to the opium trade, and to 
the products of manufactures which must either sell or succumb. 
The only material compensation for all these evils is, that immense 
power is given to wealth. The cultivation of luxury, in every form, 
has increased tenfold the number of objects to be provided. The 
houses are crowded with a number of articles of furniture, the use of 
which is a science in itself; the tables are loaded with an infinite 
variety of dishes, fruits, plate, and glass ; stuffs of a thousand dif- 
ferent shades are offered to the caprice of fashion, to be used either 
in adorning the person or in the decoration of apartments ; but for 
all that, the house is neither more beautiful nor more wholesome as 
an abode, the table is not more hospitable or more joyous, nor is the 
dress more elegant or warm ; comfort stifles what is merely beautiful, 
which wealthy men always associate with a large outlay. 

"Among the English aristocracy we must expect neither the 
exquisite elegance of the Latin aristocracy nor the appreciation of 
art, which, in Italy, and even in France, gives birth to so many 

" Wealth has been able to accumulate in the galleries of private 
persons pictures and statues, the work of other nations, but has been 
quite unable to raise up a school of architecture, of painting, or of 
sculpture ; or even to assign a single division to music. Workers 
and statesmen abound in England, but the condition of artists is bad 
in the extreme. A great poet emerges from the ranks of the nobility, 
and employs his talent in scourging the aristocracy, and laying bare 
the customs of his country. Eminent writers assign a philosophic 
value to the romance of gentle blood, and paint in the blackest 
colours the mercantile and feudal genius. 

fig. 18.— Natives of Toledo. 


" The men of iron, who have transformed England into a sort of 
freehold, seem to think themselves altogether different from the rest 
of humanity ; they pass through the midst of other populations with- 
out being influenced by the contact, or modifying the etiquette which 
rules their excesses at table and in drinking, and which governs field 
sports and courtship. A word or gesture is sufficient to mark its 
author as of low breeding, and to jar upon the nerves of the nobility, 
which are susceptible of still greater irritation when writers of ability 
venture to speak of lords as of simple mortals ; but this scandal has 
been obviated in the fashionable novel, in which, amid a halo of 
ennui, aristocratic decorum shines forth. 

"All this is productive of a meditated coldness and repulsive 
pride, which renders expansion and joviality impossible. Moral 
oppression and dulness permeate their whole life, and in the end 
these rich and powerful men become the victims of ennui. 

" Those who find no relief in political struggles, seek in foreign 
countries change and diversion ; the more robust share their time 
between the table, their horses, and their dogs ; they drink to a 
frightful extent; they unearth the fox, and follow him on horseback, 
clearing every object, although at the risk of their neck, or else they 
travel a hundred leagues to see a thorough-bred horse run, and to 
risk upon him what would make the fortune of ten plebeians. 

" Such a life as this can be led only in the country. It must, 
therefore, be noticed that the English nobility pass nine months out 
of the year at their country seats, in the exercise of the gorgeous 
hospitality which is met with in all large oligarchies, and cultivating 
there the comforts of ease to a degree bordering on fanaticism. 

" Beneath the shade of feudality exists a class of farmers, manu- 
facturers, merchants, capitalists, and speculators, which consoles 
itself for the humiliations it experiences by those which, in its turn, 
it imposes on the lower classes. This middle class, oppressed by 
that above, and menaced by that below it, presents a singular mixture 
of timidity and resolution. Its existence, ever precarious, makes it 
easily susceptible of alarm, ready to yield to the terms of the powerful, 
or to assume any character. Its enthusiasm and admiration are 
inexhaustible, when it foresees, in the conduct of its superiors, some 
gain to itself; but the resistance it offers is most powerfully adroit 
when public affairs tend to do it harm. Danger hardly ever takes it 
by surprise, as its signs are seen from afar, and anticipated. 

" One would almost expect to find Israelitish traits of character 
in people who make the Bible their book of books ; who, while 
undergoing extortion, still retain the feeling of dignity, who are 


Dassionately fond of money and whatever conduces to its possession ; 
who risk that they may gain, and compensate one chance of loss by 
three chances of profit ; who respect the letter of the law more than 
its intention, and who employ commercial uprightness as a clever 
means of making a fortune. 

" In the middle class, the British aristocracy finds a means of 
keeping under the proletarian class, true representatives of the old 
Celts. These unfortunate men are reproached with drunkenness, 
to which they fly as a means of forgetting their misfortunes ; with 
brutality, which exhibits itself in blows, injuries, prize-fights, and 
cock-fighting ; with coarse sensuality, which feeds upon meat and 
beer ; with selfishness, which extends even to the glasses of drinkers ; 
and lastly, with stronger criminal desires than are met with among 
other civilised nations. 

" But in spite of these vices, the sad fruit of misery, wretchedness, 
and ignorance, they possess substantial virtues. The English work- 
man has in his heart an innate feeling of g'enerosity. He is gentle to 
the weak, and rude to the strong. Goodness charms him, and what- 
ever is generous is sure to meet with his support. Although blinded 
by self-interest to the point of being altogether without a notion of 
justice, he can hardly be accused of avarice, since he gives cheerfully. 
His friendship is firm, although by no means demonstrative ; he 
keeps his word, and despises an untruth. Reverses redouble instead 
of causing him to abate his efforts ; he never despairs of what he 
undertakes, since he is ready to sacrifice all for success, even his life. 
He has none of the sordid vanities which stain the intermediate 
classes. For his country, which is to him less a mother than a step- 
mother, he entertains an inexhaustible affection. To her he devotes 
his whole existence ; he is rewarded by his own admiration of her, 
and deludes himself so far as to call her 'jolly old England.'" 

Transplanted into the New World, the Englishman has already 
assumed a type varying somewhat from that we have described. The 
Yankees, a corruption by the North American Indians of the French 
Anglais, have lost in North America the general character and phy- 
siognomy which they possessed in the mother-country. 

" The genuine Yankee," says Dr. Carpenter, in Todd's " Cyclo- 
paedia of Anatomy and Physiology," " may be distinguished from the 
Englishman by the sharpness and angularity of his features. There is 
an excess of breadth between the rami of the lower jaw, giving to the 
lower form of the face a peculiar squareness in contrast to its oval 
form in the Englishman, and which tends to assimilate the Anglo- 


Fig. 19. — Spanish Peasant. 


American to the aborigines of the country." Morally the American 
also differs from the English type. He is of a more feverish, 
nervous, restless temperament, shrewder and more unscrupulous in 
business dealings ; a blind worshipper of democracy in theory, and, 
politically, in practice also ; but socially, rather given to bow down 
before aristocrats, and ape aristocratic usages, especially if they be 
foreign ones. 

Latin Family. 

The Lati?i family originated iii Italy, whence it extended its 
conquests over a large portion of Europe, Asia, and Africa, thus 
forming the Roman empire. At the present time the Latin languages 
are spoken only in certain portions of this vast empire, namely, in 
Italy, Spain, France, and some other countries in the south-east of 

The people who belong to the Latin family are, in general, of a 
middle stature, with black hair and eyes, and a complexion suscep- 
tible of turning brown under the sun's action ; but they present many 
variations. They~speak numerous dialects, which frequently become 
confounded one with another. 

Among the people who form the Latin family are separately 
classed the French, the Spaniards, the Italians, and the Moldo- 

French. — The Franks proceeded from the mixture of the Gauls 
with the ancient inhabitants of the land, that is, the people who in 
olden times were indifferently called Aquitdnians or Iberians, and of 
whom a few are still to be found in the Basque inhabitants of the 
lower regions of the Pyrenees, recognised at once by their language, 
which is that of the old Iberians. 

But who were these Gauls, who, by combination with the national 
blood of the Iberians, formed the Franks? 

The Gauls were a branch of the Celts (or Gaels), an ancient race 
of men, who, coming from Asia, at an early period overran and occu- 
pied a portion of Western Europe, more particularly that portion 
which now forms Belgium, France, as far as the Garonne, and a 
part of Switzerland. Later on, the Celts or Gaels extended their 
conquests as far even as the British Isles. It was in the twelfth or 
tenth century before Christ that they invaded Gaul, and subdued the 
indigenous Iberian population. 

Of their Asiatic origin the Celts preserved no more than a few 
dogmas of Eastern worship, the organisation of a priestly sect, and a 
language which, through its close connection with the sacred language 


of the Indian Brahmins, reveals the kinship which united those people 
with those of Asia. 

The Celts were a nomadic people, and lived essentially by hunt- 
ing and pasturage. The men were very tall : their height being, it 
has been asserted, from six to seven feet. Many tribes dyed their 
skin with a colour extracted from the leaf of the woad. Others 
tattooed themselves. Many adorned their arms or breasts with 
heavy chains of gold, or clothed themselves in tissues of bright 
colours, analogous to the Scottish tartan. Later on they gave them- 
selves up to greater luxury. Above their tunic they wore the saya, a 
short cloak, striped with purple bands and embroidered with gold or 
silver. Among the poorer classes this saya was replaced by the skin 
of some animal, or by a cloak of coarse and dark-coloured wool. 
Others wore the simar, which is analogous to the modern blouse or 
the caraco of the Normandy peasants. The second article of dress 
worn by the Gaelic men was a tight and narrow form of trouser, the 
braya. The women wore an ample puckered tunic with an apron. 
Some restricted their dress to a leathern bag. 

Their weapons consisted of stone knives, axes furnished with 
sharp flint or shell points, clubs, and spears hardened in the fire. 
Celtic stone hatchets are common in the West of France. 

The Celts were warlike and bold. They marched against the 
enemy to the sound of the karnux, a sort of trumpet, the top of which 
represented a wild beast crowned with flowers. As soon as the signal 
was given, the front rank threw itself stark naked and impetuously 
into the struggle. 

Leading a wandering form of life, the Celts constructed no fixed 
habitations. They moved from one pasturage to another in covered 
wagons, erecting simple cabins, which they abandoned after a few 
days. They sometimes took shelter in caves, sleeping upon a little 
straw, or the skins of animals spread upon the earth. More frequently, 
however, they ate and slept under the open sky. Fond of tales and 
recitations, they appear to have been inquisitive and garrulous. Their 
habits were peaceful. 

A branch of the Celtic family, the Cytnris, who, like their prede- 
cessors, originally came from Asia, overran the fertile plains which 
extend from the moorlands at Bordeaux to the mouth of the Rhine, 
their course being arrested toward the west only by the ocean, toward 
the east by the Vosges, and toward the south-east by the mountains 
of Auvergne and the last ridges of the Pyrenees and the Cevennes. 
The Cymris, or Belgians, brought with them the simplicity of the 
north, and having built towns, called upon the Gaels to join them. 



Fig. 20.— Interior of a Madrid Wine Shop. 


These two groups, distinct in themselves although of the same 
race, lived apart in some countries, while in others they held supre- 
macy. The Irish and the Highlanders of Scotland were Gaels. The 
Gaelic element also predominated in Eastern France. The in- 
habitants of part of England and Wales, Belgium, and Brittany, 
belonged to the Cymrian branch ; but the Romans confounded these 
two races under the general name of Britons in Great Britain, and 
Gauls in Gaul. 

We will briefly review the physical types, manners, and customs 
of the Gauls. 

At the time when Julius Caesar invaded and conquered the Gauls, 
they were distinguished as the northern, north-eastern, western, and 
southern Gauls. The first were remarkable for the abundance ami 
length of their hair ; hence their name of long-haired Gauls. Those 
of the south and south-east were known as the braya-wearing Gauls. 

The Gauls used artificial means of giving to their hair a bright red 
colour. Some allowed it to fall around their shoulders ; others tied 
it in a tuft above the head. Some wore only thick mustachios, others 
retained the whole beard. 

When arming for battle, the Gauls donned the saya. They used 
arrows, slings, one-edged swords in iron or copper, and a sort ot 
halberd, which inflicted terrible wounds. A metal casque, ornamented 
with the horns of the elk, buffalo, or stag, covered the head of the 
common soldier, that of the rich warrior being adorned with flowing 
plumes, while figures of birds or wild beasts were wrought upon the 
crest. The buckler was covered with hideous figures. Beneath a 
breastplate of wrought-iron the warrior wore a coat of mail, the pro- 
duce of Gallic industry. He further adorned himself with necklaces ; 
and the scarves of the chiefs glittered with gold, silver, or coral. The 
standard consisted of a wild boar, formed of metal or bronze, and 
fixed at the end of a staff. 

The Gauls dwelt in spacious circular habitations, built of rough 
stones, cemented together with clay, or composed of stakes and 
hurdles, filled up with earth within and without. The roof, which was 
ample and solid, was composed of strong planks cut into the form ot 
tiles, and of stubble or chopped straw kr.eaded with clay. 

The wealthy Gaul, besides his town residence, possessed a 
country house. His wooden tables were very low, and in them 
excavations were made which answered the purpose of plates and 
dishes. The guests sat upon trusses of hay or straw, upon hassocks 
formed of rushes, or forms with wooden backs. They slept in a kind 
of press, formed of planks, similar to those which are met with in 


some cottages of Brittany and Savoy. They had earthen vessels, 
of delicate grey or black pottery, more or less ornamented, and 
brazen vases. They used horns as drinking-vessels. 

The Gauls ate little bread, but a great deal of roast or boiled 
meat. As a rule, they tore with the teeth pieces which they held 
in their hands. The poor drank beer, or other less costly beverages ; 
the rich, aromatic wines. 

The beauty of the Gallic women was proverbial. The elegance 
of their figure, the purity of their features, and the whiteness of their 
skins, were universally admired. To captivate these fierce men they 
made abundant use of coquetry. In order to heighten the freshness 
of their complexions, they bathed themselves with the foam of beer, 
or chalk dissolved in vinegar. They dyed their eyebrows with soot, 
or a liquid extracted from a fish called orfi/u. Their cheeks they 
coloured with vermilion, and dressed their hair with lime in order to 
make it blond, and covering it with network, let it fall behind, or 
else turned it up crestwise. They wore as many as four tunics, one 
above the other, veiled their head with part of their cloak, and wore 
a mitre or Phrygian head-dress. 

Any ordinary person who died was interred in a manner suitable 
to their sex and condition, with arrow-heads, hatchets, flint knives, 
necklaces, rings, bracelets, articles of pottery, &c. The grave was 
marked by an unhewn stone, which was surrounded with herbs, moss, 
or flowers. These tombstones were raised up in the plains, by the 
wayside, and amid the deep shade of the forests. They were guarded 
by a statue of Tentates, one of whose cheeks was painted white, the 
other black. 

When a chief died, his body was burnt. In order to do this, the 
body was placed upon a pile of resinous wood, with his weapons of 
war and of the chase, his charger and dogs, and sometimes even his 
slaves. While the flames devoured the body, the bystanders uttered 
loud cries, and the warriors clashed their shields. The half-calcined 
bones were enclosed in an urn of coarse earth, rudely ornamented 
with a few engravings or figures in bas relief. This urn was then 
deposited beneath a tumulus covered with turf. In Southern Gaul it 
was placed beneath a funeral column. 

In order to render complete the idea which we should wish to 
convey of the outward appearance of the Gauls, we must say v few 
words about the Druids. 

The Druids are supposed to have been the priests of the Gauls, a 
clergy powerful by reason of their political duties and judicial 
functions. The Druids led a solitary life in the depth of oak forests 


and in secluded caves. They wore a distinctive dress, their robes 
reaching down to the ground. During religious ceremonies they 
covered their shoulders with a species of white surplice, and upon 
meir pontifical dress was displayed a crescent which had reference 
to the last phase of the moon. Their feet were furnished with 
pentagonal wooden sandals ; they allowed their hair to grow long, 
and shaved off their beards. In their hand they carried a sort of 
white wand, and suspended from their neck an amulet of oval shape 
set in gold (Fig. 15, p. 57). 

We said the Franks proceeded from the mixture of the Gauls 
with the Iberian natives of the country, joined later on to the 
Romans, the Greeks, and more recently still to the Alanians, the 
Goths, the Burgundians, and the Suevians. Having spoken of the 
Gauls, we shall now proceed to describe the Franks. 

The Frank was tall in height, with a very white skin, blue 
sparkling eyes, and a powerful voice. His face was shaven, save 
upon the upper lip, which carried a heavy mustachio. His hair, of 
a beautiful blond colour, was cut behind, and long in front. His 
dress was so short as not to cover his knees, and fitted tightly, 
showing plainly the form of the body. He wore a shoulder-belt, 
ornamented with nails, and plates of silver or inlaid metal. From 
his girdle hung an iron knife, an axe with short handle and heavy 
keen iron head (battle-axe), a very sharp ponderous sword, and a 
pike of medium length, the stout point of which was armed with 
several barbs or sharp teeth, turned back as in a fish-hook. Before 
going to battle, the Frank dyed his hair red. The hair itself was 
frequently held together by a golden net, or a copper circlet; at other 
times he dressed himself with the spoils of wild beasts. 

We are able to extract from historical recitals an exact idea of the 
Frankish woman. She was powerful, and wore a long robe of dark 
colour, or bordered with purple. Her arms were left uncovered, and 
her head was wreathed with flowering broom. Her looks, sometimes 
fierce, bespoke masculine vigour and a character which did not 
shrink from sanguinary conflict. 

The Celtic and Iberian languages gradually disappeared among 
the Franks, being replaced by Latin dialects. 

The Gauls and Franks, who were subdued by the Romans, re- 
ceived into their blood the Latin clement, which rapidly increased. 
Restrained for a while by the invasions of tribes from the north and 
east, by Asiatic hordes of Mongolian race, among which we may 
name the Huns, the Latin element again assumed the ascendant at 
the commencement of the sixteenth century ; men and manners, 




Fig. 21. — Spanish Lady and Duenna. 

language and art, bore witness more and more to Latin influence : 
the fair hair and white skin of the Frank alternating with the black 
locks and brown skin of the Latin people. Thus it is that the French 


lost the athletic frame and vigorous limbs of the Gaul, gaining in 
their stead the suppleness and agility of southern nations. Thus also 
the French language became gradually formed, modified from Latin 

The existence of a single written language renders it difficult to 
mark the characteristic distinctions among the French of the present 
day. We may, however, distinguish the French properly so called, who 
inhabit the lower district of the Loire, and whose dialects are most 
akin to the written language ; the Walloons, in the north, whose 
pronunciation somewhat approaches that of Teutonic nations ; and 
the Romanians, in the south, where the dialects become confused 
with those of the Spaniards and Italians. The French of the in- 
terior are those who most resemble the Celts ; those of the south 
possess the vivacity of the ancient Iberians or Basques ; and those of 
the north have suffered still more from Teutonic influence, the effect 
of which is more especially appreciable in Normandy. 

Owing to the diversity of his origin, and the different races of 
men which have been moulded into his type, not omitting also the 
effect attributed to the great geological variety of the soil of France, 
where samples of all parts of the earth are to be found, the Frenchman, 
considered organically, possesses no peculiar physiognomy, which 
nevertheless does not prevent the complete identification of his 
French nationality. 

From a physical point of view, and setting aside certain extremes, 
it may be said that the Frenchman is characterised, not so much by 
special features, as by the mobility and expression of these features. 
He is neither large nor small, yet his body is in all respects well 
proportioned ; and although he may not be capable of developing 
great muscular action, he is fully qualified to contend successfully 
against fatigue and long journeys. Agile and nervous, as prompt in 
attack as in parrying a blow, full of expedient, supple, and cheerful, 
skilful both physically and morally, this is the character we shall 
easily recognise in the typical soldier (Fig. 16, p. 61). 

Considered intellectually, the Frenchman is distinguished by a 
readiness and activity of conception which is truly unsurpassed. His 
comprehension is quick and sound. A halo of feeling surrounds this 
intellectual activity. Add to this a very fair amount of reason, solid 
judgment, and a veritable passion for order and method, and you 
have the French character. 

To this combination of various qualities must be referred the 
respect which the French nation entertain for science and art, the 
admirable order which is found in their museums, and the excellent 


preservation of their historical monuments. This also goes to 
explain their excellent organisation for public instruction, both in art 
and science ; the forbearing and kindly tone of their philosophy, 
which above all things seeks the practical rules which govern 
human action, their excellent judicial system and admirable civil 
code, which has been copied more or less by many nations of the 
New or Old Worlds. 

Although the Frenchman respects science, loves the arts, and 
takes an interest in the productions of thought, it must be admitted 
that he is loth to take any personal part in them. He is glad to 
make use of the practical applications of science, and gratefully 
acknowledges the service they render him ; but he shuns the idea of 
studying the sciences as such, and the very name of savant conveys 
to his mind a tiresome person. The sciences, which at the end of 
the last century brought so much honour to France, now languish. 
Scientific careers are avoided, and in the country of Lavoisier, 
Laplace, and Cuvier, science is visibly on the decline. 

To make science palatable to French readers, the edge of the 
cup must be coated with honey, and the preceptor must clearly 
comprehend what dose of the sweetened beverage he may administer, 
so as not to overtax the powers or present humour of his patient. 

We may say the same of the liberal arts. The Frenchman takes 
delight in artistic works, in fine monuments and buildings, costly 
statuary, magnificent pictures, engravings, and all the productions of 
high art; but he does nothing whatever to encourage them. France 
is at the present day at the head of the fine arts, and her school 
of painting is without a rival ; and yet her artists, whether they 
be painters or sculptors, must seek elsewhere an outlet for their 

In France, the people are content with rendering a formal 
homage to the merit of their works of art, and leave to the govern- 
ment the task of encouraging and propagating them. 

This encouragement consists in an annual exhibition of their 
paintings and sculptures, entry to this exhibition being obtained only 
by payment. When it is over, the various works are returned to 
their authors, and medals of different value assist the public to 
appreciate the excellence of their productions. 

In France, then, the people are, properly speaking, neither 
studious nor artistic ; they merely profess great esteem for the arts 
and sciences, and render them homage without the least wish to 
know more of them, or attempt to further their cultivation. 


A very excellent quality of the French nation is its sociability. 
Whilst the English and Germans shut themselves up in their houses 
with misanthropical concern, the Frenchman prefers to share his 
dwelling, to inhabit a sort of hive, in which the same roof shelters a 
large number of individuals of all ages and conditions. He can thus 
perform and exchange many services, and, while living his own form 
of existence, enjoy that of others. See how, in French villages, the 
houses are grouped together or placed back to back, or, in the large 
towns, those houses where fifty lodgers, hardly separated from one 
another by a scanty partition, have one common domestic, the 
porter, and you will at once recognise the instinct of sociability and 
external affability which is peculiar to the French nation. The 
readiness which each manifests to render the little services of life, to 
aid a wounded person, or assist in extricating his neighbour from 
embarrassment, are all signs of the same praiseworthy spirit of 

The delicacy of feeling and thought, the extraordinary taste for 
order and method, and the love of art, which characterise the French 
nation, are all to be encountered in their various industrial products. 
A feeling for art is essentially characteristic of French industry, and 
gives it that well-known good taste, distinction, and elegance which 
are so justly appreciated. 

Although he is neither student nor artist, the Frenchman knows, 
therefore, perfectly how to call science and art to his aid, demand 
their co-operation and inspiration, and transfer them with advantage 
into practice. Thanks to his instinct for order and method, he 
succeeds in drawing material profit from studious or sentimental 

Having considered the bright side of the French nation, we will 
now see where they are deficient. 

It is a recognised fact that, among the French, one-third of the 
men, and more than half the women, can neither read nor write : 
this is equivalent to saying, that of the thirty-eight millions of indi- 
viduals composing the population of France, fifteen millions can 
neither read nor write. 

The French peasant does not read, and for a very good reason. 
On Sunday he has read to him extracts from the Almanack of Pierre 
Larrivay, of Matthieu Laensberg, or some other prophet of the same 
cloth, who foretells what is about to happen on each day of the year; 
and this is as much as he wants. La JBruyere drew of the French 
peasant in the time of Louis XIV. a forcible and sinister picture, 


WW A - imtV-t-~ 'vNg^^F- 


Fig 22. — The Fandango. 

which in many cases is true eVen at the present day : in the course 
of two centuries the subject has altered but little.* 

* "We meet with certain wild animals, male and female, scattered over the 


The French artisan reads very little. Works of popular science, 
which for some years past have happily been edited in France, are 
not read, as is imagined, by the working classes. Those who seek 
works of this class are persons who have already received a certain 
amount of instruction, which they desire to increase by extending it 
to other branches of knowledge ; these, for the greater part, include 
school-children, and persons belonging to the different liberal pro- 
fessions, or engaged in commerce. 

The bourgeois, who has some spare time, devotes a portion of 
it to reading, but he does not read books. In France books are 
objects of luxury, used only by persons of refinement. The crowd, 
when they see a man go by with a book under his arm, regard him 
with respectful curiosity. Enter the houses, even those of the most 
wealthy, and you will meet with everything which is necessary for 
the comforts of life, every article of furniture which may be called 
for, but you will seldom or never find a library. Whilst in Germany, 
England, and Russia, it is thought indispensable, in France a library 
is almost unknown. 

The French bourgeois reads only the papers. Unfortunately, 
French journals have always been devoted to politics. Literature 
and art, science and philosophy, nay, even commercial and current 
affairs, that is, all that goes to make up the life and interests of a 
nation, are excluded with most jealous care from the greater part of 
the French journals, to make way for political matters. Thus it is 
that politics, the most superfluous and barren of subjects, have become 
among the French the great and only object of consideration. 

The press which indulges in light literature is much worse. Its 
articles are founded on old compilations. The bons-mots of the 
Marquis of Bievre are borrowed from Bievricwa, and laid at the 
door of M. de Tillancourt; then Mdlle. X. des Varie'te's is made 
the heroine of an anecdote borrowed from the Encyclopcediana, and 
the trick is complete. The paper is sold at a sou, and is not worth 
a Hard. 

The papers are the chief means by which the French bourgeois 
stuff their heads with emptiness. 

The weakness of instruction in France becomes still more 
apparent by comparison with that of other nations. Traverse all 
Switzerland, and in every house you will find a small libra:/. In 

country, black, livid, and dried up by the sun,' attached to the soil, which they turn 
and rummage about with an insuperable obstinacy ; they seem to utter articulate 
sounds, and when they get upon their legs, show a human face. And in fact, 
these, it seems, are men." 


Prussia it is a most rare matter to find a person who cannot read ; 
in that country instruction is obligatory. In Austria every one can 
read. In Norway and Denmark the lowest of the peasantry can 
read and write their language with accuracy ; while in the extreme 
north, in Iceland, that country given up to the rigours of eternal 
cold, which is, as it were, a dead spot in nature, prints are numerous. 
We need not say that the English and Americans are far in advance 
of the French as regards instruction. Nay, more, all the Japanese 
can read and write, as also all the inhabitants of China proper. 

Let us hope that this sad condition of things will change when 
gratuitous and obligatory instruction has become the law.* 

Uninstructed and unambitious of learning, timid artisan and 
plodding husbandman though he be, the Frenchman has yet one 
ruling virtue. He is a soldier ; he possesses many of the qualities 
necessary for war — bravery, intelligence, quickness of conception, 
the sentiment of discipline, and even patience when it is called for. 
If in 1870 a combination of deplorable fatalities forced the French 
to yield to the dictates of a people who even yet wonder at their 
victory, the reputation of the French soldier for bravery has not 
suffered very much by this unforeseen check. 

Another peculiarity of the French nation is their spirit of 
criticism and satire. If, in the days of Beaumarchais, everything in 
France closed with a song, nothing is now complete without a joke. 

There is nothing which the French spirit of satire has not turned 
to ridicule. In the art of the pencil it has created la charge, namely, 
the caricature of what is beautiful, and the hideous exaggeration of 
every physical imperfection ; on the stage it has introduced la 
cascade, a public parody bringing before the audience, in an absurd 
manner, history, literature, and men of distinction ; in the dance, it 
has given birth to the obscene and nameless thing composed of the 
contortions of fools, which with strangers passes as a national dance. 

The French woman is perfectly gifted in what concerns intelli- 
gence ; she possesses a ready conception, a lively imagination, and 
a cheerful disposition. Unfortunately, the burden of ignorance 
presses sorely upon her. It is a rare thing for a woman of the 
people to read, as only those of the higher classes have leisure, 
during their girlhood, to cultivate their minds. And yet even they 
must not give themselves up too much to study, nor aspire to honour 
or distinction. The epithet bas bleu (" blue stocking ") would soon 

* Since the above was written the desire of the Author has been fulfilled. By 
a law introduced by M. Paul Bert (March 28, 1882), instruction was made both 
obligatory and gratuitous. The education system in France is ?imv tapidlv 
becoming as perfect as any in Europe ; so that soon peasants who cannot reaa will 
be as rare as they were formerly common. 


bring them back to the common crowd — an ignorant and frivolous 
feminine mass. Moliere's lines in "Les Femmes Savantes," which for 
two centuries have operated so sadly in disseminating ignorance 
throughout one-half of French society, would be with one voice 
applied to them. 

With this ill-advised tirade, persons who think themselves per- 
fectly right stifle the early inclinations of young girls and women, 
which would induce them to open their minds to notions of literature, 
science, and art. 

A question was once put forward whether young women should be 
permitted to share the education which the Paris University affords to 
young men. We are speaking of the courses which were to have 
been held by the college of professors, according to the plans pro- 
posed by M. Duruy. But this attempt at the intellectual emancipa- 
tion of young girls was very soon suppressed. Being barely tolerated 
at Paris, these courses were soon interdicted in the departmental 
towns, and woman soon returned to the knee of the Church, or, in 
other words, was brought back to ignorance and superstition. 

This want of instruction in the French woman is more to be 
regretted, since, to an excellent intellectual disposition, she adds the 
irresistible gift of grace and physical charms. There is in her face 
much that is most pleasing, although we can assign her physiognomy 
to no determinate type. Her features, frequently irregular, seem 
to be borrowed from different races ; they do not possess that 
unity which springs from calm and majesty, but are in the highest 
degree expressive, and marvellously contrived for conveying every 
shade of feeling. In them we see a smile, though it be shaded by 
tears ; a caress, though they threaten us ; and an appeal when yet 
they command. Amid the irregularity of this physiognomy the soul 
displays its workings. 

As a rule, the French woman is short of stature, but in every 
proportion of her form combines grace and delicacy. Her extremi- 
ties and joints are fine and elegant, of perfect model and distinct 
form, without a suspicion of coarseness. With her, moreover, art is 
brought wonderfully to assist nature. 

There is no place in the world where the secret of dress is so 
well understood as in France, or where means are so admirably 
applied to the rectification of natural defects of form or colour. 
Add to this a continual desire to charm and please, an anxious 
care to attract and attach the hearts of others through simplicity or 
coquetry, good -will or malice, the wish to radiate everywhere 
pleasure and life, the noble craving to awake grand or touching 





thoughts, and you will understand the universal and charming rule 
which woman has always held in France, and a great portion of the 
influence which she perforce retains over men and things. 

All these qualities, which distinguish the women of the higher 
classes in France, are met with also among those of the working 
classes. Their industrious hands excel in needlework. They make 
their own clothing, and that of their children ; look to the household 
linen, make their own bonnets, and most effectually cause elegance 
and taste to thrive in the heart of poverty. The correctness of their 
judgment, their tact and delicacy, and their rare penetration, are of 
valuable assistance in commercial matters, where their just apprecia- 
tion affords most useful aid to their husbands and children. In 
retail trade especially do these qualities shine forth — order, sagacity, 
and patience, Their politeness and presence of mind charm the 
purchaser, who always finds what he wants, and is always in good 
humour with himself and the articles he obtains. 

The French women excel in household duties and in bringing 
up their children. These graceful and sweet young girls become 
mothers whose patience is inexhaustible, and make of their home the 
most perfect resting-place, and the best refuge from the sufferings 
and hardships of life. 

Hispct7iians. — Under this name we include the Spaniards and 

The Hispanians result from the mixture of the Latins with the 
Celts, whom they succeeded in Spain, and with the Teutons, who 
drove out the Romans. 

Washed on three sides by the sea, divided from France on the 
north by the Pyrenees, and from Africa on the south by a narrow 
stretch of sea, Spain is crossed by ranges of mountains, which, by 
their various intersections, form valleys permitting only of difficult 
communication with each other. The mountains of Spain are one of 
the principal causes of the richness of this country. They contain a 
variety of precious metals, and the streamlets which flow from their 
summits fertilise the valleys and develop into large rivers. 

The climate of Spain indicates the vicinity of Africa. The air 
during winter is cold, dry, and sharp : during the summer it is 
scorching. The leaves of the trees are stiff and shining, the branches 
knotty and contorted, the bark dry and rugged. The fruits mingle with 
their perfume a sharp and acid flavour : the animals are lean and wild. 

Nature, therefore, in Spain, is somewhat violent and rude, and this 
characteristic is peculiar to the people of the country. 


The Spaniard, like the African, is in general of moderate height. 
His skin is brown, and his limbs are muscular, compact, and supple 
(Fig. 17, p. 65). In a moral sense, passion with him obtains the 
mastery; indeed, it is quite impossible for him to master or dissemble 
his feelings. He is not afraid to allow their workings to become 
evident, but, in their display, if they meet with curiosity or admiration, 
he passes all bounds and becomes a perfect spectacle. A Spaniard 
always allows his feelings to be plainly perceptible. 

This habitual weakness for scenic display, which in a people 
possessing evil instincts would be excessively inconvenient, produces 
in the Spaniard the best results, since at heart he is full of generosity 
and nobleness. It endows him with pride, from which spring exalted 
feelings and good actions ; emulation, which prompts him to outdo 
himself; a moral tone, generosity, dignity, and discretion. Nowhere 
are better understood than in Spain the regard due to age or sex, and 
the respect called for by rank or position. 

The love of distinction, place, and grade is an inevitable con- 
sequence of this state of feeling. 

The pride of the Spaniard renders him very tenacious as regards 
his honour. He brooks not insult, and seeks to requite it with 
bloodshed. His hand flies to the sword which is to avenge his 
honour, or the knife which is to settle his disputes (Fig. 18, p. 69). 

In Spain arms are carried by all, and their habitual contact — too 
much neglected in other countries — imparts to each the desire for 
glory or the hope of playing a leading part in the world. 

Such being his disposition, the Spaniard cannot fail to make an 
excellent soldier. Besides having taste and aptitude for the use of 
arms, he is vigorous, agile, and patient ; and therefore worthy to be 
named honourably in comparison with the French soldier. It is, 
however, difficult to preserve discipline among these fiery and in- 
dependent men. They are not always easy to command in time of 
regular warfare, and when times become troublesome, they become 
rapidly converted into guerillas, a term which is almost synonymous 
with brigand. 

The use of arms being familiar to every Spaniard, there is a great 
temptation to use them, and passion frequently creates an opportunity. 
Therefore it is that Spain is essentially a land of civil war. 

On the most simple question arising, the peasant seizes his gun 
and rushes to an ambuscade, or joins a band of insurgents. 

Political insurrections are an amusement to this impressionable 
and hasty people. In the twinkling of an eye bands of armed men 
overrun the country. The great want of discipline among the soldiers 

Fig. 24. — Fish-vendors at Oporto. 



Fig. 25. — Roman Peasant Girl. 

and non-commisioned officers conduces to desertion to these irreguiai 
bodies, and the result is that unhappy Spain is continually in a state 
of local insurrection, the suppression of which invariably leads to 
bloodshed without producing any permanent settlement. 


The passion which a Spaniard evinces in all he does is not wanting 
in his religion. His piety is exalted, and the violence to which this 
piety frequently leads him has had mournful results. It is this 
religious fury which accounts for the cruelty of the Spaniards to the 
Saracens and Jews ; and which, later on, lit the faggots of the In- 
quisition, and produced the most savage intolerance. Spain has 
burnt, in the name of a God of peace and love, thousands of innocent 
creatures ; and for the honour and good of the Roman Catholic faith, 
has proscribed, strangled, and tortured. 

This passionate exaggeration of Roman Catholicism has proved the 
ruin of Spain in modern times. It is marvellous to see how this nation, 
so powerful in the sixteenth century, and which, under Charles V., 
dictated laws to all Europe, has fallen ; until at the present day it 
ranks among the states of the lowest class in this part of the world. 
But it will be seen that the multiplication of convents, both for men 
and women, has had the effect of rapidly depopulating the country ; 
that the proscription of the Moors, the Jews, and lastly of the 
Protestants, has proved destructive of productive industry ; that the 
courts of the Inquisition, and the auto-da-fe, have led to a feeling of 
sadness and mistrust among the people ; that the abuse of religion 
and its symbols has produced a bigotry which can be likened only to 
idolatry; and that the fear of offending an intolerant and self-asserting 
religion has arrested all moral progress, and effectually set aside 
all development of science, which of necessity pre-supposes free 

This is how progress, activity, and thought have met with their 
end, and how material prosperity has become extinguished \n % that 
portion of Europe most marvellously endowed with natural gifts. 
Thus it is that commerce has become a by-word in a land whose 
geographical position is unrivalled, and which possessed in the New 
World the most flourishing and powerful colonies; and that literature 
and science, the two great words which indicate liberty and progress, 
have fallen away in the home of Michael Cervantes. 

How is Spain to recover her former splendour ? What remedies 
must be applied to these crying evils ? We reply, religious toleration 
and political liberty. 

The type of the Spanish woman is so well known, that we need 
hardly recall it. She is generally brunette, although the blond type 
occurs much more frequently than is usually supposed. The Spanish 
woman is almost always small of stature. Who has not observed her 
large eyes, veiled by thick lashes, her delicate nose, and well-formed 
nostrils ? Her form is always undulating and graceful ; her limbs are 









Fig. 27. — Young Girl of the Transtevera. 

round and beautifully moulded, and her extremities of incomparable 
delicacy. She is a charming mixture of vigour, languor, and 
grace (Fig. 21, p. 81). 

Love is the great object of the Spanish woman. She loves with 



Fig. 28. — Street at Tivoli. 


passion but with constancy, and the jealousy she feels is but the 
legitimate compensation for the attachment she bestows. 

The Spanish woman, faithful as a wife, is an excellent mother. 
Few women can equal her as a nurse, or in the attention and patience 
which are called for by the care of children. The mother lavishes 
upon her young family her whole life, and if she fails to instruct them, 
it is, alas ! that she lacks the power to do so ; for she is no better 
educated than the French woman, and, as regards ignorance, is a 
meet companion for her in every respect. 

We have said that in France women exercise a very manifest 
influence upon the course of events. The Spanish woman is not, 
however, in possession of this useful influence. She commands the 
attention of those around her only during the short period of her 
beauty. When, arrived at maturity, her judgment formed by ex- 
perience, and her views enlarged by observation or practice, she 
might soothe the passions of her friends, assist them with her 
counsel, or unite them round her hearth, the Spanish woman retires 
into obscurity, and the knowledge she has gained is lost to society. 

Having thus given a general view of Spanish manners, we will say 
something with respect to the most characteristic physiognomies of 
this country. 

The Moorish type is met with in a marked degree in the province 
of Valencia. The peasants have swarthy complexions. Their head- 
dress consists of a handkerchief in bright colours, rolled around the 
head and rising to a point ; strongly reminding the observer of the 
turban worn by Eastern nations. They sometimes wear, in addition 
to this, a hat formed of felt and black velvet, with the edges turned 
up. On fete-days they don a waistcoat of green or blue velvet, with 
numerous buttons formed of silver or plated copper. In lieu of 
trousers they wear full drawers of white cloth, which reach as far as 
the knees, and are kept up by a broad belt of silk or brightly-striped 
wool. The hose consist of gaiters, kept in place by means of a broad 
blue riband wound round the leg. A long piece of woollen material, 
striped with bright colours, is thrown over the shoulders or wound 
round the body : this is the cloak (Fig. 19, p. 73). 
- The peasants are to be seen to best advantage m the market- 
place, whither they bring their oranges, grapes, and dates. 

The women of Valencia are sometimes of remarkable beauty. 
Their black hair is rolled into bunches above the temples, and 
carried to the back of the head, where it forms an enormous chignon, 
through which passes a long needle of silver-gilt. 

In some of the preceding cuts we have given the costumes of the 


inhabitants of Valencia, Xeres, Cordova, Toledo, and Madrid, as 
also types of Spanish physiognomy; and (Fig. 20, p. 77) a view of 
the interior of a Madrid wine shop. 

In Spain dancing is a national feature. The dance scarcely 
varies in different provinces, but generally reflects the character of 
the people, who accompany it with songs and national melodies. 
They can hardly have enough of singing and dancing the Fandango 
(Fig. 22, p. 85), and the Bolero (Fig. 23, p. 89). 

Portugal abuts on Spain, and its people merit some portion of 
our consideration. 

The Portuguese women are frequently pretty, and sometimes 
actually beautiful. They have abundant hair, their eyes are earnest, 
soft, and penetrating, and their teeth excellent. Their feet are rather 
large, but their hands are very delicate. Their forms are well set, 
and strongly though somewhat sturdily built ; their joints are small, 
their complexion sallow, their movements are confident. Their well- 
shaped heads are well placed, and the modest ease with which they 
wear the short jupon and broad felt hat, imparts to these articles of 
dress a certain elegance. 

The inhabitants of Ponte de Lima are of small stature, and 
possess fine vigorous forms. The country people are worthy of 
special notice ; they make brave and steady soldiers, who are easily 
amenable to discipline, and robust and intelligent workmen. 

There is nothing very noteworthy about the dress of the peasantry, 
except as regards that of the women. The petticoat is plaited, short, 
and sometimes rolled up, so as to expose to view their legs, which 
are usually bare. The bodice, which is furnished with two or three 
silver buttons, displays the form. Being separated from the petticoat, 
it permits the chemise to puff out around the body, while the sleeves 
of that garment are wide and usually worn turned up. The head- 
dress consists of a large black felt hat, frequently adorned with bows 
of ribbon, and almost always furnished with a white kerchief, the 
folds of which fall down over the neck and shoulders. Long earrings, 
and even necklaces and chains of gold, complete the picturesque 
costume, in which yellow, red, and bright green predominate. 

The streets of Oporto are much enlivened by the appearance of 
the peasants in their various brilliant dresses, who there vend oranges, 
vegetables, cheese, or flowers. 

Fig. 24 (p. 93) represents the costume of fish-vendors at Oporto. 

Italians. — No part of Europe can be compared with Italy for 
softness of climate, clearness of the sky, fertility of the soil, and 








pureness of the atmosphere. The soil, which is very undulating, is 
watered by numerous streams, and permits largely of cultivation ; 
while the mountains conceal precious metals and beautiful marbles. 
No country is better protected by nature. 

On the north arises a broad barrier of stupendous mountains, 
while the remaining sides are protected by the sea. Along the coast 
are vast ports, with good harbours ; and lastly, this portion of Europe 
alone has the advantage of offering ready access to both Asia and 

The fertility of the soil, the mild temperature, and the large 
variety of natural productions which furnish good food, all indicate 
that Italy should possess a fine, vigorous, and intelligent population. 
And, indeed, the Italians possess these qualities. 

We shall first examine rather more closely the origin of this people, 
and the differences they present in various parts of the peninsula. 

The Latin family, which gave its name to the human group with 
which we are now concerned, had Italy for its home. In Italy, there- 
fore, we should expect to meet with it But we should be deceived 
were we to expect to find the pure Latin type among the modern 
Italians. The barbarian invasions in the north, and the contact with 
Greeks and Africans in the south, have wrought much alteration in 
the primitive type of the inhabitants of Italy. Except in Rome, and 
the Roman Campagna, the true type of the primitive Latin population 
is hardly to be found. The Grecian type exists in the south, and 
upon the eastern slope of the Apennines, while in the north the great 
majority of faces are Gallic. In Tuscany and the neighbouring regions 
are found the descendants of the ancient Etruscans. 

What most interests us is the primitive Latin population. This is 
met with, as we have said, in and around Rome, and in order to find 
it we must go there. 

The features of the early Latin people can be imagined without 
difficulty, by reference to busts of the first Roman emperors. We 
may thence arrive at the following characteristic features, as probably 
those of the ancient Italian races. The head is large, the forehead 
of no great height, the vertex (summit of the cranium) flattened, the 
. temporal region protruding, and the face proportionately short. The 
nose, which is divided from the forehead by a marked depression, is 
aquiline ; the lower jaw is broad, and the chin prominent. 

The modern population of Rome, without absolutely reproducing 
these features, still retain their beautifully pure characteristic lines. 

In Fig. 25 (p. 95), which represents a Roman peasant girl, and in 
Fig. 26 (p. 97), which represents a group of peasant men and women 

e * 


of Rome, we easily recognise these celebrated types of countenance, 
so familiar to every artist. The distinguishing marks will be easily 
seen in the Roman peasants, who, quitting their native country, seek 
their livelihood in France as models. 

As one of these types, taken from nature, we would call the 
reader's attention to Fig. 27 (p. 99), which represents a young Roman 
girl from the quarter on the banks of the Tiber called Transtevera. 

It would be a fruitless task, were we, in studying the modern 
Romans, to seek among them traces, more or less eradicated, of the 
old Roman blood. 

In a population which has been so degraded, oppressed, and 
polluted as this, by ages of slavery and obscurity, we should find 
nought but disturbance and chaos. We can make no reference to 
family life in this land of convents and celibacy, nor speak of intel- 
lectual faculties in a country where we see a jealous tyranny narrow- 
ing the minds of the inhabitants, and an authority that is seated in 
the blackest darkness, moulding body and mind in ignorance of 
morality and education. We should need the greatest power of 
penetracion to find, in the effeminate and degenerate population 
of Modern Rome, the genius of the ancient conquerors of the 

There are, however, reasons for hoping that Rome, being now 
released from Papal authority, and having, since the year 187 1, 
become the capital of Italy and the residence of King Victor 
Emmanuel, will gradually cease to feel the preponderance of the 
sacerdotal element. 

Young Romans playing the favourite Italian game, la mora, with 
its usual accompaniments of gesticulations and shouts, is a very 
common street scene. The two persons playing this game raise 
their closed fists in the air, and then, in letting them fall, open as 
many fingers as they may think proper. At the same lime they call 
out some number. The winner is he who, by chance, calls out the 
number represented by the sum of all the fingers exhibited by the 
two players. If, for example, I call out five, and at the same time 
open two fingers, whilst my adversary displays three, which added 
to mine make five, the number called by me, I am winner. The 
arms of the two players are raised and lowered at the same time, and 
the numbers are called simultaneously, with great rapidity and 
regularity, producing a very singular result, and one incomprehensible 
to a stranger. 

La mora is played all over Italy. 

But it is not alone in the city of Rome that the characteristic 



Fig. 30.— Exaltation oi Pope Pius IX. 


features of the ancient Latin race are to be found ; the traveller 
passing through the suburbs of the capital of the Christian world, 
Frascati or Tivoli, will still encounter vestiges of the old Latins 
hidden beneath the sad garments of misery (Fig. 28, p. 100). 

It may be said that Rome at the present day is a vast convent. 
In it the ecclesiastical population holds an important position and 
plays an important part. This it is which imparts to the Eternal 
City its austerity, not to say its public sadness and moral languor. 
We shall therefore close our series of picturesque views of the in- 
habitants of Modern Rome with a pictorial representation (Fig. 29, 
p. 103) of the costumes of the principal dignitaries of the ecclesiastical 
order, followed by the reproduction of a well-known picture, repre- 
senting the "Exaltation of Pio IX." (Fig. 30, p. 107). 

The Latin type, which physically if not morally is met with in a 
state of purity at Rome and in the Roman Campagna, has, on the 
other hand, undergone great modification in the provinces of the 
North, as well as in those of Southern Italy. Let us first consider the 
Northern provinces. 

Northern Italy, endowed to perfection with natural advantages, 
washed by two seas, watered by the tributaries of a large river, 
possessing land of extraordinary fertility, nourishes a race in which 
the Latin blood has mingled with that of the German and Gaul. In 
Tuscany and the neighbourhood are, as we have said, the descendants 
of the old Etruscans, and further north are the offspring of Germanic 
and Gallic races. 

The designs which adorn the Etruscan sarcophagi, originally 
brought, it is said, from Northern Greece, have preserved the physical 
form and appearance of these people. They are bulky, and of heavy 

The men wear no beard, and are clothed with a tunic, which in 
some cases is thrown over the back of the head. Some hold in the 
left hand a small goblet, and in the right a bowl. They repose in an 
easy posture, resting the body on the left side, as do also the women. 
The women wear a tunic, sometimes fastened below the breast by a 
broad girdle, which is furnished with a circular clasp, and a peplum 
which in many cases covers the back of the head. They hold in one 
hand an apple, or some fruit of the same appearance, and in the other 
a fan. This is the portrait of the Etruscan which has been handed 
down to us. 

Tuscany, of all Italy, is that portion which most strongly represents 
the mildness, the order, and the industrious activity of modern Italy. 
The natural richness of the soil is there enhanced by a capable system 


of cultivation. The arts peacefully flourish in this land of great 
painters, sculptors, and architects. The habits of the people, both of 
the upper and lower classes, are gentle and peaceful. There is here 
a state of general prosperity added to a fair amount of education. 
The poor man here does not, as in other countries, foster a complain- 
ing and hostile feeling against the rich ; all entertain a consciousness 
of their own dignity ; all are affable and polite. The general good 
feeling is manifested in word and deed, and the religious tone is 
moderate and tolerant. Women are loved and respected, and this 
respect corresponds in religion with the worship of the Virgin. 

At Florence and in Tuscany we meet that Italian urbanity which, 
by the French, who are unable to understand it, is improperly termed 
obsequiousness. This attribute of the Italian is very far from servile; 
it comes from the heart. A universal kindly feeling welcomes the 
stranger, who experiences much pleasure among this conciliatory 
and friendly people, and with difficulty tears himself away from this 
happy country, where all seem bathed in an atmosphere of art, 
sentiment, and goodness. 

Southern Italy will show us a very different picture from that we 
have just described. The proximity to Africa has here much altered 
the physical type of the inhabitants, while the yoke of a long despotism 
has much lowered the social condition, through the misery and igno- 
rance it has produced. The mixture of African blood has changed 
the organic type of the Southern Italian to such an extent, as to 
render him entirely distinct from his northern compatriots, the 
exciting influence which the climate has over the senses imparting to 
his whole conduct a peculiar exuberance. Hence there is much 
frivolity and little consistency in his character. 

In the town and neighourhood of Naples we meet a combination 
of the features we have just considered. Let us betake ourselves tor 
a moment thither, and take a rapid view of the strange population, 
which from early dawn is to be met with in the streets, singing, 
begging, or going about their day's work. 

Fig. 31 (p. in) shows us a shop of dealers in macaroni in the 
market-place (mercatello), Fig. 32 (p. 113) the indispensable water- 
carrier, and in Fig. 34 (p. 115) we have an itinerant trader of Naples. 

The most favourable time for examining the great variety of types 
which unite in the population of Southern Italy, is on the occasion of 
the public festivals which are so numerous at Naples. This curious 
mixture may be investigated in the crowds of people who frequent 
the festival of Piedigrotta, where are to be found examples of every 
Greek and Latin race. 


Here are to be seen the Procidan women (isle of Procida, near 
Naples), who still retain the ancient siraar, the kerchief which falls 
loosely around the head, and the classic profiles with straight noses 
(Fig. 33, p. 1 13). In Southern Italy these daughters of ancient Greece 
still wear the golden diadem and silver girdle of Homer's matrons. 
The Capuan woman throws around her head a veil similar to that of 
the sibyls and vestals. The Abruzzan women wear their hair in knots 
in the manner shown in Greek statues. The men of these parts, 
moreover, clothe themselves in sheepskins during the winter, and 
wear sandals fastened with leather thongs. The Etruscans, the 
Greeks, the Romans, and even the Normans, have left their traces 
in this country, whose population forms such a curious mixture. 

Not less remarkable are, in this beautiful country, the peasantry 
of the mountains and the sea-coast. The most varying forms and 
the richest colours are to be met with, from the coarse cloth drawers 
and shirt of the fisherman, to the brilliant costume of certain of 
the Abruzzi ; from the Phrygian cap of the Neapolitans to the peaked 
hat of the Calabrians — a slender, tall, and sunburnt people. 

In the midst of this motley assemblage of every variety of dress 
and colour, the graceful acquajolo (Fig. 35, p. 117), that is, the stall of 
the dealer in oranges and iced water, forms a most picturesque object. 

Wallachians. — From the consideration of the types of mankind 
in Italy, we naturally pass to those of their neighbours, the inha- 
bitants of Wallachia and Moldavia. 

Under the title Wallachians or Moldo- Wallachians are com- 
prehended the people of Wallachia, Moldavia, and some of the 
neighbouring provinces. 

The Wallachians proceed from the fusion of the Roman colonies, 
established by Trajan, and of some Greek settlements, with the 
ancient Slavonic inhabitants of these countries. The language of 
this people corresponds with their triple origin, for it possesses the 
characteristics of Latin, Greek, and Slavonic. 

Wallachia and Moldavia form the ancient Dacia. The Wallachians, 
originally subject to the kingdom of Bulgaria and to that of Hungary, 
formed, in 1290, an independent state, the first prince of which was 
called Rodolph the Black. About 1350 one of their colonies occupied 
Moldavia, under the leadership of a prince named Dragosch. But 
the Wallachian state was never very firmly constituted, and in 1525 
the battle of Mohacz reduced it finally under Turkish rule. The 
Turks did not disturb the internal government of the Wallachians, 
but obliged their prince (hosJ>odar) to pay an annual tribute to the 






Porte, and to maintain Turkish garrisons in all their strongholds. 
But Wallachia, being situated between the Ottoman Empire on one 
side, and Hungary, Poland, and Russia on the other, became the 
scene of most of the struggles between its formidable neighbours. It 

Fig. 32. — Neapolitan Iced- Water Seller. 

Fig. 33. — Neapolitan Peasant Woman. 

was trampled over by both Christian and Mussulman, and this terrible 
situation resulted in ruin and exile to its unfortunate inhabitants. 
The hospodars who occupied the thrones of Wallachia and Moldavia 
were appointed by the court of Constantinople, who sold this dignity 
to the highest bidder. The hospodars were then only a species of 


pacha; their court was formed after the pattern of those of the 
Byzantine emperors, but they did not possess the military power of 
the Turkish pachas. 

This situation has changed since 1849, when a treaty Avas con- 
cluded between the Porte and Russia. By the terms of this treaty, 
the dignity of hospodar was maintained during the lifetime of its 
possessor. New events have happened, and, since the year 1861, 
by a firman of the Sultan of Turkey, the name of Roumania has 
been given to the Danubian Principalities, the political protection of 
which is shared between Russia, the Porte, Prussia, and Austria. 
The Prince of Hohenzollern, who now occupies the throne of Moldo- 
Wallachia, is of Prussian birth. 

The two principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia enjoy their 
nationality and independence on condition of paying a yearly tribute to 
the Porte. Now they claim, with the approval of the Great Powers, 
the right of making commercial treaties independently of the Porte. 

None of their forts are now to receive a Turkish garrison. 

The prince is assisted by a council formed of the leading 
boyards, and this council forms a high court of appeal for judicial 
affairs. In modern times, Couza was the best known prince of 
Roumania, although political events or popular discontent led to his 
early fall. 

The public safety is attended to by a sort of indigenous police 
commanded by the head spathar. 

The inhabitants of Wallachia are remarkable for patience and 
resignation ; without these qualities it would have fared hard with 
them during the calamities which have at all times befallen their 
country. They are men of a mild, religious, and sober temperament. 
But since they are unable to enjoy the result of their labour, they do 
as little work as possible. The milk of their kine, pork, a little maize, 
and beer of an inferior quality, with a woollen dress, is all they 
require. On fete days, however, the peasants appear in brilliant 
costumes, which we represent here (Figs. 36, 37, 38, pp. 119, 123, 125). 

" The Wallachians," says M. Vaillant, " are generally of consider- 
able height, well-made, and robust ; they have oblong faces, black 
hair, thick and well-arched eyebrows, bright eyes, small lips, and 
white teeth. They are merry, hospitable, sober, active, brave, and 
fitted to make good soldiers. They profess Christianity according to 
the rites of the Greek Church." The priests or curates are chosen 
from the body of the common people, from whom it would, as far as 
appearance, be no easy task to distinguish them. When not attending 
to clerical functions, they follow ordinary trades and employments. 



Towns are rare in 
Wallachia, the country 
being still far in arrear 
of the surrounding 
civilisation, in conse- 
quence of its political 
subordination to Tur- 
key, and its bad internal 
organisation. The 
country of the Danube, 
indeed, has practically 
but one large town — 
that is, Bucharest- 
There are thus, in this 
land, no centres from 
whence light could 
emanate ; it is in an 
incomplete state of 
civilisation, which can 
be improved only by 
an internal revolution, 
or by the collision 
which, sooner or later, 
must come, of its power- 
ful adjacent empires. 

" However," says 
Malte-Brun, " Nature 
seems to await human 
industry with open 
arms ; there are few 
regions upon which 
she has lavished her 
gifts as she has here. 
The finest river in 
Europe bathes the 
southern frontier of 
these provinces, and 
opens a way into fertile 
Hungary and the whole 
Austrian Empire, offer- 
ing, moreover, a com- 
munication between 

Fig. 34. — Itinerant Trader of Naples. 


Europe and Asia by the Black Sea ; but this is all in vain, for 
hardly a single vessel glides over its waves. Its rocks, its shoals, 
the Turkish garrisons on its banks, and, above all, the plague, 
inspire fear. Other fine rivers flow from the summit of the Car- 
pathian mountains, and fall into the Danube ; but they serve only 
to supply fish during Lent, and, being left to themselves, menace 
the surrounding country, which, if better regulated, they would 
fertilise. The Aluta, Jalovitza, and Ardschis are navigated only 
by flat-bottomed boats. Immense marshes encumber the low 
parts of Wallachia, and their exhalations produce a continuance of 
bilious fevers. The most superb forests, in which splendid oaks 
grow side by side with beeches, pines, and firs, cover not only the 
mountains, but many of the large islands in the Danube. These, 
instead of being used in the construction of fleets, merely furnish 
the wood used in paving the streets or roads ; for idleness and 
ignorance find no means of raising the blocks of granite and marble, 
of which the Carpathians offer such abundance. The summit of 
Mount Boutchez attains a height of more than six thousand feet, and 
all the mineral wealth of Transylvania seems to take its origin in 
Upper Wallachia. Copper mines have been opened at Baya di 
Roma, and iron mines in the district of Gersy, one especially in the 
neighbourhood of Zigarescht, where a bed of rocks presents the 
phenomenon of an almost continual igneous fermentation. 

" The Aluta and other rivers bring down nuggets of gold, which 
are collected by the Bohemians, or Ziguans, and which indicate 
the presence of mines as rich as those of Transylvania ; but no one 
thinks of looking for them. Only the salt quarries are worked, 
among which that of Okna Teleago furnishes 150,000 cwt. per annum. 
The climate, notwithstanding two months of hard winter and two 
months of excessive heat, is more favourable to health and agriculture 
than that of any of the adjacent countries. The pastures, filled with 
aromatic plants, supply nourishment even to the herds of neighbouring 
provinces, and could support even more than these. The wool 01 
their sheep has already attained considerable value. It is estimated 
that Wallachia contains two and a half millions of sheep, which are of 
threefold variety — the zigay, with a short and fine wool ; the zaskam, 
with long coarse wool ; the tatare, which forms a mean between the 
two foregoing varieties. Horses and oxen are exported. Fields of 
maize, wheat, and barley ; forests of apple, plum, and cherry trees ; 
melons and cabbages, excellent, although enormous, bear witness to 
the productive nature of the soil. Many of its wines sparkle with a 
generous fire, and with care might be brought to equal the well-known 



f 'g- 35- — An Acquajolo, at Naples. 


Hungarian vintages. A thousand other natural advantages are found 
there, but they are of little avail to a people without energy or 

Slavonian Family. 

This family comprehends the Russians, Finns, Bulgarians, Ser- 
vians, and Bosnians, that is to say, the inhabitants of Slavonia ; and 
the Magyars, or Hungarians, the Croats, the Tchecks, the Poles, and 
the Lithuanians, that is, the people who inhabit the countries inter- 
vening between the Baltic and Black Seas. 

Before describing these people individually, we shall give in a 
general manner the characteristics of the family to which they all 

The Slavonian family includes the European peoples who have 
preserved in the greatest perfection the type of the primitive Aryan 
race. They are tall, vigorous, and well made, and while in this 
respect they recall the Caucasian type, they yet possess the most 
distinct marks of the Mongolian type. The cheek bones are high, the 
nose is depressed at the root, and turned up towards the extremity, 
which is almost invariably thick. The oval form of the cranium is 
very marked ; the chest is of considerable capacity, and the shoulders 
and arms are large, but the lower extremities are in proportion much 

Mr. William Edwards has thus described the organic type of the 
Slavonians : — 

"The form of the head, viewed from the front, represents pretly 
nearly a square, since the height is about equal to the breadth, while 
the top is perceptibly flattened, and the direction of the jaw is hori- 
zontal. The nose is less long than the space between its basis and 
the chin : from the nostrils to the root it is almost straight, that is, 
there is no decided curve;, but if such curve were appreciable, it 
would be slightly concave, so as to give the tip a tendency to rise ; 
the lower portion is rather broad, and the extremity rounded. The 
eyes, which are slightly hollow, are exactly in the same line, and if 
they present any marked characteristic, it is that they are rather small 
in proportion to the head. The eyebrows, which are scanty, are 
nearly contiguous at the inner angle, whence they are directed 
obliquely outwards. The mouth, which is small with thin lips, is 
much nearer the nose than the chin. A singular characteristic 
which must be taken in connection with the above, and which is very 
general, consists in the absence of beard except upon the upper lip." 

It has been said that the Slavonians of the present day are the 

Fig. 36.— Wallach ian. 


old Scvthians mixed with the Sarmatians, but their origin is not so 
simpleas this. These people originally bore the name of Venetians 
or Servians. They occupied, at the commencement of the Christian 
era, the banks of the Danube and Hungary proper, whence they 
extended as far as the Dnieper and the Baltic. Their name of 
Servians is derived from a people mentioned by Ptolemy, under the 
name of Serboi, who dwelt in the regions around the Baltic (Pa/us- 
Meotis), and belonged to the Sarmartian nation. The Sarmartians 
advanced by degrees from the banks of the lower Don, which was 
their country, to the centre of Poland, where they mixed with the 
Venedians. The Sarmatians were allied to the Scvthians of Europe, 
who were an Indo-European nation, considered by Diodorus of Sicily, 
and Pliny, to have come originally from Media. 

It will be seen that the rather complicated pedigree of the 
Slavonians is connected with gradual displacements of Asiatic popu- 
lations. This, then, explains the fact that they possess the Caucasian 
type in a remarkable degree of purity, but altered by the admixture . 
of Mongolian blood. 

A certain love of separatism, and a tendency to rebel under the 
yoke of -authority, have been the misfortune of these people. At an 
early period they separated into rival nationalities, possessing but 
little capacity for self-government. Anarchy was their political con- 
dition, and to this must be attributed the misfortunes of Poland and 
Hungary, nations which, at the present day, are almost effaced from 
the map of Europe. 

The Slavonians occupy a large portion of Eastern Europe ; 
formerly they had advanced as far as the centre of Germany. The 
descendants of the German Slavonians are found in the Venedians of 
Lusatia, the Tchecks or inhabitants of Bohemia, and the inhabitants 
of Carinthia and Carniola. The purest type of the Slavonian race is 
to be found in the Servians, inhabitants of Servia, Herzegovina, and 
Hungarian Slavonia. The Bosniaks and Montenegriners are also 
Slavonians. They formerly sent to Croatia colonists under the name 
of Uscoks (emigrants). 

The Croats are Slavonians, who descended about the ninth cen- 
tury from the region of the Carpathians in Illyria, and who absorbed 
the previous original Pannonian and Dalmatian population. 

A branch quite distinct from this great race, and which might 
be considered as forming a separate stock, is represented by the 
Lithuanians, a people whose mild and indolent nature would seem to 
imply a mixture at some remote period with Finn, or, perhaps also, 
with Gothic blood. 


Russia is occupied at the present day by a Slavonian race mixed 
with the Scandinavians and the primitive inhabitants of the soil. 
The Slavonians who occupied Poland spread from the banks of the 
Dnieper to the foot of the Oural mountains, while the immigration of 
the Varegians, a Scandinavian people, brought a northern influence 
into this country. These Varegians absorbed the Slavonians whom 
they found in this country, and the Tchoudans who had summoned 
them. Under this twofold action arose the Russian nation, which 
is mentioned by Greek writers for the first time in 839, and the 
elements of which were subsequently modified in various respects by 
the infusion of Turkish and Mongolian blood. Russia took its name 
from the country situate around Upsal, which was the native district ot 
the Scandinavian emigrants (Rios-Lagen, the Ruotsimaa of the Finns). 

The population of Russia Major appears to be chiefly composed 
of a Finnish-Slavonic race. Among the inhabitants of Russia Minor 
(Cossacks of the Ukraine), the Polish element predominates. Among 
these Russians we shall find the stock of those who established 
themselves farther north in Russia Major, the population of which 
eventually absorbed them. The Bielo-Russians, or inhabitants ot 
White Russia, who occupy the greater portion of the provinces of 
Mohilew, Minsk, Witepsk, Grodno, and Wilna, constitute a race 
intermediate between the Russians and the Poles. 

The latter first appear in history with the dynasty of the Piasts, 
about 860. The Slovachians, who extend to the north-west of 
Hungary as far as Austrian Galicia, belong, as well as the Tchecks, 
to this same Polish branch. The Ruthenians, settled to the north 
of Transylvania, proceeded from the mixture of the first Slavonians 
established in this country with the Poles, who emigrated in the 
twelfth century from Galicia or Red Russia. 

Such is the vast collection of populations united under the name 
of the Slavonian family. 

It is difficult to analyse the habits of a race which, for centuries, 
has been divided between oppression and slavery. We shall, how- 
ever, endeavour to do so, and shall commence with the Northern 

The Northern Slavonian is, in general, gentle and patient. His 
sweet-toned language caresses the ear and the mind with expressions 
full of tenderness. He treats his wife and children with the greatest 
kindness. Like the Arab, he loves a life of wandering and adven- 
ture beneath the open sky, and, like the Arab, he can bear the 
greatest fatigue. On horseback he crosses plains covered with snow, 

F'S- 37.— Lady of Bucharest. 



Fig. 38.— Wallachian Woman. 

as the Arab crosses the burning sands of the desert Music has a 
very moving effect on the Slavonian. It forms a means of translating 
his tenderness and his melancholy; it responds to the vague and 
cloudy impressions, to the yearnings of his swelling heart. The 
Slavonian peasants cultivate the voice, and men, rough and coarse in 



Fig' 39- — Noble Bosniak Mussulman. 

many other respects, compose melodies full of sentiment. The 
auditors press around the singer, like the shepherds of ancient 
Arcadia, and tears of emotion and pleasure are seen rolling down 
the unkempt beards of these poor Danubians. In Fig. 39 is repre- 
sented a noble Bosniak Mussulman. 

Fig. 40. — Russian Sentinel, Riga. 


The Slavonians are less sensible to linear than to musical 
harmony. Thus it is that Russian architecture can do no more 
than imitate the monuments of France and Italy. On the other 
hand, the taste for colour attains with them a considerable develop- 
ment, a fact which is evidenced by the colours of their materials 
and furniture, and the decoration of their apartments. The sense of 
ornament is to be met with in the lowest villages of Russia, and the 
peasant who constructs his house with the rough-hewn trunks of 
trees does not omit to paint and carve his door, window, and 

This explains how the serf, when taken from his plough, is able, 
after a very short apprenticeship, to reproduce the delicate and 
artistic work of the Parisian jeweller. 

We see, therefore, that the artistic aptitudes of the Slavonian are 
well developed, and that this race, in order to arrive at excellence in 
art, only requires the conditions of political liberty and individual 

From a moral aspect, the Northern Slavonian obeys, above all, 
the inclination of his heart, rather than of his reason. Nor must the 
Russian be looked to for personal initiative, or philosophical or social 
innovations. He does not possess the instinct of liberty, but he has, 
in a high degree, sympathy, collective action, and the equalising 
tendencies which are its consequences. 

This sentimental supremacy is manifested in the orthodox religion 
which prevails in Russia, which imposes with authority its decisions, 
and the precepts of which are addressed less to the reason than to 
blind faith. 

By referring to this feeling of sympathy, we are enabled to furnish 
an explanation of the facility with which an immense population, 
with bad police arrangements, bad administration, and without good 
means of communication, acts collectively, accepting the same faith, 
and obeying the same law. The minds of all in Russia seem to obey 
one single will and inspiration. 

The Slavonian republics flourished from the sixth to the seventh 
century, during which time these people were happy, wealthy, and 
tranquil. Art and science flourished there under the shelter of 
municipal liberty. But, although well formed for peace, they did not 
possess the element of centralisation which was necessary to enable 
them to withstand foreign aggression. They at last became a prey 
to the Mongolians and Germans, who brought with them a feudal 
form of government, and banished all prosperity by destroying the 
democratic element of equality. The inhabitants of Novgorod were 



reduced to an actual state of slavery, and Poland, devoted to 
deplorable political institutions, became from that moment a prey 
to the anarchy which was to bring about its fall. 

Russia took its origin from the submission of the Slavonian 
populations ot the north to the despotic centralisation so powerfully 
organised by Peter the Great and his successors. 

The Slavonians of the south — that is, the inhabitants of Slavonia, 
Servia, Bulgaria, Carniola, &c. — differ sensibly from those of the 
north. A dry and mountainous country, rilled, nevertheless, with 
sweet odours, a burning sun, a clear sky, and the various products of 
the soil, have rendered the race of Southern Slavonians dark, wiry, 
active, warlike, and chivalrous. Few men are stronger, physically 
or morally, than the Slavonians of the Ottoman Empire. 

The deplorable Turkish administration has been unable to change 
the precious qualifications of this people. Though continually beaten 
down with the sword, they always rise again ; the least hope of inde 
pendence nerves their hearts. The hospitality of the Southern 
Slavonians, their language brimming with poetry, and their national 
songs, all impart to them a fine and beautiful character. It may be 
safely affirmed that a brilliant civilisation will arise among these 
people as soon as they are released from the Turkish yoke. 

We will now shortly consider the principal populations whom we 
have classed under the Slavonian family. 

Russians. — The Russians form the most important branch of this 
family. They may be subdivided into Russians, properly so called, 
Rousniaks, and Cossacks. 

The Russians, properly so called, inhabit, almost exclusively, the 
central portion of Russia, and are, moreover, disseminated through- 
out all the rest of the Russian Empire, the immense extent of which 
is well known. In the Asiatic and American portions of this vast 
empire they form not the majority, but the ruling section of the 

Figs. 42 and 43 (pp. 133 and 134) will convey an idea of the 
Russian physiognomy in the capital of the empire, St. Petersburg. 
Fig. 42 represents the dress of the townspeople, and the sledge which 
takes the place of the carriage during the long winters of this latitude ; 
Fig. 43 represents the interior of an inn. 

In Russian, the term isba is applied to the dwellings of the 
peasantry, which are almost always constructed of wood. A Russian 
village usually consists of only one street, lined with isbas, more or 
less ornamented, according to the taste or fortune of the proprietor. 

Fig. 41. — Russian Devotees. Riga. 

/SB AS. 


Fig. 42. — Traffic in St. Petersburg. 

The houses are almost always similar. Figure 44 (p 135) shows the 
interior of an isba. 

In these houses everything is made of wood, except that portion 
which surrounds a gigantic stove kept alight during the whole 



winter. The furniture consists of forms placed along the walls, and 
which serve as beds for the whole family, who in winter, however, 
sleep upon the stove. 

Fig. 43. — A Russian Tavern. 

To the ceiling are suspended the provisions and candles. In- 
struments of labour, cooking utensils, and domestic animals mingle, 
within the isba, in picturesque disorder. 



Fig. 44. — Interior of an Isba. 

The Russian peasant is intelligent, brave, hospitable, affable, 
and benevolent ; but he is wanting in cleanliness, and indulges to 
excess in malt spirit. He wears a shirt of cotton stuff, usually 
red, falling over capacious trousers, which are tucked into heavy 



His outer clothing consists of the touloupa, formed of a sheep's 
skin with the wool on, and worn with this next the body. His 
low-crowned hat has a broad turned-up rim. The hat worn by 

Fig. 45.— Livonian Peasants. 

peasants in the neighbourhood of Moscow is pointed, and almost 
without a rim. 

The women wear boots like the men : they also wear the touloupa, 
with a shawl and kerchief over the head and shoulders. It is only 
on fete days that this wretched costume gives place to aprons and 



shawls, of bright colour, and even embroidered in gold and silver. 
The head-dresses are elegant, and vary in the different provinces. 

The pleasures of a Russian peasant are always of a serious 
character. The quick and sparkling expansion and gaiety ot 
southern populations are unknown to the inhabitants of these 

frozen regions. 

Fig. 45 represents two Livonian peasants. 

Fig. 46. — Tartar of Kasak. 

M. d'Hearyet, who has travelled in the Russian provinces of the 
Baltic, informs us that at Riga the houses are comfortable and well- 
appointed ; that immense stoves preserve a temperature of 68° or 
more in vast apartments, guarded from without by double windows 
and double doors; that persons leaving the house envelop themselves 
in a fur robe which leaves no form distinguishable, so that it is 
difficult to say whether the individual in question is a man or woman; 
that at night the bed is small, low, furnished with one or two leathern 
mattresses and some sheets a little larger than napkins. They live in 
a hot-house atmosphere, the air of which is not often enough 

i 3 8 


renewed. In Fig. 40 (p. 127) is represented a Russian sentinel at 
Riga, and in Fig. 41 (p. 131) we have a group of Russian devotees at 

Ri s a - 

The Cossacks form in Russia rather a military caste than a distinct 
people. They seem to be descended from the Rousniaks mixed with 
other people, chiefly Circassians. They frequently have longer faces, 

'II '' 

Fig. 47.— Tartar of the Caucasus. 

more prominent noses, and are of greater height, than the Russians 
properly so called. Their principal settlement is upon the banks of 
the lower portion of the Don. They, however, rarely possess a fixed 
residence, since the Cossacks, spread throughout the entire Russian 
Empire, act as. light cavalry and border troops. 

Figures 47 and 48 represent different types, taken from nature, of 
Cossacks who live in the Caucasus, along the frontiers which bound 
the southern portion of the Russian possessions ; and Fig. 46 repre- 
sents a Tartar of Kasak. 



Finns. — The Finns form small scattered populations which extend 
from the Baltic Sea to the east of the Obi. The Finns are regarded 

Fig. 48.— Tartar of the Caucasus. 

as the remains of people once far more numerous, who have oeen 
conquered, repressed, carried off, or driven back by Slavonians, Turks, 
and Mongolians. They lead the life of hunters and husbandmen, 
rather than that of warriors and nomads. Reddish, or frequently red 


hair, a scanty beard, a complexion well weather-beaten, bluish or grey 
eyes, sunken cheeks, prominent cheek-bones, a large occiput, and an 
angular frame possessing less beauty than that of the Europeans or 
Arameans, have been regarded as the original characteristics of the 
Finns, but in a large number of these people these characteristics 
are more or less modified. In Fig. 49, on the next page, are de- 
lineated the features of a Russian North-Sea pilot. Among them 
are distinguished the Ostiaks, the Vogouls, the Funis of Siberia, the 
Finns of Eastern Russia, and the Finns of the Baltic. 

The Finns of Siberia form two groups ; one in the south, the 
other in the north. 

The former is composed of certain people known under the names 
of the Teleouts, Sagais, and Kachintz, whose language bears some 
general affinity to Turkish dialects. These give themselves up to 
hunting, fishing, and agriculture, and are subject to the Russian 

The northern group is formed of two people, the Ostiaks and the 
Vogouls, who have retained Finnish dialects. 

The Vogouls form only a very insignificant population dwelling east 
of the Oural, and have undergone such mixture with the Turks and 
Mongolians as to have adopted to a great extent their characteristics. 

The Ostiaks who dwell upon the banks of the Obi appear to have 
preserved in much greater perfection the characteristics of the Finns. 
They are a people devoted to hunting and fishing, with red hair, 
very uncivilised, and partly idolatrous. 

Madame Eva Felinska, during an exile in Siberia, inspected, 
as far as possible, the Ostiak huts. These habitations were so foul, 
and gave forth such putrid miasmas, that, notwithstanding her 
curiosity, this lady was unable to remain in them more than a 

The Ostiaks cover their skins with a layer of rancid fat, over 
which they wear a reindeer skin. They eat uncooked fish or game, 
this being their ordinary food. But from time to time they go with 
large buckets of bark to Berezer, where they collect, and devour 
as delicacies, the refuse of the kitchens. Fig. 50 (p. 143) represents 
an Ostiak hut. 

The Finns of Eastern Russia comprise the Baskirs, the Teptiars, 
and the Metscheriaks of the Southern Oural : three small peoples who 
speak Turkish dialects mingled with Finnish words, and who exist 
in very much the same way. The Baskirs are the most numerous ; 
they are engaged in rearing horses and bees. Like the Cossacks, 
they furnish bodies of cavalry to the Russian army. 

*"'K- 49- — Russian North-Sea Pilot. 



The Finns of the Volga comprise the Tchouvachians, Tchere- 
missians, and Moadueinites, who likewise speak dialects interspersed 
with Turkish words : a short time since they turned their attention 
to husbandry. 

Fig. 50.— Ostiak Hut. 

Certain populations scattered through the governments of Perm, 
Vologda, Orenburg, and Viatka are the remains of a people of some 
consideration, formerly independent, civilised, and commercial, whom 
the Russians subdued, and to a large extent absorbed : these are the 
Permian s. 

The Finns of the Baltic, or Finns, properly so called, have been 


long under the rule of Teutonic nations, and have generally pre- 
served the characteristics of the family we have described above. 
Among them are distinguished the Livonians, Esthonians, Ischorians, 
Kyrials, Y/nes, or Finlanders, and Quaines, who are respectively the 
remains of the ancient inhabitants of Livonia, Esthonia, Ineria, 
Finland, and Carelia, where they are now mixed with the' Slavonians 
and Teutons. During the last century the Quaines pushed forward 
to the extremity of Norwegian Lapland, of which they at present form 
the principal population. In Fig. 51 are represented a Tsigane of 
Voakovar, and farther on, in Fig. 57, at page 157, a Tsigane prisoner. 

Bulgarians, Servians, and Bosniaks, or inhabitants of Flavinia. — 
In order to describe these, we need do no more than refer to the 
general facts which have been stated above with reference to the 
Southern Slavonians. We shall merely borrow a few descriptions and 
illustrations from the work of M. George Perrot, a French writer, 
" Vcyage chez les Slaves du Sud," published in 1870, and well known 
on account of the excellent history it contains of his travels in Asia 

M. George Perrot travelled through Slavoni \, Croatia, Bosnia, and 
the strip of territory recently cleared to serve as a frontier to the Mus- 
sulman possessions, and which bears the name of Military Confines. 

M. George Perrot first of all gives us some types of the in- 
habitants of Slavonia, which we shall reproduce here. Fig. 52 (p. 149) 
represents a Slavonian peasant, and Fig. 53 (p. 151) a peasant from 
the neighbourhood of Essek, a town of Slavonia. 

While halting at the borough of Vouka, situated a few leagues 
from Essek, M. George Perrot thus describes the peasants of these 
parts : — 

" The majority ot the men around us have hair which is blond, 
or of different shades of chestnut. Although much burnt by the sun, 
they are not generally so dark as the Magyars. Many of the 
women, who are tall and slender, are really beautiful. Their eyes 
especially, which are bright and sparkling, and sometimes blue, 
though more frequently of a dark grey, are charming. The lower 
portion of their face is less agreeable ; the chin is usually prominent, 
and the lips are rather thick. 

"Their costume recalls that met with in the East. The men 
wear a slouch hat of black felt with the edges turned up, a linen 
shirt, and full trousers down to the ankle ; this in hot weather, when 
they are in working order, forms the whole dress. One or two 
loungers, who joined us, were more completely dressed than this. 

They wore large boots of thick leather, and over the shirt a 

Fig. 51. — Tsigane of Voakovar. 


waistcoat of blue cloth, adorned in front, with white metal buttons, 
and behind with embroidery in yellow or white. On another occa- 
sion, when we were on the boat, we saw some men who, in addition 
to this, wore over the waistcoat a short cape or half-cloak, which did 
not fall lower than the waist, and of which, as a rule, the sleeves 
were allowed to hang loose. In winter, they add to these warm 
robes of sheepskin, or large mantles, which put me in mind of the 
rough overcoats worn by our wagoners. 

" As to the women, they make me think of the Albanians of 
Attica. This fine September afternoon, they are wearing a long 
chemise, embroidered with eyelet holes and coloured patterns ; this 
chemise, which leaves the neck very open, would reach to the 
ground, but in order to admit of freer movement in the fields or at 
home, it is hitched up, and supported by a coloured girdle, wound 
two or three times round the body ; being thus held up, the chemise 
forms elegant and symmetrical folds, falling in -front as low as the 
ankle, while behind it extends to about half way down the calf of 
the leg. Over the head is thrown, in various fashions, a kerchief, 
which is usually white, but which on festive occasions is embroidered 
with silver and gold ; the ends of this fall down the back, or over the 
bosom, as may suit the taste of the wearer. When the best dress is 
donned, a cloth apron, the colour and pattern of which bear a 
resemblance to the carpets which I have met with in Servia and 
Bosnia, hangs down to the knees. Over the chemise is worn a 
species of waistcoat without sleeves, and ornamented with gold or 
silver embroidery. In winter, they guard against the cold by wearing 
over all a thick overcoat of sheepskin. All the garments worn by 
the women are worked by their own hands and busy fingers, during 
the long winter evenings." 

M. George Perrot remained for rather a long period in the 
provinces now called the Military Confines or Frontiers, and he 
describes the miserable state in which the Slavonian peasantry exist 
there, where they are obliged to live side by side with wild hordes of 
Mussulman soldiers or pandours. 

Fig. 54 (p. 152) shows peasants of these districts returning 
from pasture. 

Fig- 55 (p- 153) is given by the author as a type of the Slavonian 
women who inhabit the Military frontiers. 

Let us quote a few more of this traveller's impressions : — 

" What struck me in all the villages of the Confines through which 
I passed were the guard-stations, before which loitered, or slept beside 
their guns, suspended on the wall, five or six Granzcr. In summer 


they wear merely their trousers and shirt of coarse white cloth, and 
sometimes a sort of brown jacket with red facings, which they also 
wear for field work. In winter they are seen enveloped in their large 
hooded cloaks of red cloth ; and, thus equipped and armed, guard 
their flocks on the moors. The state furnishes them, for exercise and 
service, with guns similar to those used by regiments of the line ; but 
when not on duty many of them prefer long guns of Albanian 
manufacture or shape, with swallow-tailed stocks. These guns are 
transmitted from father to son for several generations. Besides these, 
they wear in their girdles one or two pistols, and a kind of dagger 
with a bone handle inlaid with coral or glass. In this guise they have 
rather the appearance of Bosniak bachibozouks, than of civilised 
subjects of His Majesty Francis Joseph, constitutional Emperor of 
Austria and King of Hungary. Their uniform, consisting of a blue 
trouser fitting close to the leg, and a vest of black or white wool, is 
only produced on field days or in war. 

" But what is it that these sentinels are guarding ? This is just 
what I have never been able to understand. No enemy, from 
Belgrade to Sissek, was threatening, and these villages are exposed 
to no more disorder than those of the neighbouring provinces, where 
they dispense with all this armed exhibition. This, therefore, is 
another of the useless and erroneous consequences of the military 
regime. Here are hands taken day after day from their labour in the 
fields, and with no greater advantage than that of acquiring the habits 
of idleness and drunkenness, usually contracted during the period of 
barrack-room inactivity." 

In Fig. 56 (p. 156) we represent one of the military stations of the 
Confines, with the guards belonging to it, called Granzers. 

" All those who have lived for some time among the Granzers 
have been struck with their indolent apathy, their careless and con- 
tinued idleness. For whose sake should they exhaust themselves 
with work ? Under the rules of their community, their wives and 
children are almost beyond want. As regards themselves, to-morrow 
they may be torn from their orchards and fields, to encounter death in 
Italy, or on some other frontier ; would it not be madness to expose 
themselves to privation and fatigue in view of a future upon which 
they have no means of reckoning ? Besides this, does their property, 
which they can neither render as valuable as they wish, nor sell or 
bequeath as they may think proper, belong to them sufficiently to give 
them any pleasure or profit in its improvement ? They have maxims 
which accurately indicate their character : ' Go late to the field and 
return early, so as to avoid the dew ; if God does not aid, what is 

Fig. 52.— Slavonian Peasant. 



Fig- 53- — A Peasant of Essek. 

the use of working ? ' Being accustomed to rely only, as ihey say, 
'upon God and the Emperor,' they refuse to recognise the advantages 
to be gained from any modern invention, better tools, or more advanced 
methods of cultivation. ' Thus I found it, and thus I will leave it,' 



Fig. 54 — Herdsmen of the Military Confines. 

is a saying of which they often make use in speaking of their patri- 
monial domain. 

" The only thing which, in spite of all the shackles which enchain 
and benumb their limbs, would have been able to arouse their minds 

Fig- 55- - Woman of the Military Confines. 

B0SN1AKS. 155 

and impart to them some desire for progress, is instruction. But 
ignorance is profound in the Military Confines; the regimental schools 
that exist are very insufficient both in number and quality ; in certain 
districts, especially in Southern Croatia, the villages are so distant 
from one another, that the children who do not dwell in. the borough 
where the .school is are unable, without difficulty, to go there at any 
time. Besides, why should the government do much as regards 
instruction? It is clear that, if the people of the Confines were better 
taught, they would be less resigned to their hard lot. If it rested 
entirely with the government, the schoolmaster would be entirely 
banished from these parts. 

" Upon the banks of the Danube and of the Save, where the 
Confines abut upon the river, which is continually traversed by packet- 
boats, travellers, and merchandise, the people of the frontiers have 
nevertheless daily communication with the' inhabitants of the neigh- 
bouring provinces, and even with strangers. This contact somewhat 
opens their minds and suggests new ideas ; but it is chiefly in 
Southern Croatia, in the districts called Banal and Karlstadt, that 
the characteristic features of the Grdnzer are most frequent and 
striking. There commences, south-east of Karlstadt, what is termed 
the dry-frontier ; this is no longer a water-course, such as the Danube 
or Save, but a line purely conventional, forming the boundary between 
Austria and Turkey. 

"Surprises and hand to hand combats were recently matters of 
frequent occurrence upon this frontier, which is more difficult to define 
and to preserve. At the commencement of this century certain forts, 
and other places, such as Zettin, which the Turks assaulted in 1809 
and 18 13, were still the subject of dispute. Here, moreover, the 
frontier territory is no longer than from fifteen to twenty kilometres, 
but from five to six myriametres broad ; the people subject to the 
military regime here, therefore, form a more homogeneous and com- 
pact mass. Cases of armed brigandage and assassinations, which 
were very common in the whole of this country, are now becoming 
rarer ; but theft is the crime which requires most frequent punishment. 
The ancestors of the Granzers lived chiefly by plunder, and such 
habits are not removed in a day." 

M. George Perrot made a journey in Bosnia, down the course of 
the river Save. He stopped in a borough of this province, of which 
he speaks thus : — 

"After a visit to the Bosniak priest, we wandered about the town, 
where we made several small purchases with a view to smuggling. I 
replenished my pouch with Bosniak tobacco which is by no means 



so good as that of Macedonia. T purchased a rug such as are 
worked also by the women of Slavonia and the Military Confines : this 

Fig. 56.— Granzers and their Guard-house. 

is not, like the tissues of Persia and Anatolia, thick and soft, but a 
rather thin and drv quality of cloth." 

Here also, in designs and in combination of colour, are found the 
same innate taste, the same boldness which is met with usually in 

Fig. 57.— Tsigane Prisoner. 



Fig. 58. — Boshiak Peasant. 

Oriental workmanship. The Slavonian women, in Austria as in 
Turkey, would be no unworthy rivals of the Turcoman women, who, 
in the neighbourhood of Smyrna, and from the high meadow-lands 
of the Taurus down to the low deserts of Persia, execute, beneath 



Fig. 59. — Bosniak Peasant Woman. 

their black tents of goat or camel hair, those marvellous pieces 
of needlework, for which we pay so high a price. 

The inferiority of the products of this domestic industry irv Turkey 
in Europe, is attributable to the fact that here the women, being 


within comparatively easy distance of large markets, filled with 
European wares, are enabled to procure there wools suited to their 
wants, already dyed by industrial processes : but it will be understood 
that the colours thus obtained, which are produced with a view to 
cheapness and variety, are far from possessing the fresh and durable 
tints of those colours, few in number, always the same, and almost 
all obtained from the animal and vegetable worlds, the secret of 
which has been handed down in the bazaars of the East, and under 
the tents of the nomadic tribes, from the time when Nineveh, Babylon, 
Susa, Tyre, and Sidon, were at the height of their prosperity. 

" Our purchases at an end, we returned along the banks of the 
Save, and, while the ferry was attempting to pass a herd of bullocks, 
which had just been purchased in Bosnia, I amused myself by noting 
the picturesque mixture of costumes and types which the bank, on 
which were most of the market people, offered. 

" Here was a jobbing blacksmith, who had set up his shop in the 
open air, hammering and putting in order the pots which were 
brought to him ; or sharpening with his hammer the points of long 
iron clamps, used to connect the rafters of houses. His arrangements 
were most primitive. Two vertical posts supported a horizontal 
piece, upon which worked the lever, by means of which the bellows 
were set in motion. In front of the orifice by which the air escaped, 
a small anvil was fixed in the ground. Around the proprietor, seated 
on the ground, a number of tools were scattered. The long shirt 
and puffed-out trousers of the blacksmith appeared white by com- 
parison with his skin, although he had probably worn them for some 
weeks ; his chest and arms were bronze coloured. 

" A little further on, the most motley groups attracted and re- 
tained my notice. Here were Mussulmans, Bosniaks, Pandours 
guarding the market, their attitudes and costumes carrying me right 
away to the East, and recalling very old recollections. One of them 
wore a white turban, which displayed a mass of plaited hair falling 
down his neck ; he stood erect, his hand supporting the butt end of 
his gun, which rested on his shoulder. A tapestried mantle, adorned 
with long flocks of wool, which is peculiar to the frontiers of the two 
countries, was thrown over his shoulders. At his side was another 
Bosniak, who leant against a wall, clad in a long cloak of red wool ; 
his feet were shod with sandals of tanned leather. Here a rich land- 
owner of the neighbourhood, whose name I really forget, was causing 
his servants to remove the cattle he had not succeeded in selling : 
there peasants were remounting their horses, whose gay and pictu- 
resque harness I much admired." 

1 62 


Fig- 60. — Bosniak Merchant. 



Figs. 58 and 59 represent, according to M. George Perrot, a 
Bosniak peasant man and woman, and Fig. 60 a Bosniak merchant. 
The Magyars are the natives of Hungary. The chief population 

Fig 61. — Women of Pesth. 

of this country is composed of a people who came from Asia under 
the name of Magyars, and who were, it would seem, a tribe of the 
Huns. Hungary is believed to have been populated by some of the 
savage companions of Attila, the terrible king of the Huns, known as 
the " Scourge of God." 



The Magyars are distinct from other people in their language 
and costumes. 

They are of medium height, with black hair. Their character is 

Fig. 62. — Hungarians. 

warlike, and their state of civilisation is superior to that of the other 
branches of the Slavonian family. 

In his " Causeries Geographiques " (from Paris to Bucharest) 
M. Duruy has imparted to us his impressions on a journey to Pesth 
in 1 86 1. The population appeared to him superb. Fig. 61 represents 
some women of Pesth. 



Fig. 6^.— A Hungarian Gentleman. 

1 66 


The women were remarkable through their brightness and de- 
cided attractions. In dress, they do not differ much from the men. 
A chemise gathered in at the neck, with full sleeves richly embroi- 
dered, and slightly tightened at the wrists, which are covered with 

Fig. 64. — Hungarians. 

lace ruffles ; a jacket body, either red, black, or green, embroidered 
at the back with fringes and silver buttons, set off a slender and 
supple form. A light, very ample, but often rather short petticoat ; a 
silken or velvet scarf thrown over one shoulder a la hussarde; the 
national high-brimmed hat surmounted by a plume of feathers as 


head-dress; well-turned feet and ankles, in embroidered shoes, or 
sometimes in little spurred boots of red morocco, form the Hungarian 
costume, represented in Figs. 62, 63, and 64. 

The markets, which are held on the quays, have also peculiar 
features. You see there, says M. Duruy, groups which call to mind 
the savage hordes of Attila. M. Duruy almost believed he saw one 
of the companions of the " Scourge of God." This was apparently a 
kind of peasant : flat-nosed, round-eyed, with large projecting cheek- 
bones, and hanging mustachios. He was dark, and dressed in a vest 
of sheepskin, and breeches of coarse cloth, supported at the waist by 
a scarf falling over his heavily-shod and spurred boots. A large hat, 
with the edges turned up, covered his head, and beneath it hung two 
plaits of hair. The Magyar language is energetic, full of similes, and 
filled with guttural aspirations which seem derived from the Arabic, 
while certain soft and caressing intonations remind us of the Italian 
idiom. National feeling is brisk in the towns and throughout the 
country. In the latter it is kept alive by Bohemian songs, and by 
stories told by the heads of families during the long winter evenings. 

About the other races composing the Slavonian family, namely, 
the Croats, the Tchecks, the Lithuanians, and the Poles, we have 
nothing particular to remark. 

In general, what we have said at the commencement of this 
chapter applies to them with but little modification. 

The Greek Familv. 

The Greek family comprises the Greeks and the Albanians 
These races derive their origin from the ancient tribes known under 
the name of Pelasgians. The ancient Greeks founded many colonies 
on the shores of the Mediterranean. 

In the lourth century before Christ, led by Alexander, they sub- 
dued part of Asia, and carried their victorious arms into Egypt. But 
these conquests were ephemeral. The Greek empire was in its turn 
subjugated by other races, of whom the principal were the Romans, 
the Slavonians, and the Scythians. 

In the present day the Greeks compose but a scanty population, 
concentrated in the Morea, or scattered in the neighbouring districts. 
The majority of the people of this race who inhabit the Asiatic con- 
tinent have adopted even the language of their neighbours, and are 
merely reputed Greeks because they profess the Greek form of the 
Christian religion. 

The ancient Greeks, civilised by intercourse with Egyptian 


colonists, already afforded an example of advanced culture, at a time 
when the other European and Asiatic nations were still immersed in 

In spite of the misfortunes of a social decay destined to terminate 
in many centuries of subjection, the Greeks have preserved up to our 
own day the physical characteristics of their ancestors. Every one 
knows that the most beautiful development of the brow, the finest 
shape of the human head, is that we find traced in the sculpture of 
ancient Greece. It had been supposed that the magnificent heads 
with the noble outlines, admired in the statues of the Greeks, were 
not the exact reproduction of nature, and that some features had 
been exaggerated in the direction of ideal beauty. But, in our own 
day, the skulls of ancient Greeks have been found whose proportions 
and whose general outlines demonstrate that, among the artists of 
ancient Greece, sculpture did not surpass nature, but restricted its 
inspiration to types who actually lived. 

The Apollo Belvidere can therefore be considered as a model, 
but slightly idealised by art, of the general physiognomy of the 
ancient Greeks. In his "Travels in the Morea" M. Pouqueville 
gives a description of the physiognomy of the present Greeks, which 
enables us to judge of the surprising persistence of the most beautiful 
types, even in the midst of a social condition so deeply modified. 

"The inhabitants of the Morea," says M. Pouqueville, "are 
generally tall and well made. Their eyes are full of fire, their 
mouth is admirably well formed and full of the most beautiful teeth. 
The women of Sparta are fair, slender, and dignified in carriage. 
The women of Taygetus have the gait of Pallas . . . The 
Messenian girl is conspicuous for her plumpness ; she has regular 
features, large eyes, and long black hair; the damsel of Arcadia, 
hidden under her coarse woollen garments, scarcely allows the 
regularity of her figure to be perceived." 

Here, besides, are the characteristics displayed in their sculpture, 
and which, according to what we have said, may really be considered 
those of the Greek type. 

A high forehead, rather a wide distance between the eyes, with 
the slightest possible depression at the top of the nose ; this last 
straight or slightly aquiline ; large eyes, opening widely and sur- 
mounted by a scarcely arched eyebrow ; a short upper lip, a small or 
medium-sized mouth delicately cut; and a prominent and well- 
rounded chin. 

Fig. 65 represents the Greeks of Athens; Fig. 66 a Greek family 
*nd the interior of a house at Athens. 



Fig. 65.— Greeks of Athens. 

To give an idea of modern Greek manners and types, we shall 
quote from an interesting work by M. Prout, entitled " Journey 


to Athens," published in " Le Tour du Monde" in 1862. Let 
us first listen to this traveller speaking to us of the inhabitants of 
Greece : — 

" If Fallmeseyer is to be believed, there are no more Greeks in 
Greece, only Slavonians ; it is beyond doubt that the inhabitants of 
Thrace and of Macedonia cannot boast so immaculate an origin as 
the mountaineers of Olympus or of Magnus; but it is equally certain 
that from Cape Malea to the Black Sea, and from Smyrna to Corfu, 
there are ten million individuals who speak Greek, mixed up with a 
population speaking Slavonic, and that in the plains of Athens we 
easily distinguish the Albanian with the narrow temples and the 
prominent nose, from the Greek with the wide forehead and the 
high cheek-bones, although their dress is exactly the same. To 
converse for an hour with the latter is sufficient to satisfy all doubt 
as to the authenticity of his origin. 

" His qualities of mind have remained the same as in the days of 
Homer : he has still the same aptitude for thorough and rapid 
comprehension, the same facility of graceful and metaphorical 
expression. These qualities give to the Greeks so great a superiority 
over the other races of the East, that they are liked by none of them. 
The Turks reproach them with being suspicious and dissimulating, 
because they have opposed craft to force ; the Levantines accuse 
them of dishonesty in commercial transactions, because they them- 
selves have taken lessons of them, and have often surpassed their 

" There is no greater bond of sympathy between them and the 
other nations on the shores of the Mediterranean. Serious and 
deliberate in disposition, the tone of their mind is foreign alike to- 
raillery and to the rapidity of dramatic intensity. Their grief pursues 
a peaceful and elegiac course ; it is with them a latent sorrow, and 
not a sharp crisis leading to the ecstacies of madness. Whilst 
Cupid's weapons, in Naples or in Venice, for instance, inflict terrible 
wounds, the arrows of the Athenian god neither keep his victims from 
repose nor from the pursuit of business. The Greeks have preserved 
their tragic intonation, and are the true children of that wild Orestes 
who died at more than eighty years of age from the effects of an 
accident. In their minds, action always takes its course with deli- 
beration and gravity, not without a certain amount of colouring, but 
never widely straying from reality ; interrogating and holding council 
with itself, and taking time for reflection before making its decision. 

" It is astonishing to meet with these analytical and foreseeing 
tendencies, even among the most ignorant. Above all nations they 

Fig. 66. — A Greek Household. 


best understand the art of listening, and whilst saying a great deal are 
the smallest talkers in the world. 

" Everybody is familiar with the Greek dress : the short pelisse, 
the skirt, which goes by the name of fystan, the small fez with its 
tufted tassel falling on the nape of the neck of the wearer, and the 
embroidered gaiter fitting tight to the leg. The sailors, instead of 
the fystan, wear a very wide pair of trousers, and stockings instead 
of gaiters. In winter the talagani, a long close-fitting cloak of lamb- 
skin, is added to the rest of the dress. The Greeks, generally 
speaking, tall slender men of regular features, wear this national 
costume in a very dashing manner. Young Greece carries its 
dandyism a little to extremes by over-pinching its waist and exag- 
gerating the width of its skirts. During the winter of 1858 it was the 
fashion to wear the entire beard. I trust that this fancy, which gave 
them the appearance of sappers in petticoats, has disappeared ; the 
finely-trimmed mustachios, revealing the lips, are better suited to 
their delicately-chiselled features as well as to their refined and 
fanciful style of dress. But, alas ! Athens every day sees the pure 
gold of its ancient costume bartered for the dross of modern broad- 
cloth fresh from the shelves of the tailor's shop. Athens now boasts 
seventy tailors and fifty shoemakers who make in the French style, 
whilst only six of the former and three of the latter still work in the 
spirit of their national traditions. There are sixty-two shops for the 
sale of female attire, but only three or four ladies are to be seen still 
faithful to their, national dress (I except the maids of honour to the 
Queen, who wear it by order), and even in their case one-half has 
disappeared. The corsage cut down upon the neck and the taktikios 
(cap) of Smyrna still remain ; but the long narrow skirt has allowed 
itself to become swollen by the insinuating arts of conspiring 
crinoline. The style of dress in the islands is more common-place, 
but the great quantity of garments worn one over the other remind 
one of the childish simplicity of the outlines of our own peasant 
women. I much prefer, in spite of its stiffness, the long Albanian 
robe worn by the women of the interior. 

"It is particularly at Agora that specimens of all the peasantry of 
the neighbourhood may be seen walking about in their picturesque 
costumes. Fig. 67 represents the interior of the Agora at Athens. 

" This Agora is not the ancient Agora of Ceramica ; it is a 
market-place, composed of worm-eaten sheds roofed in with ragged 
cloths, in which are exhibited produce of all sorts, from the bursting 
figs of Asia Minor to the patent preparations of Parisian perfumers. 

"On each side of this market-place stands a spectre of 


antiquity, the tower of the Winds, or clepsydrum of Andronicus, an 
octagonal monument engraved with passably mediocre figures, and 
the portico of Minerva Archigetis. Archaeologists, after noticing the 
first, hasten across the spacious vestibule to visit the second, but 
those who are indifferent alike to the criticisms of Martius and of 
Leake prefer to pause on the threshold of the market, particularly in 
the early morning, when the peasantry, 

' Seated in their chariots of Homeric pattern, 
Like the ancient Isis on the basso-relievos of Egina,' 

pour in from the highways from Thebes and Marathon. I have said 
that the men were distinguished for regular symmetry of countenance ; 
but the peasant women are simply ugly. Of middle height, robust, 
and sunburnt, they have no feminine attributes, in the meaning we 
give to the word. In commercial circles and among the Phananots, 
who come principally from Asia, where the race has remained pure, 
there are, on the contrary, many really beautiful women to be seen. 
Oriental languor gives them a charm unknown in our country ; but 
they walk badly, and are wanting in that elegance of style which 
French women possess in such a high degree. 

"They are rarely to be seen walking out; they seldom leave their 
houses, where they busy themselves with domestic occupations, and 
employ their leisure in reading romances, principally translated from 
the French. 

" Although class distinctions are gradually disappearing, there are 
still in Athens two distinct sets of society — the Phanariot, and the 
Greek, properly so called ; the first already quite Europeanised, the 
second on the high road to become so. The Phanariot ladies are 
well educated and speak French admirably. The others, whose 
information is extremely limited, have an instinctive good sense and 
a tact never at fault, by no means one of the least subjects of surprise 
to foreigners. 

"... I have heard it said that the price of the honesty of 
an English trader was a hundred pounds sterling, and that that of his 
Greek brother was less. Both are absurd statements. It is impos- 
sible to draw a hard and fast line in such matters; opportunity makes 
the thief. Strangers are everywhere the natural prey of the sharper, 
but not more so at Athens than in any other part of the world. The 
only difference is that in that city they are more easily taken in, on 
account of the complication of the currency, this compl. cation being 
another instance of Bavarian error. Rothschild made an offer to the 
council ol regency to effect a loan payable in coin similar to that 




ATHENS. 177 

struck at the French mint. The council decided that it was more 
ingenious, and above all more archaic, to shut their eyes to all known 
standards, and to re-introduce the drachma with its ancient weight. 
These badly-executed coins were exported in ingots, and hopeless 
calculations about the smallest transaction are the result ; calculations 
in which the Austrian coins, ugly and disagreeable to the touch, play 
the principal part, to be finally parted with, with a sense of relief to 
the trader, to whatever nation he may happen to belong. 

"To have done with the subject of Greek probity, which has 
been so much called into question. In the country the inhabitants 
are avaricious because they are poor, but they are honest. Travellers 
who jump to a conclusion from their experience of innkeepers, 
porters, cabmen, &c, come to a wrong decision. These classes are 
everywhere the same. In Athens alone, a remarkable self-possession, 
with a dignified manner, is found, instead of the familiar impudence 
of Italian facchini, or the deceitful suavity of German attendants. 
It is worthy of remark that one is never assailed in the streets with 
the importunity of beggars. These are few in number, for with the 
Greeks it is a sacred family duty to assist its impoverished members, 
and the few that do beg shrink from publicity. The streets of 
Athens have a peculiar physiognomy. The stranger notices there 
neither the noisy disturbance of the highways of Naples nor the 
methodical activity of those of London. They are rather to be 
compared with those of some of the provincial towns of France, where 
the leisured citizens stroll about, and retail to one another the gossip 
of the hour, remaining apparently permanent fixtures of the pave- 
ment. Athens has, on the whole, the appearance of a city where 
time dies hard ; the male population encamp themselves during the 
day in the sunshine of the streets ; the shopkeepers while away the 
hours, one foot within and the other without their door-sill; and their 
customers intermingle the tedious arithmetic of barter with familiar 
conversation, or button-hole the passer to gossip about the mutual 
acquaintance that has just passed. Alexander's establishment, 
amongst others, is one of the principal head-quarters of news. 

" Linger for an hour in front of the cafe of Beautiful Greece, 
where Hermes Street and Eolus Street intersect one another, you 
will see the whole Athenian world pass before you ; the nearest 
lounger will tell you their names. Here comes the politician who is 
still in the market, there goes the statesman who has already obtained 
his price. That is Canaris, whose reputation is European, although 
his person is so puny : there are Chriesis, Me'taxas, Mavrocordato, 
Rangabe, Miaouli, the celebrities of yesterday and to-day. This 


man, treading as gingerly as if he stepped upon eggs, and throwing 
uneasy glances around him, is a Chiotian. As he passes, your 
cicerone scowls, for the Chiotians are not exactly beloved. Popular 
tradition declares that the Island of Scios was formerly settled by 
Jews, but this is erroneous, although the Chiotians have a Jewish 
appearance, and, like the children of Israel, are very successful in 
banking and commerce. Commercial aptitude has always been, in 
ancient times as well as to-day, the basis of the national character ot 
the Chiotian. 'Two reasons,' says M. Lacroix, 'explain this tendency. 
The position ot Scios, situated in the midst of the sea, between 
Europe and Asia, upon the great maritime highway ot ancient 
commerce, naturally disposed its inhabitants to become traders ; 
while the nature of their island, whose stony soil is little situated to 
agriculture, rendered such a means of livelihood in part a necessity 
to them.' 

" As the trader of Scios can be recognised by his appearance, so 
the Ionian islander can be distinguished by his speech. The torrent 
of his eloquence is heard towering above the voices of every group. 
I have a great admiration for the Ionians. I do not say that human 
perfection is to be found in these numerous islands, but wonderful 
natural qualities, in unison with the healthy civilisation bequeathed to 
them by the Italian republics, are to be seen there. It was but the 
other day that the ingenious combination of Mr. Gladstone gave 
Europe an idea of the dignity of their character, the extent of their 
patriotism, and the wisdom of their mind. To this Greek good- 
sense they add the fire of the Italian. Active, intelligent, good 
hearted, and honest in their dealings, they attract at once the 
sympathies of all. 

" This admixture of which the Athenian population is composed 
is a curious study. 

" On the Sunday everybody leaves the cross-roads in front of the 
Beautiful Greece to frequent the esplanade of Patissia (a corruption 
from Pachiscliah) ; the men stroll about talking together, and the 
women, abandoning their household gods for this day only, follow a 
few paces behind them. The crowd walks round and round a kiosk 
till a military band placed there has finished playing, and then goes 
home ; not into the house, however, but into the streets, for during 
the warm summer nights nearly everybody sleeps al jresco. These 
sleepers advertise their presence by a continual hum, which is a kind 
of internal monologue, an echo of the day's conversation, for the 
Greeks still remain the wittiest and the most eloquent chatterers in 
the world." 


Fig. 68 contains a representation of the Fete of the Temple of 
Jupiter at Athens. 

There are several magnificent buildings in Athens, erected in 
distant ages in honour of the gods, among which the finest is pro- 
bably the Temple of Thesus, situated to the north-west of the city, 
and the Temple of Jupiter Olympus (that which figures in our 
illustration), situated to the south. Many of the superb buildings 
that adorned ancient Athens have become mere ruins, but there are 
some which are still in a fair state of preservation, from which it 
is possible to obtain an idea as to their original grandeur. " The 
Temple of Jupiter," says a writer who seems to know his subject 
well, "of which sixteen grand Corinthian columns are still extant, to 
the south-east of the Acropolis, and near the right bank of the Ilissus, 
in size, splendour, and beauty, excelled all other Athenian structures. 
Immense sums of money were expended upon it from the time when 
it was commenced by Peisistratus, until it was completed by Hadrian, 
a period of 700 years. The building of it was frequently suspended, 
so that Philostratus calls it ' a struggle with time.' At the time the 
Persians sacked the city it was fortunately only beginning to be 
built, and so escaped destruction. Aristotle speaks of it as a work of 
despotic grandeur, and equal to the Pyramids of Egypt. The 
exterior was decorated by about 120 fixed columns, sixty-one feet in 
height, and more than six feet in diameter. It was 354 feet long, 
and 171 broad, and contained the celebrated statue of the Olympian 
Jupiter in ivory and gold, the work of Phidius." 

We place side by side with the Greeks the Albanians, whose 
language has some relation to Greek. Concentrated in the mountains 
of their country, they appear to be the lineal representatives of the 
ancient inhabitants of these districts. They are the descendants of 
the ancient Illyrians mixed up with the Greeks and the Slavonians. 
Restricting themselves almost exclusively to the profession of arms, 
they are physically, though not morally, the best soldiers in the 
Ottoman army. They number scarcely two millions, although Albania 
is of great extent, and contains several rather important towns. 

Albania, part of Turkey in Europe, bounded on the north by 
Montenegro, Bosnia, and Servia, on the east by Macedon and Thes- 
saly, on the south by the kingdom of Greece, on the west by the 
Adriatic and Ionian Seas, constitutes the pachaliks of Janina, Ilbessan, 
and Scutari. It possesses three seaports, Durazzo, Avlona, and 
Parga. The most important towns are Scutari, Akhissar, Berat, 
and Arta. 

Semi-barbarians, partaking more of the pirate and the brigand 


than of the cultivator and the labourer, the Albanians pass their 
lives in a state of petty warfare among themselves. 

They professed Christianity up to the fifteenth century, but after 
having under Scanderbeg gloriously resisted the Turkish invasion, they 
were forced to submit to the victorious Ottomans, who compelled the 
Albanians to embrace the religion of Mahomet. In some parts of 
Albania the Greek Church still survives. In the north, between the 
sea and the black Drin, the courageous tribe of the Mirdites practise 
the Roman Catholic religion and enjoy liberty. 

Fig. 69 (p. 183) represents the Albanian costume. 

Fig. 69. — Albanian Woman. 




Cuvier has thought fit to give the name of Aramean (derived from 
the ancient appellation of Syria) to the race of people who inhabit the 
south-west of Asia and the north of Africa. Since primeval historic 
times, the Aramaic race developed itself in the south-west of Asia and 
the north of Africa, and it has remained there up to our own day. 
It also extended its settlements to the south of Europe, where it 
became assimilated to the inhabitants of that part of the world. 

At a period when Europeans were immersed in the depths of 
ignorance, the Arameans successfully cultivated science and art. But 
later, whilst progress was making rapid strides amongst the Westerns, 
the Arameans on the contrary came to a halt ; so that the civilisation 
of these Asiatic races is still pretty much the same as it was two 
thousand years ago. 

Christianity sprang up amidst the Arameans, but it made few 
converts. Mahometanism and Buddhism attracted nearly the whole 
of this numerous race. 

Four leading divisions are recognised among the Arameans : 
the Libyans, the Semitics, the Persians, and the Georgians and 

The Libyan Family. 

The Libyan Family is composed of the Berbers and the 

The Berbers. — The Berbers are the race which from very ancient 
times inhabited the mountains of the Atlas chain, or wandered amidst 
the deserts of Sahara. The Berbers are split up into a great number 
ot tribes, of whom the four principal are the Kabyles, the Sheilas, the 
Touariks, and the Tibbous. 

The traveller in Kabylia is struck with admiration for its lofty 
mountains, the gentle and pleasing undulations of its p'ains, and 
its valleys interlaced with the windings of countless stre.ims. Its 
inhabitants are pastoral, agricultural, and laborious. The head- 


dress of their women is fashioned to suit their habit of carrying 
on their heads jars of great weight. They balance these by rigidly 
straightening their waists, round which they wind, some score of 
times, a girdle of coarse woollen cords. Their garment is simply 
a piece of woollen cloth fastened together by a couple of pins over 
the bosom. 

The Kabyles are not, like the real Arabs, nomadic. They remain, 
on the contrary, faithful to one spot. VVhilst the Arab inhabits a 
tent, removable at will, and in accordance with the requirements of 
his family, the Kabyle lives in a stone dwelling, and his homestead 
is a regular village. In truth, the Kabyle is not an Arab ; he is of 
African origin, a Berber, somewhat modified by the different races 
that have in turn settled on the African shores of the Mediterranean, 
but whose customs and physical characteristics have always remained 
the same. 

The Roman armies subdued the Kabyles dwelling on the 
Mediterranean coasts, and drove them into the mountains. The 
principal aim of the successive Roman governors in Africa was to 
drain the country of its resources to supply the insatiable require- 
ments of Rome, and the extravagant liberality continually lavished 
on its citizens by the emperors of this capital of the world. Rome 
thus accepted from Africa but slaves and labourers. Those of the 
conquered, who were unwilling to pass under the heavy yoke of the 
Roman governors, abandoned the plains and retired to the mountains, 
inaccessible retreats, whose ravines and forests offered innumerable 
obstacles to the cruelty of centurions and the rapacity of praetors. 
At a future period, led by enterprising chieftains, they sallied forth 
from these natural fortresses to assail and ultimately to definitively 
repulse the Roman power. Fig. 70 gives a view of a Moorish coffee- 
house at Sidi-Bow-Sadi, near Tunis. 

To give an idea of the Kabylia of to-day, and of its organisation, 
we shall quote a few details from " An Excursion to Great Kabylia," 
published in 1867, in the "Tour du Monde," from the pen of 
Commandant Duhousset, an officer in the French army. 

" In Kabylia," he says, " the household, composed of the members 
of one family, is termed kharouba; each kharouba forming part 01 
the village, or dehera, elects one of its members as a dkaman, to 
represent it at the municipal council, and to defend its interests ; in 
a word, to be responsible for it. 

" The different deheras are further united together under the 
name of arch. 

" In each village authority is administered by an aviin, elected by 








turns from each kharouba. It is the duty of this official to watch 
over the execution of the written laws, drawn up under the name of 
k/ia?wun,~ and which are merely the recital of the customs handed 
down from time immemorial in Kabylia. 

"The amin can pronounce no judgment, inflict no fine, without 
consulting the assembly (djemad) of his assistants or dhamans, always 
chosen from the notabilities of the village. This tribunal chooses a 
secretary {khodjd), entrusted with the duty of keeping a public register 
of its deliberations, and of carrying on all correspondence with the 
French authorities. The labours of the khodja are remunerated 
with perquisites of figs, olives, &c. 

" The supreme command of the tribe is delegated by the French 
to an amin-el-oumena, whose principal duty is the superintendence of 
his tribe in all matters concerning public order. He is not allowed 
to interfere in the internal policy of the villages, which govern them- 
selves, each according to its own interpretation of the khanoun. 

" The djemaa possesses a municipal fund, kept in the hands of an 
ouhil (manager). This fund is supplied by the fines inflicted by the 
municipal council and the native officials, and by the rates levied on 
marriages, births, and deaths. 

" Each village is divided into two factions, or soff, generally 
hereditary foes. It is easy to imagine the serious nature of the 
outrages on public tranquillity committed by these irreconcilable 
neighbours, when their mutual interests are at stake." 

The elections are a constant source of disturbance in the Kabyle 

The way in which these villages are laid out, their dwellings over- 
looking one another, makes these struggles very sanguinary ones. 
Some of the more lofty houses have crenelated parapets, the 
remainder are loopholed, and the djama (mosque) becomes, on 
account of the military importance of its upper storey, a regular 
fortress, assuring the victory of its fortunate possessors. 

Kabylia was conquered by the French in 1857. What most 
contributed to the submission of the Kabyles was the promise made 
to' them to respect their customs and their communal elections. This 
promise was kept, and the respect shown to their local usages helped 
not a little to consolidate the French conquest. 

The Kabyle villages, seen from a distance, look picturesque, but 
on mixing with their inhabitants and entering their houses, the charm 
vanishes. The question immediately suggests itself how it is possible 
for any human beings to dwell in the midst of such universal neglect, 
and of such hideous filth. 


"Every Kabyle," says M. Duhousset, "is revoltingly dirty : there 
are no baths to be found in the whole of Kabylia of the Djujina. 
The children receive no care. The result of this neglect is frequently 
ophthalmia, sometimes complete blindness ; they are also often 
subject to cutaneous diseases, or worse hereditary affections, which 
these mountaineers hand down from generation to generation, con- 
tinuing to exist in spite ot them . . . the women, good mothers 
who suckle their children up to three or four years of age . . . 
the men, industrious workmen and good agriculturists." 

The Kabyles are independent in disposition, observant by nature, 
and fond of labour: but they are inclined to be avaricious, revengeful, 
and quarrelsome. Some of their villages, as we have shown, are 
divided into two hostile camps, and in many cases, part of the 
communal land is set apart for warlike encounters, where all differences 
are settled by the yataghan and the matchlock. Divorce is one of 
the sores of Kabyle society. 

It is well known that Kabylia is a rich, tranquil country, addicted 
to industry, and possessing a numerous population. But a few 
statistics will here have a peculiar interest. 

There are in France eight departments with a smaller population 
than Kabylia; these are, according to M. Duhousset, the Basses- 
Alpes, the Hautes-Alpes, the Cantal, Corsica, Lozere, the Basses- 
Pyrenees, the Hautes - Pyrenees, and Tarn-et-Garonne. Three 
departments are smaller in extent — the Rhone, the Seine, and 

The average population of France is 6^^^ inhabitants to every 
square kilometre; that of Kabylia is 6"]^^. Looking, however, at 
the average population to every kilometre in each separate depart- 
ment, it appears that twenty-eight have a larger average than Kabylia, 
one an equal, and fifty-seven a smaller one. The agricultural pro- 
ductions of Kabylia are the ordinary fruits of African culture, 
especially the fig and the olive, to which must be added large crops 
of wheat. Figs are the principal article of food of the inhabitants, 
and olives the staple of their agricultural industry. 

During harvest-time the Kabyles cover their heads with an 
immense straw hat of a pointed shape, with a huge brim, fourteen 
inches in width, shading their face. A shirt, leaving the arms and 
legs bare, and a leather apron, similar to that worn by our black- 
smiths, constitute their dress. They reap their corn and barley in 
small handfuls at a time, and very close to the ground, with a sickle. 
The thrashing and winnowing is roughly done by oxen. M. 
Duhc/jsset, who witnessed the harvest and the grinding of the corn, 

CAFRIF1CA T10N. 1 9 1 

gives the accompanying sketch (Fig. 71) of the Kabyle flour-mills 
Their olive-mill is very similar to that used in the south ot France, 
unly their grindstones are turned by women, who fill the part assigned 
by us to horses or to a steam-engine. 

In Kabylia particular care is bestowed on the cultivation of the 
fig, the principal article of food of the whole country. M. Duhousset 
took particular notice of the artificial fecundation of the fig-tree, a 
curious operation totally unknown in France. 

The fig-tree, as well as the date-tree, is fertilised in a very peculiar 
manner in Kabylia ; in the case of the latter, the male flower is merely 
superimposed on the female blossoms, to impregnate them ; but with 
the former, it is insects that carry the fertilising dust. This process is 
termed caprification. 

" Caprification," says M. Duhousset, " has been practised from 
time immemorial by all the inhabitants on the Mediterranean coast. 
This curious and important process seemed to me to deserve a 
special investigation. I have, therefore, collected a quantity ot more 
or less plausible details and explanations of the manner in which 
it is carried out, and the advantages derived from this mode of 

" The dokhar is the fruit of the wild fig-tree. It is small, 
flavourless, and bitter. It is not a very eatable species, and is 
not cultivated for the sake of food. It is precocious, and becomes 
ripe when the other figs, still green, have not yet attained their 
maturity. The tree which produces them — the caper fig-tree — yields 
two or three crops in the year; but it is only the first that is generally 
made use of. 

" When quite ripe, the dokhar is gathered, and arranged in small 
bunches (moulak) on a string. These strings are suspended to the 
boughs of the female fig-tree, towards the end of June in the plains, 
towards the end of July on the mountains. From the stem of each 
dokhar, when dry, issues a quantity of small winged insects, which 
introduce themselves into the fruit* on the tree, instil a new life into 
it, and prevent it from falling. 

" These insects, agents of this fecundation, are produced and 
developed in the fruit of the wild fig-tree, and leave it, as soon as 
arrived at maturity, to attach themselves to the female fig-tree. 
Their body is hairy, like that of the bee, which is known to fulfil 
an analogous mission towards certain flowers. 

" These insects are of two kinds, black and red. The first, smaller 
than the second, do not carry, like the latter, a sting in their abdomen. 
The natives assert that the black insect alone plays a useful part in 



the caprification of the fig — the part played by the wind, the bird, or 
the hand of man in the instance of the date. A long experience 

Fig. 71. — Grinding Wheat in the Kabylia. 

attributes to it the privilege of preserving the figs from perishing and 
falling before they have become ripe. This custom has given rise to 
the well-known Kabyle proverb, ' He who is without dokhar is 


without figs.' The abundance of figs in every locality and under every 
difference of climate depends upon that of the dokhar. Sometimes, 
however, the latter, although plentiful, gives birth to but a small 
number of these preserving insects, as in 1863, when the crop was 
poor, the dokhar having produced but few insects. 

" The Kabyles are convinced that one of these insects can pre- 
serve ninety-nine figs, but that the hundredth becomes its tomb. This 
is possibly only a popular prejudice ; but it is as well to cite it. 
Truth among primitive people becomes sometimes crystallised in the 
shape of a superstition, and the inexplicable pervades everything. 

" Caprification takes place at least once a year. When the dokhar 
is abundant, it is prudent to repeat the process several times at short 
intervals, and it is most important that it should be performed at the 
proper moment, either in the autumn or in the spring, or the crop 
may become seriously endangered and partly lost. 

" A rule generally observed in the villages where the dokhar 
flourishes is, that no one may sell it, under a penalty of a fine of two 
pounds, to a stranger, or even to an allv, before the gardens of 
his own locality have been copiously provided with the precious 

" Previous to our rule the Kabyle tribes were continually at enmity 
with one another, and the sale of the dokhar was then suspended and 
forbidden between them. As the fig is the principal and indispen- 
sable food of the inhabitants, this prohibitory measure was the surest 
means of starving the enemy, or at least of occasioning him serious 
inconvenience. It is, therefore, probable that the different tribes 
frequently came to open blows in order to procure by bloodshed what 
they were unable to obtain by purchase." 

Copper and iron are rather abundantly found in Kabylia, and 
its inhabitants are expert in extracting these metals from their 
ores. However, they are beginning to import metal goods from 

With tools of their own manufacture, or with those of foreign 
importation, the Kabyles make a great many useful and important 
articles. Jewellers and armourers are frequently found in their 

Fig. 7 2, from a sketch by M. Duhousset, represents the workshop 
of a Kabyle jeweller. The lathe of the Kabyle workman is used to 
make the wooden vases and the numerous utensils sold by the 
Kabyles all along the African coast. It is sufficiently noteworthy 
that the Kabyle turner only uses the vertical lathe, and seems ignorant 
of the horizontal one so convenient and so generally used in Europe. 




Fig. 72.— Kabyle Jewellers 

The Sheilas dwell to the west of the Atlas, while the Kabyles are 
found to the east of these mountains. The former are tillers of the 
soil, laborious and poor. They are generally independent. 

The Touariks are a people distinct from the two preceding; ones. 
They are nomadic. They wander in the desert of Sahara, and make 


continual raids into Egypt to carry off slaves. M. Henri Duveyrier, 
who has published a detailed account of the Touariks of the North; 
declares that they are hospitable and humane. They are generally 
considered to consist of rather formidable tribes, accustomed to scour 
the desert, stop caravans, and plunder the laggards. At any rate, it 
is a known fact that an ill-starred traveller, Miss Thine, who had 
courageously explored parts of Asia and Africa, was assassinated in 
the desert in 1869 by seme Touariks. 

In French Africa the generic name of Moor is given to the Mussul- 
man population (the Turks excepted) inhabiting Barbary and Sahara; 
but in reality this name is only rightly applicable to two particular 
classes. The first of these is partly composed of the inhabitants of 
the towns, often supposed to be the descendants of the ancient natives 
of the country, that is to say, of the Libyan family, but seeming on 
the contrary to be principally of Arab origin. The second comprises 
the tribes, most of them nomadic, who dwell in the south-west of 
Sahara, and who belong to either the Berber or the Arab race. 

The Egyptians. — We now proceed to speak of the Egyptians, 
that unchanging race which seems to slumber on, embalmed on a 
conservative soil, a vast hypogeum, where, for thirty centuries, 
generations both of human beings and of domestic animals, have suc- 
ceeded generations without any perceptible alteration. The work of 
Herodotus, the dialogues of Lucian, and the writings of Ammianus 
Marcellinus teach us that the ancient Egyptians, similar in all respects 
to those of our own day, had a brown-coloured skin. Two contracts 
of sale, dating back from the time of Ptolemy, give us particulars of 
the parties to it. The vendor is called »;e,anchros (dark brown), and 
the buyer melichros (honey coloured). From all the documents and 
evidence that we possess, it appears that several varieties in the colour 
of the skin existed among the ancient Egyptians, but that there was 
always one predominant hue. Paintings are found in the temples and 
the tombs where the persons represented have a copper-coloured, 
reddish, or light chocolate complexion. The faces of the women are 
sometimes of a yellower tint, merging into fawn colour. 

Another faithful representation of the features of the ancient 
Egyptians is found in those of their paintings and sculptures that 
have descended to our own time. Their physiognomy shows a 
peculiar and remarkable type, as does also the shape of their bodies. 
According to Denon ("Travels in Egypt"), the ancient inhabitants of 
the kingdom of the Pharaohs had full but refined and voluptuous 


figures, calm and serene faces, soft and rounded features, long almond- 
shaped eyes, half-closed, languishing, and raised at the outer corner, 
as if the glare and heat of the sun habitually fatigued them. Round 
cheeks, thick, and prominent lips, a large but smiling mouth, and a 
dark reddish copper-tinted complexion, completed the peculiar ex- 
pression of their countenance. 

Blumenbach, after examining a large number of mummies, and 
comparing them with the productions of ancient art, established three 
leading types of ancient Egyptians, including, with more or less 
deviation, all individual casts of face — the Ethiopian, the Indian, and 
the Berber type. The first is distinguished by a prominent jaw and 
a thick lip, by a broad flat nose, and by protruding eyes. This type 
coincides with the description given by Herodotus and other Greek 
writers, who assign to the Egyptian a black complexion and woolly 
hair. The second type is widely different. The nose is long and 
narrow, the eyelids are thin, long, and slanting obliquely from the top 
of the nose towards the temples; the ears are set high in the head, 
the body is short and slight, and the legs are very long. This picture 
resembles the Hindoos from beyond the Ganges. 

Such were the ancient people of Egypt. Its inhabitants of to-day 
are difficult to class from an ethnographic point of view. They must 
not be confounded, as is often done, with the Arab race. The 
present Egyptians are the old indigenous or Berber race, modified by 
its fusion with new elements. This old indigenous race is still to be 
met with in the country, sparsely strewn, but quite recognisable. It is 
this small part of the population which bears the name of Kopts. 

The Kopts, a race preserved by their religion from miscegenation, 
but feebly represent the primitive Egyptians ; for ancient Egypt was 
conquered and subjugated, first by the Arabs, then by the Persians, 
then by the Greeks and Romans, and lastly by the Mussulmans. 

The Kopts are generally above the middle height ; they are 
robust in stature, and the colour of their skin is a dull red. They 
have a broad forehead, a rounded chin, full cheeks, a straight nose 
with strongly-curved nostrils, large brown eyes, a narrow mouth with 
thick lips and white teeth, high projecting ears, and extremely black 
beards and eyebrows. The striking resemblance of the Kopts to 
ancient Egyptian sculpture is a sufficient proof that this group of 
mankind is really the remnant of the ancient stock of Egypt, slightly 
altered by mixture with the other races that have successively occu- 
pied their country. 

The Kopts became Christians in the second century. In the 
seventh century, at the time of the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs, 

Fig- 73. — K opts of the Temple ot Kranah. 


the Kopts numbered 600,000. To-day they only amount to 150,000, 
of whom 10,000 reside in Cairo. They venerate St. Mark as their 
principal patron. They go to communion regularly every Friday, 
lead a very austere life, and allow their priests to marry. 

The Kopts have black eyes, and in general, curly hair. Morose, 
taciturn, and dissimulating, they cringe to their superiors, hate their 
equals, and are arrogant to their inferiors. They excel as accountants 
in all kinds of business. They carry on exclusively certain industries, 
such as the manufacture of mills, of apparatus for irrigation, and of 

The Koptic language is the ancient language of the Pharaohs, 
mixed with words from the Greek and other tonsrues. It is written 


in the Greek character. It is no longer grammatical iy taught, and is 
but little spoken. It is, however, still used in their form of worship. 

The Kopts enjoy rather a bad reputation in Egypt. Accomplices 
in the Arab invasion, and therefore tolerated by the followers of 
Mahomet, they were employed by the Mamelukes to collect the taxes. 
Thieves and mendicant monks abound amongst them. Fig. 73 re- 
presents Koptic priests before the temple of Kranah. 

The most unfortunate portion of the Egyptian population, the 
peasants and the labourers, the £ame workmen who have been so 
useful in constructing the Suez Canal, are called Fellahs. 

From an ethnographic point of view, the Fellahs are descended 
from the primitive indigenous inhabitants, modified by admixture with 
the Arabs. Although they speak the Arab tongue, the coarseness ot 
their features keeps them distinct from the Arabs. The soil of Egypt 
thus supports a singular admixture of races, and it is impossible now- 
adays to point out one single pure type. This is a result of the 
miserable political state of the country. From the very first Egypt 
has always been the prey of alien conquerors, who have succeeded one 
another in one long roll, each in their turn adding some new feature 
to those of the original inhabitants of the country. In " Travels in 
Egypt," by Messrs. Cammas and Lefevre, published in the "Tour du 
Monde," we read the following observations on the Fellahs : — 

"The Fellahs have but a feeble conception of the dignity of man 
and of their own value. The only answer they give to blows is a 
complaint. Sometimes, indeed, they rebel like a flock ot sheep, but 
with a conviction that their efforts will be of no avail. It is thus, at 
the times of conscription, they resist the soldiery; but after a few 
have been killed, the rest allow themselves to be huddled on board 
the man-of-war, in which they are taken down the Nile to Cairo, the 
women and the young girls following them for some miles along the 


banks with cries and lamentations. A Fellah's existence is not 
essentially more unhappy than that of our peasant hinds. His dis- 
position is rather cheerful than melancholy ; and every circumcision, 
every marriage, is the excuse for a holiday, shared by the whole village. 
Their songs and their dances are redolent of the spontaneous mirth 
instinctive in negroes. But with everything to render life agreeable, 
the consciousness of rights and obligations — that something that con- 
stitutes the freeman and the citizen — is wanting in them. The Fellah 
is fond of his home and of his hamlet; but Fgypt is for him neither a 
nation nor a fatherland. It is astonishing at first sight to notice this 
degradation of the human species, so sad to behold ; however, if the 
oppressive tyranny of the Mamelukes, the deep degradation of Egypt 
under the Greek and Roman dynasties, and the old caste law, con- 
demning the mass of the population to the slavery of the soil, are 
remembered, it is easy to understand why the Fellah, ground down 
under the sway of the Pharaohs, stupefied under that of the Romans, 
and crushed by Mussulman fatalism, is slow to respond to the efforts 
and to the intellectual tendencies of the government of Said Pacha. 
Since the Arab conquest, the soil has been legally the property of the 
sultans, the emirs, and the beys. The feudal system that once theo- 
retically existed amongst us was rigorously carried into practice in 
Egypt. The whole of the crop harvested by the Fellahs passed, with 
the exception of a modicum necessary for their absolute existence, 
into the granaries of the landowners. Nowadays- the Viceroy has 
abandoned the practice of monopoly ; he is anxious to change 
arbitrary rights into regular taxes ; he has yielded his just claims to 
the labourer, and assured to the peasant his ri^ht of succession to the 
fields he has watered with the sweat of his toil. But it takes a long 
interval to blot out the horrible stamp of their past slavery. 

"The sailors ot the Nile, sons and relations of the Fellahs, re- 
semble them in their ignorance, in their humility, in their contempt 
for life, and in their natural disposition to laughter, to song, and to 
the dance. But their wits are becoming sharpened by perpetual 
contact with strangers ; and their minds are busy on many things 
undreamt of by the Fellah." Fig. 74 represents a Fellah woman and 
children, and Fig. 75 a Fellah donkey boy. 

The same travellers tell us, in speaking of Egyptian marriages : — 
" Marriage in Egypt is not a public act strictly registered by the 
law. When the bridegroom and the bride's parents have come to an 
understanding, when the sum to be paid by the husband has been 
agreed upon (the wife brings no dower), the celebration of the union 
t;ikes place before two witnesses. Sometimes the cadi is apprised; 


Fig 74- — A Fellah Woman and Children. 



Fig. 75.— A Fellah Donkey Boy. 

but this is a formality that is often neglected. In such a union, 
without any ulterior guarantee, the wife is but a purchased slave. 
When the husband tires of her, he sends her back ; she can only 
claim a divorce on one single ground, for a reason considered by us 


also as a serious injury. No legal notice is taken of the birth of 
children, who are consequently placed in a precarious position until 
they are old enough to look after themselves. Their death is easily 
concealed ; and they occasionally perish by the hand of one of the 
other wives, rivals of their mother. A common custom allows the 
Nile sailors to have two wives, one at Girgeh, for instance, and 
another at Assouan. The husband passes a month with each of them 
in turns, as his business allows him. He brings with him a few 
piastres, a piece or two of blue cotton stuff, often some little seaman's 
venture, that the wife proceeds to dispose of on his departure. He 
receives in exchange the products of the place, that in turn go to 
swell the trade of the other wife. We had on board a cargo of 
earthenware, salt, and pipes. The sailors disembarked them here 
and there as they went up the river, expecting to find on their return 
stores of tobacco, dates, and horse-trappings. Polygamy looked at 
in this light is productive ; but it loses ground notwithstanding 
every day, not amongst the poor only, but amongst the rich, who 
have in most cases but one legitimate wife at a time. Resides, there 
is but one real cause for polygamy — the premature old age of the 
women. When the men give up the practice of mirrying mere 
children, who become rapidly worn out by the fatigues of precocious 
maternity, polygamy will cease to exist." 

Fig. 76 represents the dress of a Cairo lady. 

Almas or Egyptian dancing-girls (Fig. 77) are nowadays scarcely 
more than a name in the country. It is difficult to find even one or 
two in Cairo. The last specimens are restricted to the town of Esneh. 

The travellers from whom we h^.ve taken the above details 
visited the town of Esneh, and there saw the dancing-girls. They 
give the following sketch of them :— 

" We were conducted into a building of forbidding aspect. The 
dancing-girls were grouped together in the midst of the apartment. 
They were all plain enough in the face, but young and well made. 
The hope of large gains had induced them to take extra pains with 
their dress. I still see their low-necked vests, their wide silk 
pantaloons, fastened above the hips with dazzling waistbands ; their 
inner tunic of gauze of flesh-coloured muslin ; some with naked feet, 
others with long red or yellow Turkish slippers. Most of them wore 
necklaces and bracelets, and small coins hanging over their foreheads ; 
whilst at the back of their heads hung a small silk handkerchief, 
carelessly thrown on. The dance began with a series of attitudes, 
beseeching and graceful, then rapidly grew animated, till it expressed 
a pitch of deep passion. Their bosoms remained immovable, while 

Fig. 76.— A'Lady of Cairo. 



Fig. 77.— Alma or Dancing-girl. 


they moved the rest of their bodies as if in a frenzy. A distribution 
of olives, of liqueurs, and a shower of small coins, won us a thousand 
blessings, and brought our evening to a dignified close. The almas 
do not meet every day with such a windfall ; and if they dance 
during the winter, they do not sing in the summer. The population 
amidst which they live cannot afford to remunerate their talents. 
Well versed in poses plastiques, but incapable of all work, they are 
reduced to all sorts of expedients, and to loans, which make them 
the slaves of the usurers. Their time is spent in smoking, in 
drinking aquavitse, and in consuming the omnipresent coffee. The 
miseries of such an existence daily decrease the number of almas, 
who, in the time of the Mamelukes, were to be found everywhere 
in Egypt. Esneh is their last refuge, and was, no doubt, their 

The Semitic Family. 

We have already said that the races who composed the Aramean 
branch kindled in Asia, at an early period in history, the torch of 
civilisation. This observation is more particularly applicable to the 
nations of the Semitic family, ot whom we are now going to speak. 
It is from this family, in fact, that sprang the nations so well known 
in ancient history under the name of Assyrians, Hebrews, Phoenicians, 
and Carthaginians. Conquered by other races, the Assyrians, the 
Hebrews, the Phoenicians, and the Carthaginians have successively 
disappeared, and are now almost entirely replaced by the Arabs. 

We unite to the Semitic family the Arabs, the Jews, and the Syrians. 

The Arabs. — The Arabs constitute the principal population of 
modern Arabia ; they also form a great part of the inhabitants ot 
Egypt, Nubia, Barbary, and Sahara. They extend into Persia, and 
even into Hindostan. 

Some of the Arabs are shepherds (Bedouins), others cultivate the 
soil ; the former are nomadic, the latter sedentary. The Bedouins, 
children of the desert, perpetual wanderers, active and very temperate, 
are smaller and of a more slender appearance than the others, and 
support with ease the fatigues and privations of their mode of life. 
The agricultural Arabs, or fehies, are taller and more robust. The 
former have a wild and suspicious cast of countenance. The charac- 
teristics of the Arab race are a long face, with a high-shaped head ; 
an aquiline nose, nearly in a line with the forehead; a retreating and 
small mouth ; even teeth ; the eye not at all deep set, in spite of the 
want of prominence of the brow ; graceful figures, formed by the 



THE JEWS. 2 1 I 

small volume of fatty matter and cellular tissue, and by the presence 
of powerful but not largely-developed muscle ; a keen wit ; a lively 
intelligence ; and a deep and persevering mould of character. These 
characteristics show that they possess a remarkable superiority over 
other races, and Baron Larrey has found fresh evidence of this 
superiority in the shape of their head, in the convolutions of their 
brain, in the consistency of their nervous tissue, in the appearance of 
their muscular fibre and their bony structure, and in the regularity 
and perfect development of their heart and arterial system. 

We see, therefore, that the Arab type is really an admirable one. 
This type, consistent and well defined as a whole, has, however, 
undergone considerable modifications under the influence of divers 
causes. The colour of their skin varies a good deal : their com- 
plexion is sometimes as white as that of Europeans of the most 
northern countries. In Yemen, Arab women have been noticed 
whose complexion was a deep yellow. In that portion of the valley 
of the Nile contiguous to Nubia, the Arabs are black. In this same 
valley of the Nile, above Dengola, the Shegya Arabs are jet black, a 
bright clear black, a colour which the traveller Waddington thought 
the most beautiful that could be chosen for a human creature. 

" These men," says Waddington, " entirely differ from negroes in 
the brilliancy of their colour, in the quality of their hair, in the regu- 
larity of their features, in the gentle expression of their limpid eyes, 
and by the softness of their skin, which in this respect is not at all 
inferior to that of Europeans." 

Amongst the Arabs who dwell in more temperate climates, hair 
more or less fair, and blue or grey eyes have been observed. As a 
contrast, in the Libyan desert, tribes have been met with whose hair 
was woolly and nearly analogous to that of negroes. Taken altogether, 
the nomadic Arabs, who have faithfully adhered for many centuries 
to the same mode of life, exhibit, in spite of varying climates, the 
original mould of an exceptional beauty. 

Fig. 78 shows a tent of nomadic Arabs. 

The jfavs. — Among the lesser nations with an affinity to the 
Semitic family, there is one remarkable by its historical importance, 
and by the manner in which it has managed to preserve its original 
type during the eighteen centuries in which it has been scattered 
over the whole world; we mean the Jews, or Israelites.* 

* French politeness has made between these two words a distinction which is 
too odd to allow us to pass it over. In France, a rich Jew is called an Israelite, a 



The Jews have preserved much of their own peculiar physiog- 
nomy. They are distinguished from the nations among whom they 
are dispersed by peculiar features, easily recognised in many paint- 
ings of the great masters. Still they have ended by adopting more 

or less the characteristics of the 
nations with whom they have 
long resided. Under the sole 
influence of external circum- 
stances and mode of life, the 
medley of races amongst which 
they have existed has little by 
little altered their national type. 
In the northern parts of Europe 
the Jews have a white skin, blue 
eyes, and fair hair. In some 
portions of Germany many are 
to be seen with red beards ; 
in Portugal they are tawny- 
coloured. In those districts of 
India where they have been 
long settled — in Cochin, for 
instance, on the Malabar coast 
—they are black, and resemble 
the natives so exactly in com- 
plexion that it is often difficult 
to distinguish them from the 

Fig. 79 represents a Jew of 
Fig 79.— Jew of Bucharest. Bucharest. 

Syrians. — The ancient Syrians have, as a rule, become absorbed 
in the races who have conquered them ; their language, however, is 
still rpoken by the Christian population of Mesopotamia and Chaldea, 
the Sourianis, and the Yakoubis or Chaldeans. 

Beyrout, at the foot of the mountains of Libanus (Fig. 80), is a 
town and port which is the commercial centre of all Syria. Thither 
Libanus sends its wines and its silks; Yemen, its coffee; Haman, 
its com; Djebail and Lattakiah, their pale-coloured tobaccos; 

poor Israelite is called a Jew. The Messrs. Rothschild are hraelitish hankers; 
but if hy some impossibility they lost their millions and went to live at Frankfort, 
in the Jews' quarter, in the old family house, which is still there, and which we 
have -ecu, the\- would become, like their ancestors, JbreisA traders. 




Palmyra, its horses ; Damascus, its arms ; Bagdad, its costly stuffs ; 
and all Europe, the countless productions of its industry. 

The very first glance at Beyrout shows how commerce prospers 
in that town. The Maronite in his gloomy and coarse garments, 
the Druze in his white or parti-coloured turban, armed with the most 
costly weapons, the Arab displaying his picturesque rags, the Turk, 
the Greek, the Jew, and the Armenian, all hurry to and fro, jostling 
one another in the crowd. It is a regular Babel of language and 
costume ; in which, however, the Christian element predominates. 

But the streets of Beyrout, like all those of Eastern towns, are 
not in unison with such a brilliant panorama. 

The houses are massive shells of stone ; the streets are narrow 
and steep, and communicating sometimes by tunnelled passages : 
some of the broader ones are occupied by cafedjis, inside which 
squatting Arabs tranquilly smoke their chibouks, sheltered from the 
rays of the sun by awnings of coarse rush-matting hung above their 
heads. In the middle of the street the children roll about in 
the dust. 

The Maronites and the Druzes are two lesser nations of Libanus, 
speaking, however, like most modern Syrians, the Arabic tongue. 

The Maronites are an influential but ignorant people. They 
are said to be descendants of refugees of the Monothelite sect, who 
were driven by the persecutions of the Emperor Anastasius, in the 
eighth century, to settle on the slopes of the Lebanon. They derive 
their name from St. Maron, who lived towards the close of the fifth 
century.* They elected as their chief, when they settled in their 
country, a namesake of his, under the title of " Patriarch of Antioch." 
In the twelfth century they gave up Monothelitism and joined the 
Romish Church. In 1588 Ibrahim, Pacha of Cairo, conquered them 
and forced them to pay a yearly tribute to the Turks, which they still 
do. In 1736 they formally accepted the decrees of the Council of 
Trent, being permitted certain national usages, e.g., the use of Syriac 
in church services, and exemption from celibacy in cases where priests 
are married before ordination. Their constitution is a kind of military 
republic , their laws, for the most part, unwritten but ancient usages. 
The Vendetta flourishes amongst them in its most savage form. The 

* Vide Theodoret's "Religious Histories," vol. iii.,p. 1222. The Monothelite 
heresy, according to its most active advocate, Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, 
attributed to Christ two natures — human and divine — but held these were acted on 
by but one will, the human will being merged in the divine will. It was condemned 
by the sixth General Council of Constantinople in 680 a. d. 


clergy live chiefly by manual labour. In point of numbers they are 
about thrice as numerous as their neighbours the Druzes, who inhabit 
the southern range of Mount Lebanon and the western slope of 
Anti-Lebanon. They are descendants of Cuthites, Mardis, and 
Arabs, and have (some say) a strain of the blood of the Crusaders in 
them. They are Mohammedan schismatics. In the eleventh century, 
when Hakem, Caliph of Egypt, proclaimed himself God-Incarnate, 
and founded a new religion, his confederate and confessor, Darazi, 
had to fly from the fury of the Cairo mob, and finding refuge in 
the Lebanon, he converted the Druzes (who take their name from 
him) to his heresy. They believe in the divinity of Hakem, and 
a mixture of doctrines from the Pentateuch, New Testament, Koran, 
and Sufi allegories. From 1840 to i860 they were embroiled by the 
Maronites in a war of the most sanguinary atrocity. France, on a 
pretext of " humanity," got the consent of the Great Powers to inter- 
fere for the protection of the Maronite " Christians," who gave the 
original provocation, and whose bishops only asked that 4,946 Druzes, 
against whom they could prefer no charges, should be beheaded by 
way of honourable satisfaction. The end of it was that both nations 
were placed under one governor (a Christian) appointed by the 
Porte. The Druzes are a handsome, chivalrous, martial race. They 
can almost all read and write. They do not practise polygamy, and 
they are, perhaps, the most industrious and successful agriculturists in 
the East. Fig. 81 represents Maronites at a convent. 

The Persian Family. 

The white races who come from the south-east of the Caucasus 
are generally classed in the European branch, because the languages 
of both are somewhat similar, and have both some affinity with 
Sanscrit. But these races have a much greater resemblance to the 
Arameans than to the Europeans. Like the Arameans, the nations 
of the Persian family early acquired a certain degree of civilisation, tc 
which they have since added. 

The races belonging to the Persian family have a white skin, 
black eyes and hair, and are of middle height. They inhabit 
not only Persia, but Armenia, Turkistan, and some portions of 

Five well-defined divisions can be made in the races that con- 
stitute this family : 1st, the Persians, properly so called, or the 
Tadjiks; 2nd, the Afghans; 3rd, the Kurds; 4th, the Armenians; 
5th, the small trihe of the Ossetines. 

F 'U 3 1 - — Maronites at a Convent. 


The Persians. — A great part of Persia is still occupied by tribes 
who are aliens to the Persian race. The pure race of Persians only 
inhabit towns and their immediate neighbourhood. These Tadjiks 
or thorough-bred Persians were formerly much more numerous than 
they are now. The north-east of the kingdom of Iran is the land of 
their ancestors. 

The Tadjiks have regular features, an oval countenance luxuriant 
hair, large and well-defined black eyebrows, and that soft dark eye 
held in such high estimation by Easterns. They are cheerful, witty, 
active, frivolous, idle, and vicious ; fond of luxury, dress, and display. 
They possess a literature, and their language, remarkable for its 
flowery and ornamental diction, is spoken not only in Persia, but by 
the upper classes in a large portion of Hindostan. 

Persia (the kingdom of Iran) is governed by a king (s/ia/i) who 
exercises almost absolute authority, and who resides at Teheran. 
The heir to the throne is the eldest son of the king's eldest son, 
according to an ancient Russian custom. 

The twelve provinces of which the kingdom is composed are 
administered by a governor (beg/ebeig), who delegates his authority 
to a lieutenant [kakim). The towns are ruled over by a special 
governor, by a police inspector, and by a first magistrate. Every 
village elects a ruler (ket/k/wihi). The legislation of Persia, differing 
in little from that of Turkey, is based on the Koran. 

The kingdom of Persia can send into the field 150,000 soldiers; 
but its permanent army does not exceed 10,000 men, among whom 
are the shah's guards (ghofaums). Persia has a small merchant navy. 

Manufactures do not seem to succeed in Persia. That country, 
formerly the centre of a large commerce, now imports almost every- 
thing, and only manufactures articles of primary necessity. But it is 
hoped that renewed manufacturing activity and enterprise may again 
set in, and that the visit of the Shah to this and other European 
countries may have a beneficial influence upon the future prospects — 
commercially speaking — of the country over which he rules. 

India, Russia, and Afghanistan supply the Persians with most of 
their manufactured goods. 

Persia, having been often invaded and occupied by foreigners, has 
necessarily a very mixed population. They consist of four classes :— 

1. The nobility, who fill all public posts. 

2. The citizens of the towns, comprising the clergy and the scho- 
lastic profession, who are a mixture of Persians, Turks, Tartars, 
Georgians, Armenians, and Arabs. 

3. The peasants, belonging to the old Persian stock. 


4. The nomadic or pastoral tribes, composed of Persians, to whom 
must be added the remnant of the ancient conquering classes of this 
country. It is from this last class that spring the soldiers and all the 
military clique who constitute in Persia-a real hereditary autocracy. 

The religion of the ancient Persians was that of Zoroath, that is 
to say, necromancy. In the third and fourth centuries of the Christian 
era, Christianity made many converts in this land, although at that 
time it was occupied by the Arabs. But from the commencement of 
the fifth century the kings of Persia devoted their energies to crushing 
it out of their country, and Mahometanism is now the predominant 
religion. A new sect, the sosisfs, taking rise in a province in Persia 
(Kernian), has made many converts throughout the kingdom. The 
votaries of this new creed are deists, who only accept the Koran as a 
book of moral precepts, and who repudiate the religious dogma 
that Mahomet drew from it. 

Fig. 82 gives a portrait of Hady-Merza-Aghazzi. Fig. 83 repre- 
sents several Persian types. Fig. 84 gives an idea of the costly dress 
of the Persian nobility. 

The author of a "Journey in Persia," Count de Gobineau, has 
well described the internal life of the Persians. We shall make a few 
extracts from his interesting book. Let us read, for instance, the 
chapter in which is described "A Dinner in Ispahan." " The table," 
M. de Gobineau tells us, " laid for twenty guests, was almost lost in 
the immense size of the place. The front of the theatre was open, 
supported by ten lofty columns painted in light colours ; the large 
curtain in use, white, with black designs embroidered on it, was 
stretched like an awning over the nearest part of the gardens. The 
guests overlooked a large fountain of running water and vast beds of 
plane trees. Numerous servants in motley dresses, and armed each 
according to his own fancy (some of them carried a complete arsenal), 
stood in groups at the end of the terrace, or handed round the dishes, 
helping the guests. The table had been laid out with the help of the 
Kuropean servants, a little in the European manner, and a good deal 
according to Persian customs. Its centre was occupied by a perfect 
forest of vases and cups, made of wood, or of blue, white, or yellow 
and red glass, and filled with flowers. The novelty of the thing to 
our hosts lay in the spoons and forks : when by good fortune they 
managed to impale a piece upon their fork and carry it to their 
mouths without pricking themselves, it was the signal for a burst of 
compliments. Their appetites were rather eccentric. One of them 
filled his plate with mustard, and declared he had never tasted any- 
thing half so good. As their parade was greater than the results, we 

r m 

Fig. 82. — Hady-Merza-Aghazzi. 



Fig. — Type*. 

begged them to help themselves in their own way. After much 
hesitation, they consented to hold on to the fork with the left hand 
while they picked up their food with the right. 

" In the midst of the meal we heard a jingle of silvery bells, and 
saw four young boys, dressed as women, in pink and blue dresses 


spangled with tinsel, enter. They were dancers. They wore little 
gilt caps, from beneath which their long hair fell over their shoulders. 
The musicians were seated on the ground : one played on a kind of 
mandolin, another on a hand drum, and a third performed on an 
instrument with a quantity of strings stretched across a table, from 
which he drew, with some little sticks, sounds similar to those of the 

M. de Gobineau tells us that Ispahan contains many men learned 
in various branches, rich and prosperous merchants, and men of 
property who live on their incomes. The town may be compared 
in size and tranquillity to Versailles. 

Another chapter of M. de Gobineau's book is worth reading, that 
headed " Betrothal, Divorce, and a Persian Lady's Day." 

The betrothed are usually very young. The youth is from fifteen 
to sixteen years of age, and the girl from ten to eleven. It is unusual 
to find a woman of three-and-twenty who has not had at least a 
couple of husbands, and often many more, so easily are divorces 
obtained. The women are kept strictly secluded in one of the 
inner apartments or enderoun, that is to say, no outsider, no stranger 
to the family, is allowed to enter it. But they are quite at liberty to 
go out from morning till night, and often indeed from night to 
morning. In the first place they go to bathe. They go to the bath 
with an attendant who carries a box full of toilet necessaries and the 
requisite articles of dress, and it is at least four or five hours before 
they return from it. After that they pay visits which they make to 
one another, and which occupy a similar interval. Their last method 
of killing time is the pilgrimage they make to the graves of their 
kindred, which are at no great distance, in the midst of pretty scenery. 

All Persian women are so carefully veiled, and dressed so simi- 
larly, as to their out-door garments, that it is impossible for the most 
practised eye to distinguish one from the other. Besides paying 
visits, the excursion to the bath, the shopping in the bazaar, and 
their pilgrimages, the women go out of doors when it pleases them, 
and the streets are full of them. Unfortunately Persian women are 
rather in the habit of looking upon themselves as inferior irresponsible 
beings. Absolute mistresses at home, they are extremely passionate 
and violent, and their tiny slipper, furnished with a sharp iron point 
half an inch long, often leaves very disagreeable marks on their 
husbands' faces. 

The Persian in his turn spends half his time in the bazaar, and 
the remainder in paying and receiving visits. This is how they take 
place : — 



Fig. 84. — Persian .Noblemen. 

The intending visitor sets out on horseback, accompanied by as 
many of his servants as he can collect, the djelodar, with the embroi- 
dered saddle-cloth across his shoulders, at his horse's head ; and 
behind him the kalyaudjy (musician) with his instrument. When he 
reaches the door he wishes to stop at he dismounts. He then, with 



Fig. 85. — Persian Women. 

his servants in front of him, traverses one or two passages, invariably 
low and dark, and sometimes one or two courts, before reaching the 
apartments of the master of the house. If his visitor is of higher 
rank than himself, the host comes to the door to receive him. If 
they are equals, he sends his son or one of his young relations to do 


so. The opening courtesies are extremely flowery, such as, " How 
came your lordship to conceive the compassionate idea of visiting 
this lowly roof?" &c. 

When they reach the drawing-room, they find all the men of the 
family standing in a row against the wall bowing to the new comer. 
As soon as every one is seated, the visitor inquires of the master of 
the house, "If, by the will of God, his nose is fat?" The latter 
replies, " Glory be to God ! it is so, by means of your goodness." 
This same question is sometimes repeated three or four times running. 
After a few moments of conversation, tea, coffee, and sherbet are 
handed round. The great charm of this rather frivolous gossip is its 
exaggeration, and the witty and amusing turn given to it. 

The Persians have a peculiar taste for caligraphy. Painting is 
an almost unknown art amongst them. They possess, however, a 
certain amount of artistic instinct, as is shown by the richness and 
elegance of some of their monuments. 

In Fig. 84 are represented two Persian noblemen, in Fig. 85 
some Persian women, while Fig. 86 shows the reader other types of 
Persian costume worn by different classes. The Louty and the 
Baktyan represented in this sketch are members of a nomadic tribe, 
enjoying rather a bad reputation. 

The Afghans inhabit the mountainous region lying to the north of 
the lowlands of the Punjaub, that is to say, the basin ot the Indus. 
Their climate is a charming one. The Afghans are fine muscular 
men, with a long face, high cheek-bones, and a prominent nose. 
Their hair is generally black. Their skin, according to the part of 
the country they inhabit, is dark, tawny, or white. They are an 
unpolished, warlike race, differing in customs and in language both 
from the Persians and the natives of India. They are subdivided 
into many tribes or clans. 

The Beloochees, addicted to pastoral life, and primitive in their 
habits, move about from place to place, dwelling in tents which are 
constructed of felt on a slight framework of willow. They wander, 
with their flocks, about the table-lands surrounding Kelat. They are 
to be found in nearly the whole of that part of Eastern Persia which, 
lying between Afghanistan to the north and the Indian Ocean to the 
south, stretches westwards from the Indus to the great Salt Desert. 
They speak a dialect derived from the Persian. 

The Brahnis are nomadic tribes found in the colder and more 

2 28 


Fig. 86. — Louty and Baktyan. 

elevated parts of the high grounds comprised within the above geo- 
graphical limits. They are short and thick-set, with round faces and 
flat features, and brown hair and beards. The Beloochees, who live 
in lower and warmer regions, are, on the contrary, fine tall men, with 





regular features and an expressive physiognomy. But those who 
dwell in the lowlands, close to the Indus, have a darker and almost 
black skin. The Brahnis bear the same relation to the Hindoos of 
the Punjaub that the Beloochees do to the Persians. 

The Kurds, who occupy the lofty mountainous region, intersected 
by deep valleys, which is situated between the immense table-land of 
Persia and the plains of Mesopotamia, are a semi-barbarous people, 
very different from the descendants of the Medo-Persians though also 
sprung from an Aryan root. They are tall, with coarse features. 
Their complexion is brown, their hair is black, their eyes small, their 
mouth large, and their countenances wild-looking. 

The Armenians of both sexes are remarkable for their physical 
beauty. Their language is nearly allied to the oldest dialects of the 
Aryan race, and their history is connected with that of the Medes and 
Persians by very ancient traditions. They have a white skin, black 
eyes and hair, and their features are rounder than those of the 
Persians. The luxuriant growth of the hair on their faces distinguishes 
them from the Hindoos. Fig. 87 represents a drawing-room in an 
Armenian's house at Soucha, and Fig. 87 a the head of an Armenian. 
The climate of Armenia is generally a cold one ; but in the valleys 
and in the plains the atmosphere is less keen and the soil very fertile. 

Armenia nowadays constitutes the pachaliks of Erzeroum, Kars, 
and Dijar-Bekr in Asiatic Turkey. Besides its indigenous population, 
amounting to about 1,000,000, it is inhabited by Turks, Kurds, 
Turkomans, and the remnants of other nations who formerly made 
raids into their country. The Armenian is distinguished by his 
serious, laborious, intelligent, and- hospitable disposition. He is 
very successful in business. Fond of the traditions of his forefathers, 
and attached to his government, he has a good deal of sympathy with 
Europeans. He becomes easily accustomed to European customs, 
and learns our languages with little difficulty. 

The Christian religion has always been followed in Armenia, and 
Armenians are much attached to their church. But this is divided 
into several sects. The Gregorian (the creed founded by Saint 
Gregory), the Roman Catholic, and the Protestant religions are all to 
be found in Armenia The head of the first, which is the most 
numerous (it musters about four million worshippers), resides at 
Etohmiadzn, in Russian Armenia. There is another patriarch, who 
is nearly independent, at Cis, the ancient capital of the kingdom of 
Cilicia. The patriarch of the Catholics, who are fifty thousand in 



number, resides af Constantinople ; but a second patriarch (in 
partibus), whose jurisdiction extends over Syria, Cilicia, and a part of 
Asia Minor, dwells on Mount Libanus. The Roman Catholics of 
Russian Armenia belong to the see of the Metropolitan residing in 
St. Petersburg. The head of the Protestant Church, which contains 
from four to five thousand souls, dwells at Constantinople. 

The Ossetines, who are the last branch of the Aryan race in Asia, 

Fig. 87 a. — Head of an Armenian. 

inhabit a small portion of the chain of the Caucasian mountains, 
populated for the most part by races distinct from the Indo- 
Europeans. They resemble the peasants of the north of Russia ; but 
their customs are barbarous, and they are given to pillage. 

The Ossetine, contrary to the customs of all the other tribes of 
the Caucasus and of the Trans-Caucasus, uses beds, tables, and 
chairs. He seats himself, like most Europeans, without crossing 
his legs. 

The Georgian Family. 

The Georgian Family is gathered together on the southern slope 
of the Caucasus. The beauty of the Georgian women is proverbial. 



1 * 

Fig. 66. - Georgians. 


Their physiognomy is as calm and regular as that of the immortal 
type handed down to us in the ancient statuary of Greece. A head- 
land of bright colours in the shape of a crown, and from which hangs 
a veil passing under the chin, forms their head-dress. Two long 
plaits of hair fall behind, reaching nearly to their feet. A long 
ribbon of the gayest hues serves them for a sash, and falls down the 
front of their dress to the ground. Out of doors they wrap them- 
selves up in a flowing white cloth, which shields them from the sun, 
and which they wear with much grace. The men are also generally 
handsome. They have preserved the Caucasian — indeed, some eth- 
nologists say the pure Greek — type untouched and unaltered. They 
wear rich dresses, embroidered with gold and silver, and carry costly, 
sparkling arms. They are brave and chivalrous, and are passionately 
fond of horses. Fig. 88 represents some Georgians. 

The Circassian Family. 

The Circassian Family, collected in the Caucasian mountains, is 
composed of a population distinguished for their bravery, but very 
feebly civilised. The native Circassian is much more hostile to the 
Russian than the Georgian, and rather than assimilate with the Mus- 
covite, he emigrates to Turkey. What with migration, guerilla war- 
fare, and contagious diseases — e.g., small-pox — Circassia is becoming 
rapidly depopulated. The Circassian type has in the whole of the 
East a great reputation for beauty, and it deserves it. Most Circassians 
have a long oval face, a thin straight nose, a small mouth, large dark 
eyes, a well-defined figure, a small foot, brown hair, a very white skin, 
and a martial appearance. In affinity with the Circassians are the 
Abases, who speak a dialect akin to Circassian. They are semi- 
barbarous, and live on the produce of their herds and from the spoil 
of their brigandage. Their features show no sign of Circassian grace. 
They have a narrow head, a prominent nose, and the lower half of 
their face is extremely short. 

The Mingrelians. inhabitants of Mingrelia, a little kingdom on 
the shores of the Caspian Sea, resemble the Georgians in physical 
appearance, in manners, and in customs. 


The Yellow Race has also been called the Mongol Race, from the 
well-defined features of one of the families it comprises. 

The principal characteristics which distinguish the individuals 
and the families belonging to the Yellow Race are, high cheek-bones, 
a lozenge-shaped head, a small flat nose, a flat countenance, narrow 
obliquely-set eyes, straight coarse black hair, a scanty beard, and a 
complexion of a greenish hue. 

However, all the members of the Yellow Race do not exhibit these 
distinct features. Sometimes they show but a few of them, whilst 
others of their characteristics would seem to identify them with the 
Caucasian group. It is thus very difficult to make the proper 
divisions in this race. 

We shall sepante it into three branches — the Hyperborean, the 
Mongolian, and ths Sinaic branches. 




The Hyperborean branch is composed of the various races 
inhabiting the districts in the vicinity of the North 1'ole, small in 
stature, and possessing the principal characteristics of the Yellow 

The people belonging to the Hyperborean branch are nomadic, 
and their only domestic animals are the dog and the reindeer. They 
are spread over a vast surface, but are few in number. They support 
themselves by hunting and fishing. They are passionately fond 
of strong drinks, and their civilisation is of a very rudimentary 

Some of these people might perhaps be more properly classed 
under the Mongolian branch. Possibly some even should be 
classified in the White Race, for they have lost, under the influences 
of climate and of their mode of life, the distinguishing characteristics 
of the Yellow Race. As it is very difficult to make a natural classi- 
fication of these people, we shall retain that set up by M. D'Omalius 

This naturalist distinguishes, amid the people who compose the 
Hyperborean branch, seven families, taking the affinities of language 
as a basis. These are the Lapp, the Samoiede, the Kamtschadale, 
the Esquimaux, the Je/u'ssian, the Jukaghirite, and the Koriak 

The LAtP Family. 

The Laplanders are thin and short, but pretty strong and active. 
Their head is " disproportionately large. They have a round skull, 
wide cheek-bones, the broad flat Mongol nose, a protruding fore- 
head, and goggle eyes. Their complexion is a yellowish-brown, and 
their hair is usually black. This curious race of men is divided into 
two distinct classes, the nomadic Laplander and the sedentary 



The sole property of the former is his herd of reindeer. He takes 
these to the high grounds, and after spending the months of June, 
July, and August there, returns in September to his winter quarters. 

Fig. 89. — Laplanders. 

In his journeys to and fro, he uses the reindeer as beasts of burden. 
When the ground is covered with snow, he harnesses these useful 
quadrupeds to his sledge (Fig. 89). 

Dogs are also used as draught animals in Lapland. On the borders 
of the scanty forests of Lapland and Siberia, the inhabitants of these 



barbarous countries may often be seen gliding rapidly by on a sledge 
drawn by dogs. 

The usual life of the nomadic Laplander is about as wretched as 
can well be imagined. A tent stretched on four uprights is his abode, 
summer and winter. The fireplace is in the middle of the tent, and 
the smoke escapes through an opening in the top. Five or six 
reindeer skins stretched round the fire form the beds of the whole 
family, to which the surrounding smoke serves as the only curtain. 
Their furniture consists of an iron pot and a few wooden pails. The 
Laplander carries in his pocket a horn, a spoon, and a knife. He often, 

Fig. 90. — A Lapp Cradle. 

instead of wooden pails, makes use of the bladdeis of the reindeer. 
In them he carries the milk mixed with water which is his daily 

This nomadic race, which formerly occupied a part of Sweden, is 
now much diminished in numbers. Thirty years ago their number, 
counting all that could be found in Russian, Norwegian, and Swedish 
Lapland, came to only twelve thousand. 

The sedentary Laplander is usually some poor reindeer proprietor, 
who having ruined himself, and being unable to continue the life of 
a wandering herdsman, becomes a beggar or a servant. If he has 
still a little money left, he settles down on the sea-coast, and turns 
fisherman, while his wife spins wool. His existence in the midst of 
men of a different race is then a solitary one. He is a regular 

Fig. 91.— Samoiedes of the North Cape. 


Dariah, despised by both Swede and Norwegian. His hut, "his dress, 
his customs, are all different to those of the people amongst whom 
he has taken shelter. His children are not allowed to marry into 
any of the neighbouring families, and he is utterly and entirely 
alone amid strangers. 

In his " Travels in the Scandinavian States " M. de Saint- 
Blaize tells us how he suddenly fell in with an encampment of 
Laplanders in the night-time. A hundred deer, whose immense 
antlers, interlaced the one with the other, produced the effect of 
a little forest, were grouped around the camp fires. Two young 
Laplanders and some dogs watched over the safety of the whole. 
Hard by were the tents. An old Laplander and his wife offered 
the traveller some reindeer milk. It was very oily, and reminded him 
of goat's milk. 

The same traveller tells us that if a Laplander's wife gives birth 
to a child when she is on a journey, she places it in a piece of hollow 
wood, with the opening fenced in with wire, to give play to the baby's 
head. This log, with its precious contents, is then placed on the 
mother's back, and she rejoins the rest. When they halt, she hangs 
this kind of wooden chrysalis to the bough of a tree, the wire pro- 
tecting the child from the teeth of wild animals (Fig. 90, p. 238). 

The Samoiede Family. 

The Samoiedes are a wandering race, spread over both sides of 
the great Siberian promontory ending in North Cape. Some of their 
tribes are also to be met with pretty far to the west, to the east, and 
to the south of this region. They support themselves by hunting 
and fishing on th^ borders of the Frozen Ocean. They bear much 
resemblance to the Tunguses, of whom we shall speak later. Their 
face is flat, round, and broad, their lips are thick and turned up, and 
their nose is wide and open at the nostrils. Their hair is black and 
coarse, and they have but little on their face. Most of them are 
rather under the middle size, well-proportioned, and rather thick-set 
(Figs. 91, 92). They are wild and restless in disposition. 

The Kamtschadale Family. 

We can just make a note of the Kamtschadales, with whom 
the navigators of the Arctic seas have been for a long time acquainted. 
They inhabit the southern portion of the peninsula that bears their 
name. They are short men, with a tawny skin, black hair, a meagre 



beard, a broad face, a short flat nose, small deep-set eyes, scanty 
eyebrows, immense stomachs, and thin legs. 

More to the south, in the Kurile Islands, and on the adjacent 
continent, we meet with a race differing widely from the preceding 

Fig. 92.— Samoiedes. 

one. They are the inhabitants ot these islands, and are called 
Amos. They are of short stature, but their features are regular. 
The most remarkable of their physical characteristics is the extraor- 
dinary development of their hair. They are the hairiest of men, and 


it is this peculiarity which makes us allude to them. Their beards 
cover their breasts, and their arms, neck, and back are covered with 
hair. This is an exceptional peculiarity, particularly with men of the 
Mongol type. 

The language spoken by the Amos is strikingly like that spoken 
by the Samoiedes and by some of the inhabitants of the Caucasus. 
Their bodies are well formed, and their disposition is gentle and 
hospitable. They live by hunting and fishing. 

The Esquimaux Family. 

Greenland and most of the islands adjacent to this portion of the 
American continent are inhabited by a people that have received the 
common name of Esquimaux, or Eskimo, to adopt the Danish 
spelling now very generally in use, and who constitute a very 
numerous family. 

The principal and the most numerous tribes of the Esquimaux 
family belong to the American continent. But as they are quite 
distinct from the other inhabitants of this continent, and as they have 
a much greater resemblance to the people of Northern Asia, and 
to the Mongols, it is here that we mention them.* 

Their eyes are black, small, and wild, but show little vivacity. 
Their nose is very flat, and they have a small mouth, with the lower 
lip much thicker than the upper one. Some have been seen with 
plenty of hair on their face. Their hair is usually black, and always 
long, coarse, and unkempt. Their complexion is dark, though when 
their skin is washed it is fairer than that of most American tribes — 
the Queen Charlotte Islanders and some of the extreme northern 
tribes excepted. They are thick-set, have a decided tendency to 
obesity, and are seldom more than five feet or five feet four inches 
in height. 

During a journey undertaken by Dr. Kane, of New York, to the 
79th degree of northern latitude, this bold explorer spent more than 
two years amongst the Esquimaux who live at Etah, the nearest 
human abode to the North Pole. Men, women, and children, covered 
only by their filth, laid in heaps in a hut, huddled together. A lamp, 
with a flame sixteen inches long, produced by burning seal oil, 

* It is, however, only just to state that some writers of eminence (Rink and 
Brown, for example) consider them only as a Hyperborean family of American 
Indians, who are again of Mongol origin. Vide "Races of Mankind," by Dr. 
Robert Brown. Vol. i., Cassell & Co., L'mited. 



warmed and lighted the place. Bits of seal's flesh, from whence 
issued a most horrible ammoniacal odour, lay upon the floor of this 

fig- 93- — Esquimaux Summer Encampment. 

Fig. 93 represents the summer encampment of a tribe of Esqui- 
maux, and Fig. 94 a winter one. Fig. 95 represents a village 
— that is to say, a collection of huts made of blocks of snow, 
wl ich shelter from the excessive cold these disinherited children 
of Nature. 



The seals from the Bay of Rensselaer provide the Esquimaux 
with food during the greater part of the ) ear. More to the south, as 
iar as Murchison's Channel, the whale penetrates in due season. 

Fig. 94. - Esquimaux Winter Encampment. 

The winter famine begins to cease when the sun reappears. January 
and February are the months of hardship ; during the latter part of 
March the spring fisheries re-commence, and with them movement 
and life begin anew. The poor wretched dens covered with snow 
are then the scenes of great activity. The masses of accumulated 



provisions are then brought out and piled up on the frozen ground; 
the women prepare the skins to make shoes of, and the men make a 
reserve store of harpoons for the winter. The Esquimaux are not 
lazy. They hunt with a good deal of pluck, and are often forced to 
hide their game in excavations, that the wild beasts may not get at 
it. Their consumption of food is very great. They are large eaters, 

Fig- 95 —Esquimaux Village. 

not from greediness, but of necessity, on account of the extreme cold 
of these high latitudes. 

Fig. 96 represents, according to Doctor Kane, the chief of an 
Esquimaux tribe. 

Doctor Hayes, in his " Journey to the Open Sea of the North 
Pole," published in 1866, has described the Esquimaux type: — A 
broad face, heavy jaws, prominent cheek-bones, a narrow forehead, 
small eyes of a deep black, thin long lips, with two narrow rows of 

Fig. 96. — Esquimaux Chiet. 



Fig. Q7< — Esquimaux Bird-C3tchcr. 

sound teeth, jet-black hair, a little of it on the upper lip and on the 
chin ; small in stature, but stoutly built, and a robust constitution of 



a vigorous kind ; such are the distinguishing characteristics of the 
people of the far north. 

The Esquimaux style of dress seemed pretty much the same for 
both sexes ; a pair of boots, stockings, mittens, skin trousers, and a 
"jumper," or hooded skin jacket reaching to the waist. The father-in- 
law of one of his travelling companions wore boots of bearskin coming 

up to the knee, whilst those of 
his wife reached much higher, 
and were made of seal leather. 

The "jumper," made of the 
skin of the Arctic fox, does not 
open in front, but is put on 
like a shirt. It ends in a hood 
covering the head like the cowl 
of a monk. The women cut 
their coat to a point. Their 
hair they gather together on the 
top of the head, and tie up in a 
knot, by means of untanned 
straps of sealskin. This is shown 
in Fig. 93 (p. 244), and in Fig. 
98 is represented a young Esqui- 

Seal-hunting is the chief oc- 
cupation of the Esquimaux. The 
seal is a providential animal to 
the wild inhabitants of the shores 
of the Frozen Ocean of America, 
as the reindeer is the godsend of 
the Laplanders, inhabitants of 
the shores of the chilly regions 
of the north of Europe. 

The eggs of the sea birds, 
particularly of the little auk or 
"rotje," are a second source of 
food to these people, to gather which, on the steep and giddy 
cliffs where their nests are found, the Esquimaux run all sorts of 
risks (Fig. 97). 

They have no system of notation, and can assign no date to past 
events. They have no annals of any kind or sort, and do not even 
know their own age. In Danish Greenland and Labrador the natives 
are all Christians, and are greatly mixed with European blood. 

Fig. 98. — Young Esquimaux. 

XORIAKS. 2 5 1 

Temisian Family. 

This people is more generally known under the name of Ostiaks 
of Temisia. They speak a very different language from that of the 
Ostiaks of the Obi, whom we have already mentioned as belonging 
to the White Race. 


These are wandering people, becoming more and more absorbed 
in the Russian population. They live on the shores of Behring's 
Straits, or in the interior, and much resemble the Samoiedes in their 
customs and in their language. 




The peoples belonging to this ethnologic branch exhibit the 
characteristics of the Yellow Race in the most prominent manner. 
They are fond of the nomadic life, and have at different periods 
made wide conquests ; but they have, as a rule, become absorbed in 
the races they have overcome. The Mongols are still, however, the 
rulers of the Chinese Empire. They belong either to the Buddhist 
or to the Mahometan faith. 

This branch is divided into three great families, analogous with 
the differences in their language : the Mongols, the Tunguses, and 
the Turks. We may add to them a fourth family, the Yakuts, for 
these latter possess the physical characteristics of the Yellow Race 
and speak a Turkish dialect. 

The Mongol Family. 

The most decided features of the Yellow Race are particularly 
prominent in the Mongol family. Its members have a larger head, a 
flatter fare and nose, and smaller eyes than those of the other 
families. They have a broad chest, a very short neck, round 
shoulders, strong thick-set limbs, short bow-legs, and a brownish- 
yellow complexion. The most nomadic of the Mongol family live 
under the rule of the Russian and the Chinese Empires. 

Fig. 99 represents a Mongol Tartar. 

Three principal nations are to be found in this family : the 
Kalmuks, the Mongols proper, and the Buriats. 

Kalmuks. — M. Vereschaguine, in his " Journey in the Caucasian 
Provinces," has described the nomadic Kalmuks whom he met with 
on the frontier separating the Caucasus from the district of the 
Cossacks of the Don. Travelling villages are found on these dreary 
and monotonous steppes. The habitations of which these villages are 
composed consist of tattered tents. These contain, mixed up in an 



incredible confusion, boxes, cases, lassoes, saddles, and heaps of 
rags. A hearth is the only sign of a fireplace. During the heat of 
summer, the children of both sexes, up to the age of ten, run about 

Fig. 99. — A Mongol Tartar. 

almost entirely naked. In winter, in the midst of their terrible snow- 
storms, and when the thermometer is below zero, they remain for 
days together huddled up in their tents beneath heaps of their 

A Kalmuk's dress consists of a shirt, of a bechmet. of a wide pair 


of trousers, of red leather boots, and of a square cloth cap with a 
broad border of sheepskin fur, generally ornamented with an im- 
mense knob on the top. The more wealthy wear besides an ample 
and lengthy dressing-gown. The women do not, like the men, wear 
a belt round their shirt. Their hair falls from beneath their cap in 
several plaits tied up with ribbons of different colours. 

Cunning, trickery, fraud, and theft are the staple occupations 
of these nomadic tribes. The mother supports her child without the 
father troubling himself about it, and it grows up in a state of neglect. 

The food of the Kalmuks is extremely primitive. Boiled flour, 
diluted with water and cooked up with pieces of horseflesh, forms the 
staple of their culinary art. They are fond of tea, and drink a great 
deal of it, but they season it so highly as to entirely lose its flavour. 
They are downright drunkards into the bargain, and in this respect 
the women and the children are not a whit behind the men. They 
sometimes spend whole days in gambling with greasy and ill-assorted 

The Kalmuks are capital horsemen. They also breed and break 
in camels, which they sell in the Tillis market. 

Mongols proper. — The Mongols proper, or the Eastern Mongols, 
wander in the steppes of Mongolia. They are divided into numerous 
tribes, of which the most important have received the name of 

Mongolia may be divided into two parts, as distinct by their 
political proclivities as by the nature and produce of their soil. 

The southern part, an arid district, is only inhabited in the 
vicinity of the Chinese frontier, where numerous tribes of Mongol 
origin, direct tributaries of the Chinese Empire, are to be found. 
The northern division, entirely populated by Khalkas tribes, is fertile. 

The Khalkas are subdivided into two castes : the Buddhist 
priests, and the black men who allow their hair to grow. The latter 
possess an aristocracy, leading like the rest a pastoral life, from whom 
are selected the chiefs of the tribes, chosen by election. The Khalkas 
could bring into the field at least fifty thousand horsemen ; but they 
are wretchedly armed with worthless Chinese double-edged sabres. 
These are notched or spiral-shaped. Their other weapons are short 
spears, arrows, matchlocks with queer-shaped breeches, shields stuffed 
with sheets of leather, and coats of wire mail. 

The life of a wandering Khalkasian is very uneventful. He 
begins his day by going round his flocks, and mounted on a horse 
which is never unsaddled, and which has spent the night fastened to 





a stake at the door of his tent, he gallops after the animals that have 
strayed away ; then he bends his steps to a neighbouring camp to 
gossip with the herdsmen it contains. Returning home, he squats in 
his tent for the remainder of the day, and kills time by sleeping, 
drinking tea diluted with milk or butter, or by smoking his pipe ; 
while his wives draw water, milk the cows, collect fuel, make cheese, 
or prepare wool and the skins of various animals for clothes and 

The Khalkas, hospitable and sober, possess the primitive 
virtues of the Yellow Race; but they are unacquainted with either 
commerce or manufactures. The only things they produce are felt 
stuffs, a little embroidery, and some poorly-tanned skin and leather. 
They dispose of their raw produce to Russian and Chinese traders, 
who cheat them as much as they can. The payments are made in 
blocks of tea, five blocks being an equivalent to one ounce of Chinese 
silver. This tea is composed of the coarsest kind of leaf and of the 
small twigs of the herb. 

The dull and contemplative existence of the Khalkasian has few 
events to interrupt it. It is broken only by a pilgrimage, by a 
funeral followed by long festivities, by the arrival of a few travellers, 
or by a marriage. This last is, as among the ancient patriarchs, 
only a species of barter, in which the girl is sold by her father to the 
highest bidder, and is an excuse for a week's rejoicing, in which all 
concerned revel in orgies of meat, tobacco, and rice brandy. 

The Buriats. — Mademoiselle Lisa Christiani, in the course of her 
travels in Eastern Siberia, received the chiefs of some Buriat tribes 
who had made known their desire to pay her their respects. She 
met on the following day, on the banks of the Selinga, an escort, sent 
by the Buriats in her honour, composed of three hundred horsemen, 
dressed in splendid satin robes of various colours, and wearing pointed 
caps trimmed with fur , they carried bows and arrows in their shoulder- 
belts, and bestrode richly-caparisoned horses (Fig. 100). It was in 
this manner the traveller made her first acquaintance with this tribe. 

At the time Mademoiselle Christiani fell in with them, the Buriats 
were celebrating the obsequies of one of their principal chiefs. The 
travellers were present at the funeral service and ceremonies, which 
were performed in a Mongol temple, and afterwards at the games 
which took place according to their ancient custom. These games 
included archery, wrestling, and horse and foot races. A banquet 
followed, at which roast mutton, cheese, cakes, and even some capital 
champagne were served to the guests. 


The Buriats number about thirty-five thousand men, dwelling in 
the mountains to the north of Baikal. Their herds and flocks con- 
stitute their wealth. Their religion is Shamanism, a species of idolatry 
very prevalent amongst the inhabitants of Siberia, and closely corre- 
sponding to the creed of pagan Greenland. Their supreme god 
inhabits the sun ; he has under his command a host of inferior 
deities. Amongst these barbarous people woman is considered an 
unclean and soulless being. 

The Tungusian Family. 

The Tungusian family consists of two divisions, the Tunguses to 
the north and the Manchus to the south-east. 

The Tunguses. — The Tunguses, who are scattered in Siberia from 
the Sea of Okhotsk to Ienissia and to the Arctic Ocean, are nomadic, 
and live on the produce of their hunting and fishing. Daouria, to the 
north of China, is their native country. Those who live under the 
Russian Government are classified, according to the domestic animals 
constituting their principal resources, as dog Tunguses, horse Tun- 
guses, and reindeer Tunguses. 

The nomadic Tunguses of Daouria were described at the close of 
the last century by the Russian naturalist, Pallas, the same who found 
on the shores of the Lena the antediluvian mammoth, still covered 
with its skin and coat of hair, the discovery of which caused so much 
excitement in Europe. 

Manchus. — Fig. 101 represents the type of this race. We do not 
think it necessary to speak of them. 

The Yakut Family. 

The countenance of the Yakuts is still flatter and broader than 
that of the Mongols. Their long black hair flows naturally round 
their heads, while but little grows on their faces: they keep one tress 
very long, to which they tie their bow to keep it dry when they are 
obliged, in the course of their wanderings or whilst out hunting, to 
swim across deep rivers. 

We shall take a few details about the country of the Yakuts and 
its inhabitants from the interesting travels of Ouvarouski, republished 
in the " Tour du Monde." The land of the Yakuts has two different 
aspects. To the south of Yakutsk it is covered with lofty rocky 
mountains ; to the west and to the north, it is a plain on which grow 



Fig. ioi. — Manchiis Soldiers. 

thick and bushy trees. It contains numberless streams of consider- 
able depth and width. The inhabitants, however, content themselves 
with boats made of planks or wooden and bark canoes, only capable 
of holding two or three persons. The reindeer is die principal means 
of conveyance used by the Yakuts. 


The severity of the cold is very great in this country — greater, 
perhaps, than in any other part of Siberia. Its population is not 
more than two hundred thousand. The Yakuts (Figs. 102 and 103) 
are stoutly made, though only of middle height. Their countenance 
is rather Hat, and their nose is of a corresponding width. They have 
either brown or black eyes. Their hair is black, thick, and glossy. 
They seldom have any on their faces. Their complexion is between 
white and black, and changes three or four times a year ; in the 
spring, from the action of the atmosphere ; in the summer, from that 
of the sun ; and in winter, from the cold, and from the effects of 
the heat of their fires. They would make bad soldiers, as their 
peaceful disposition forbids them from ever fighting ; but they are 
active, lively, intelligent, and affable. In their encampments their 
provisions are at the service of every traveller who seeks their hospi- 
tality. Let his stay last a week, or even a month, there is always 
more than enough for both himself and his horse. They are fond of 
wine and tobacco, but they endure hunger and thirst with remarkable 
patience. A Yakut thinks nothing of working for three or four days 
without either eating or drinking. 

But let us quote Ouvarouski, the author of the description of the 
customs of the Yakuts : — 

" The land of the Yakuts," says this traveller, " is so extensive 
that the temperature varies very much. At Olekminsk, for instance, 
wheat thrives capitally, because there the white frost comes late ; at 
Djigansk, on the contrary, the earth always remains frozen two spans 
below the surface, and the snow begins to fall in the month of 

" The Yakuts are all baptised in the Russian faith, two or three 
hundred of them perhaps excepted. They obey the ordinances of 
the church, and go annually to confession, but few receive the 
sacrament. They neither go out in the morning nor retire to rest 
at night without saying their devotions. When chance has be- 
friended them they thank the Lord ; when misfortune overtakes 
them they regard it as a punishment inflicted by the Almighty for 
their sins, and, without losing heart, patiently await better times. 
In spite of these praiseworthy sentiments they still preserve some 
superstitious beliefs, particularly the custom of prostrating themselves 
before the devil. When long sicknesses and murrains prevail, they 
cause their shamans to practise exorcisms and sacrifice cattle of a 
particular colour. 

"The Yakuts are very intelligent. It is sufficient to hold an hour 
or two's conversation with one of them to understand his feelings, 



his disposition, and his mind. They easily comprehend the meaning 
of elevated language, and guess from the very beginning what is 
about to follow. Few even of the most artful Russians are able to 
deceive a Yakut of the woods. 

" They honour their old men, follow their advice, and consider it 
wrong and unjust to offend and irritate them. When a father has 

Fig. 102. — Yakuts. 

several children, he gets them married one after the other, builds a 
house for them next to his own, and shares with them his cattle 
and his property. Even when separated from their parents, their 
children never disobey them. When a father has but one son, he 
keeps him with him, and only separates from him if he loses his wife 
and marries a second who brings him other children. 

" The wealth of a Yakut is estimated in proportion to the number 
of cattle he possesses. The improvement of his herds is his first 
thought, his principal wish ; he never thinks of putting by money till 
he has succeeded in this object. 


" Anger is acclimatised among all nations ; the Yakut is no 
stranger to it, but he easily forgets the grudge he may owe to any 
one, provided the latter acknowledges his wrong and confesses 
himself to blame. 

" The Yakuts have other failings, which must not be attributed to 
an innate bad disposition. Some of them live on stolen cattle, but 
these are only the needy ; when they have taken enough to feed them 
two or three times from the carcase of the stolen beast, they abandon 
the rest. This shows that their only motive is hunger, from which 
they have suffered perhaps for months and years. Besides, when the 
thief is caught, their princes (kinces, from the Russian kniaz) have 
him whipped with rods, according to ancient custom, before every- 
body. The man who has undergone this punishment carries its 
degradation with him to the day of his death. His evidence can 
never be again listened to, and his words are of no weight in the 
assemblies where the people meet to deliberate. He can be chosen' 
neither as prince nor as starsyna (from the Russian starchina, ancient). 
These customs prove that theft has not become a profession among 
the Yakuts. The thief is not only punished, but never regains the 
name of an honest man. 

" Let a Yakut once determine to master some handicraft, and he 
is sure to succeed. He is at one and the same time a jeweller, a 
tinker, a farrier, and a carpenter ; he knows how to take a gun to 
pieces, how to carve bone, and, with a little practice, he can imitate 
any work of art he has once examined. It is a pity that they have 
no instruction to teach them the higher arts, for they are quite 
capable of executing extraordinary tasks. 

"They are wonderful shots. Neither cold nor rain, neither 
hunger nor fatigue, can stop them in the pursuit of a bird or an 
animal. They will follow a fox or a hare for two entire days, without 
minding their own fatigue or the exhaustion of their horse. 

"They have a good deal of taste and inclination for trade, and 
are so well up in driving a hard bargain for the smallest fox or sable 
skin, that they always get a high price for it. 

" The gun-stocks that they manufacture, the combs they cut and 
ornament, are works of great finish. I may also remark that their 
ox-hide leather bottles never get foul, even if they are left for ten years 
full of liquid. 

" Many of the Yakut women have pretty faces; they are cleaner 
than the men, and, like the rest of their sex, are fond of dress and fine 
things. Nature has not left them without charms. They cannot be 
called bad, immoral, or light women. They pay the same honour to 



Fig. 103.— A Yakut Woman. 


their father and mother, and to the aged parents of their husband, as 
they do to the Deity. Their head and their feet they never allow to 
be seen stripped. They never pass the right side of the hearth, and 
never call their husbands' relations by their Yakut names. The 
woman who is unlike this description is looked upon as a wild beast, 
and her husband is considered extremely unlucky." 

Fig. 104 represents a Yakut village and villagers. 

The Yakuts profess Shamanism, an idolatrous religion practised 
by the Finns, by the Samoiedes, by the Ostiaks, by the Buriats, by the 
Teleouts, by the Tunguses, and by the inhabitants of the Pacific 
Islands. Shamanists worship a supreme being, the creator of the 
world, but indifferent to human actions. Under him are male and 
female gods : some good, who superintend the government of the 
world and the destinies of humanity ; the others evil, the greatest of 
whom (Chaitan, Satan) is considered to be nearly as powerful as the 
supreme being. Religious veneration is also paid to their ancestors, 
to heroes, and to their priests, called Shamans; these latter in their 
ceremonies practise a great deal of sorcery. 

Fig. 105 represents some of these Shamans. 

The Turkish Family. 

The people belonging to the Turk or Tartar family succeeded in 
founding, in very ancient times, a vast empire, which included a part 
of Central Asia from China up to the Caspian Sea. But the Turks, 
attacked and conquered by the Mongols, were subdued and driven 
back towards the south-west, that is to say, to the south of Europe. 
There they became in their turn conquerors, and overcame, after 
laying it waste, a portion of Southern Europe. 

The Turks had origrnalhy red hair, greenish-grey eyes, and a 
Mongolian cast of countenance. But these characteristics have 
disappeared. It is only the Turks who nowadays dwell to the 
north-east of the Caucasus who possess the characteristics of the 
Mongols. Those who are settled in the south-west exhibit the features 
peculiar to the white race, with black hair and eyes. The fusion of 
the former with the Mongols, of the second with the Persians and 
the Arameans, explain these modifications. The Turks, more than 
all nations, manifest the deepest zeal for Mahometanism, and show 
the greatest intolerance for the followers of other creeds. 

The Turkish family comprises rather a large number of races. 
We shall consider here cnly the Turkomans, the Kirghis, the JVogajs, 
and the Os man/is. 



Fig. 104. — Yakut Villagers. 


The Turkomans. — The Turkomans wander in the steppes of 
Turkestan, Persia, and Afghanistan. They stray as far as Anatolia 
to the west. The tribes who dwell in this last district have the shape 
and the physical characteristics of the White Race ; those who in- 
habit Turkestan show in their physiognomy the admixture of Mongol 

The Turkoman is above the middle height. He has not strongly- 
developed muscles, but he is tolerably powerful, and enjoys a robust 
constitution. His skin is white ; his countenance is round ; his cheek- 
bones are prominent ; his forehead is wide, and the development of 
the bony part of the skull forms a kind of crest at the top of the 
head. His almond-shaped and nearly lidless eye is small, lively, and 
intelligent. His nose is unusually insignificant and turned up. The 
lower part of his face retreats a little, and his lips are thick. He has 
scanty moustachios and beard, and his ears are large and protruding. 

The Turkoman's dress consists of wide trousers falling over the 
foot and tight at the hips, and of a collarless shirt open at the right 
side down to the waist, falling, outside' the trousers, half-way down 
the thigh. Outside these an ample coat is fastened round the waist 
by a cotton or wool belt. It is open in front and slightly crossed 
over the chest. Its sleeves are very long and very wide. A little 
skull-cap is worn instead of the hair, and is covered with a kind of 
headdress, called talbac, made of sheep skin, in the shape of a cone 
with a slightly depressed summit. His shoes are a sort of slipper, or 
simply a sandal of camel or horse-skin fastened to the foot by a 
woollen cord. 

The type is more strongly defined in the Turkoman women than 
in the men. Their cheek-bones are more prominent, and their com- 
plexion is white. Their hair is generally thick but very short, and 
they are obliged to lengthen their tresses with goat-hair loops and 
strings, to which they fasten glass beads and silver pearls. 

We shall not describe their dress, but shall only observe that they 
wear a round cap on their head, to which they fasten a silk or cotton 
veil falling backwards. The whole is surrounded by a kind of turban 
of the breadth of three fingers, on which are some little squares of 
silver. One end of the veil is brought under the chin from right to 
left, and is fastened, by a little silver chain ending in a hook, on the 
left side of -the face. 

Trinkets, necklaces, bracelets, and chains play such a prominent 
part in the adornment of the Turkoman women, that a dozen of them 
together drawing water make as much tinkling as the ringing of a 
small belL 



Fig. 105 —Yakut Piiests. 


The men wear no ornament. 

Fig. 106 represents a camp of nomadic Turkomans. 

They are not so much given to horse-racing as some people 
believe. Captain Spalding, in his work on "Khiva and Turkestan,'* 
says they indulge in this pastime only on high days and holidays. 
The distance ran rarely exceeds 1,160 yards. There are rarely 
more than five, or six at the outside, competitors started, and 
most of the time is taken up with "false starts" and "preliminary 
canters." The prize is a strip of cotton stuff (white or coloured), one 
or two metres long, and the winner having got this from the president 
of the races, comes back waving it in triumph. If he wants to 
compete again, he ties it to his horse's neck ; but the Turkomans are 
merciful to their steeds, so much so, that they will not permit the 
same horse to be run in more than two or three races on the same 

M. de Blocqueville, who published in 1866, in the "Tour da 
Monde," the curious account entitled "Fourteen Months' Captivity 
among the Turkomans," describes as follows the habits of these 
tribes : — 

" Women are treated with more consideration by the Turkomans 
than by other Mussulmans. But they work hard, and every day have 
to grind the corn for the family food. Besides this, they spin silk, 
wool, and cotton ; they weave, sew, mill felt, pitch and strike the 
tents, draw water, sometimes do some washing, dye woollen and silk 
stuffs, and manufacture the carpets. They set up out of doors, in the 
fine weather, a very primitive loom made of four stakes firmly fixed 
in the ground, and, with the assistance of two large cross-pieces on 
which they lay the woof, begin the weaving, which is done with an 
iron implement composed of five or six blades put together in the 
shape of a comb. These carpets, generally about three yards long 
and a yard and a half wide, are durable and well made. Every tribe 
or family has its own particular pattern, which is handed down from 
mother to daughter. The Turkoman women are necessarily endowed 
with a strong constitution to be able to bear all this hard work, during 
which they sometimes suckle their children, and only eat a little dry 
bread, or a kind of boiled meat with but little nourishment in it. It 
is especially turning the grindstone that wears them out and injures 
their chest. 

" In their rare intervals of leisure they have always got with them 
a packet of wool or of camel's hair, or some raw silk, that they spin 
whilst they are gossiping or visiting their neighbours ; for they never 
remain quite idle, like the women of some Mussulman countries. 



Fig. 106. — Turkoman Encampment. 

"The man has also his own kind of work : he tills the soil, tends 
the crops, gets in the harvest, takes care of the domestic animals, and 
sometimes starts on plundering expeditions in order to bring home 


some booty. He manufactures hand-made woollen rope; cuts out 
and stitches together the harness and clothing of his horses and 
camels ; attempts to do a little trade, and in his leisure moments 
makes himself caps and shoes, plays on the doutar (an instrument 
with two strings), sings, drinks tea, and smokes. 

" These tribes are very fond of improving themselves, and of 
reading the few books that chance throws into their hands. 

" As a rule the children do not work before their tenth or twelfth 
year. Their parents up to that age make them learn to read and 
write. Those who are obliged to avail themselves of their children's 
assistance during the press of summer labour, take care that they 
make up for lost time in the winter. 

"The schoolmaster (?)ioI/ah — priest, or man of letters) is content 
to be remunerated either in kind, with wheat, fruit, or onions ; or in 
money, according to the parents' position. Each child possesses a 
small board, on which the mollah writes down the alphabet or what- 
ever happens to be the task ; this is washed off as soon as the child 
has learned his lesson. 

"The parents satisfy themselves that their children know their 
lessons before they set out for school : the women in particular are 
vain of being able to read. The men sometimes spend whole days in 
trying to understand books of poetry which come from Khiva or 
Bokhara, where the dialect is a little different to their own. 

" The Turkoman mollahs spend some years in these towns, to 
enable themselves to study in the best schools. 

"All these tribes are Mahometan, and belong to the Sunnite sect. 
The only external difference between them and the Persians of the 
Shiite sect, who recognise Ali as Mahomet's only successor, consists, 
as is well known, in their mode of saying their devotions and of 
performing their ablutions. 

" Whilst at their prayers they keep their arms crossed in front of 
them from the wrist upwards only, instead of keeping them by their 
side like the Persians. 

"Although they follow pretty regularly the precepts of theii 
religion, they show less fanaticism and ostentatious bigotry than 
most other Easterns whom I have seen. For instance, they will 
consent to smoke and eat with Jews. 

" Every Turkoman has an affection for his tribe, and will devote 
himself, if need be, for the common weal. Their proper and dignified 
manners are far beyond comparison with those of their neighbours — 
even the inhabitants of Bokhara and Khiva, whose morals have 
become corrupted to a painful degree. I have seldom seen quarrels 


and disturbances amongst the Turkomans. Sometimes I have been 
present at very lively and animated discussions, but I never heard 
any low abuse or bad language, as in other countries. They are 
less harsh towards their women, and show them more consideration 
and respect than do the Persians. 

" When strangers are present, the women pass an end of their vul 
under their chin and speak in a low voice, but they are saluted and 
respected by the visitors, and enter into conversation with them 
without any harm being thought of it. 

"A woman can go from one tribe to another, or make a journey 
along an unfrequented road, without having to fear the least insult 
from any one. 

" When a Turkoman pays a visit, he makes his appearance in one 
invariable manner. He lifts the door of the tent, bowing as he enters, 
then comes to a stop and draws himself up to his full height After a 
pause of a few seconds, during which he keeps his eyes fixed on 
the dome of the tent, probably to give the women time to cover 
their chins, he quietly pronounces his salutation without making the 
slightest gesture. After exchanging civilities and inquiries about the 
health of relations and friends, the master of the tent begs the visitor 
to take a seat on the carpet beside him. The wife then offers him a' 
napkin with a little bread, or bread and water, or some sour milk, or 
a little fruit The stranger discreetly only takes a few mouthfuls of 
what is offered to him." 

Captain H. Spalding, in his work on "Khiva and Turkestan," 
gives an interesting and graphic account of some of the social 
customs of the Turkomans. He says: — "Almost all Turkomans 
feed in the same way. In the morning, a morsel of bread, with 
garlic or some sort of soup, according to their means. Almost all 
of them have a sheep or goat in the vicinity of the tent, which they 
fatten for special occasions. Meat is divested of skin, cut into small 
pieces, and salted ; a part of it is dried, and acquires then a 
peculiar taste (not unlike that of the pheasant), of which the Turko- 
mans are very fond ; the rest is cut up into small pieces, destined 
for the preparation of hot soup. They collect the bones and other 
remains of the slaughtered animal, and boil them in saucepans, 
reckoning that the broth thus formed will suffice at the coming 
feast for all the guests. They give the entrails to the children, who 
char them on the coals, and then for whole days together suck these 
hardly-cleahsed intestines. 

"Their soup is thus prepared : — The wife places some fresh or 
salt meat in the saucepan. Its odour soon spreads through tlffc 


neighbourhood, and attracts to the spot various neighbours, who, 
distaff in hand, on some pretext or other visit their acquaintance, sit 
down by the fireplace, and engage her in conversation. Each in turn 
stirs with a wooden spoon the meat in the saucepan, and afterwards 
licks off the fat remaining on it When the meat commences to boil, 
the mistress of the house takes out some pieces with her hands, and 
presents them to her guests, concealing, however, the best pieces for 
herself. She then pours some jugs of water into the saucepan, and 
sprinkles the remaining morsels with pepper and salt. When it is 
completely boiled, the meat is placed upon large wooden plates, on 
which bread has been previously crumbled. All wash their hands 
before dinner ; but this is done evidently as a matter of form only, for 
Turkoman hands could not be washed clean by water alone. When 
the soup is finally ready, the head of the household, having given 
thanks to God, gives the signal for all present to occupy places round 
the wooden bowls. The men eat apart from the women and children. 
First they eat the soup, which is, however, almost entirely absorbed 
by the pieces of bread thrown into it ; then they seize on the bread 
and meat, and, having consumed it, they scrape up with a spoon, 
which passes from hand to hand, the remaining moisture from the 
plates. After dinner, each tries to pick up as much of the food as he 
can with his hands ; nor does he occupy the dinner-hour with in- 
teresting conversation, or anything of that sort, for eating among the 
Turkomans proceeds in a very rapid and methodical manner. 

"At the conclusion of the repast all lick their hands, and rub them 
to the end of the fingers, in order that they may be covered with 
grease on their entire surface ; then they wipe their faces with their 
greasy hands, with the object of communicating to it their softness 
and polish ; and lastly, the third operation consists in rubbing the 
feet or boots (if they wear boots) with fat. Wherefore one can, by 
looking at the boots of a Turkoman, tell at a glance whether he is full 
or fasting. 

"When all are sufficiently rubbed with grease, the elders in the 
centre wash their hands, keeping them even with their countenances, 
and saying at the same time, ' Bvom Allah, al rahman, al raheem ! 
Allah Akber !' (' Praise be to Allah, the merciful and gracious! Allah 
is great !') when all present stroke their chins with their hands, the 
men likewise their beards in their whole length." 

Attention has of late been much directed to the Turkomans, 
owing to the Russian invasion of the Khivan tribe of this race 
Slavery was the pretext for this war ; and it may be mentioned that 
the Turkomans are inveterate slave-dealers. In spite of their 




K1RGHIS. 275 

professed enthusiasm for their religion, they will steal or buy and sell 
followers of the Prophet even as soon and as ruthlessly as those 
unbelievers they call " infidels." " A holy but hypocritical brigand was 
asked," says Captain Spalding, " how he could reconcile it with his 
conscience thus flatly to transgress the ordinances of the Prophet, 
who forbids the sale of the faithful into bondage." His audacity, 
however, was equal to the occasion, for he replied, " The Koran is a 
divine book, and consequently nobler than man ; yet it is bought for 
a few crowns. And better still, if Joseph, the son of Jacob, was a 
prophet, and yet they sold him, did that hurt him in any way ?" These 
tribes have been almost decimated by the Russians, and Khiva has 
been practically annexed, so that they have paid rather dearly for 
such casuistical apologies for their " peculiar domestic institution." 

The Kirghis. — The Kirghis (Fig. 107) are a nomadic tribe. 
They inhabit the tract of country situated on the frontiers of the 
Russian and Chinese Empires. They wander to and fro on wide- 
spreading plains, from Lake Baikal to the borders of the Siberian 

They travel armed, and always prepared either for war or for the 
chase. As wild beasts attack men when by themselves, they nearly 
always travel on horseback in troops. 

For the matter of that, the Kirghis never get off their horses. 
All business is settled, and all merchandise is bought and sold on 
horseback. There is in a town, by name Shouraiahan, where the 
sedentary Kirghis reside, a market-place where buyers and sellers do 
all their business without leaving the saddle. The Kirghis are much 
below the middle height. Their countenances are ugly. Having 
scarcely any bridge to their nose, the space between their eyes is flat 
and quite on a level with the rest of their face. Their eyes are 
long and half closed, the forehead protrudes at the lower part, and 
retreats at the top. Their big puffy cheeks look like two pieces of 
raw flesh stuck on the sides of their faces. They have but little 
beard, their body is not at all muscular, and their complexion is a 
dark brown. 

The Kirghis are something like the Uzbeks, a race whom we can 
only just mention, but the latter, living in a temperate climate, are 
tall and well made, while the former, under the influence of a rigorous 
one, are short and stunted. 

Both these people possess a certain kind of civilisation in spite of 
their nomadic habits. In the districts in which they are in the custom 


of travelling, they have established relays of horses, a very necessary 
adjunct to their mode of life. 

The Nogays. — The Nogays, who once constituted a powerful 
nation on the shores of the Black Sea, are now scattered among other 
peoples. Many of them still wander in nomadic tribes, on the steppes 
between the banks of the Volga and the Caucasian mountains. Others 
who have settled down are tillers of the soil or artisans. Such are 
those to be met with in the Crimea or in Astracan. M. Vereschaguine 
came across some Nogays on the Caucasian steppes. This Russian 
traveller says that they are peaceful and laborious, and more capable 
of becoming attached to the soil than the Kalmuks, whom they 
resemble a great deal in their mode of life and in their habits and 

The Osmanlis. — The most important members of the Turkish 
family are now the Osmanlis. The Osmanlis were the founders of 
the Turkish Empire and the conquerors of Constantinople. 

A tendency to a nomadic mode of life is a strong instinct with 
this race. It degenerated as soon as it settled down anywhere, and 
this perhaps is the cause of the decline of the Turkish nation, which 
at present inhabits South-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. 

The residence in Europe and the civilisation of the Osmanli 
Turks date from the Hegira of Mahomet in the seventh century after 

Physically speaking, their outlines would seem to ally them to the 
Caucasian race. This was the reason that they were so long classified 
among the White or Caucasian race ; but most modern anthropologists 
place them in the Yellow Race. 

The head of the Osmanli Turk is nearly round. The forehead 
is high and broad : the nose is straight, without any depression at its 
bridge or widening at the nostrils. 

The Turkish head does not resemble the European head. It 
has a peculiar abrupt elevation of the occiput. Its proportions, 
however, are very good. Mongol descent can be traced in its shape, 
but scarcely in a perceptible manner, if the features of the face alone 
are to be taken into account. 

The Turks, in general, are tall, well-made, robust men, with a 
rough but often noble physiognomy, a slightly tawny complexion, 
and brown or black hair. Their carriage is dignified, and their 
natural gravity is still further increased by the ample folds of their 
dress, by their beard, by their moustachios, and by that imposing 



Fig. 108. — A Harem. 


headdress, the turban. They are the most recent of all the races of 
Asian descent who have become Europeanised, and they still pre- 
serve, especially in Turkey in Asia, the habits, the costumes, and the 
belief that distinguished them three centuries ago. 

Now, as then, the Turks, like Easterns in general, restrict them- 
selves to a frugal and principally vegetable diet. They drink no 
wine. Bodily exercises, such as riding on horseback and the use of 
arms, develop their strength. Their hospitality is dignified and 
ceremonious. They are small talkers, are much given to devotion, 
at least to its outward and visible signs ; and they dwell in quiet, 
unpretending houses surrounded by gardens. The Turk is a stranger 
to the feverish life of our European capitals. Lazily reclining on his 
cushions, he smokes his Syrian tobacco, sips his Arabian coffee, 
and seeks from a few grains of opium an introduction into the land 
of dreams. 

Such is Turkish life among the higher classes. The common 
people and the labourers have none of these refinements of existence. 
Yet the lower classes are less unhappy in Turkey, and in the East in 
general, than are those of European nations. Eastern hospitality is 
not an empty word. A wealthy Mussulman never sends empty away 
the wretched who seek his assistance. Besides, it takes so little to 
support these temperate, healthy people, and the earth so plentifully 
supplies vegetable produce in the East, that poor people can always 
find food and a roof to cover them. The Caravanserai are public 
inns, where travellers and workmen are lodged for nothing ; and the 
hospitality shown to the unfortunate wayfarer by the country land- 
owners is really patriarchal. 

Polygamy is less in vogue in Turkey and in the East than is 
supposed. A Turkish woman being a very expensive luxury, that is 
to say, being in the habit of doing nothing and of spending a great 
deal, it is only very rich Mussulmans that can allow themselves the 
pleasure of supporting more than one wife, more especially as each 
wife requires to have a separate establishment kept up. Sometimes, 
indeed, the bride's parents insert a clause in the marriage contract, 
by which the husband gives up his right as a Mahometan to possess 
four or even more wives than one. 

Besides their legitimate wives, the wealthy and the great keep a 
collection of Georgian and Circassian slaves in the lonely sets of 
rooms, closed by Eastern jealousy to all prying eyes, which are called 
harems (Fig. 108) and not seraglios. It is only within these isolated 
apartments that Turkish women, whether wives or concubines, allow 
their faces and arms to be seen. Out of doors they are always 



Fig. 109 — A Harem Supper. 

wrapped up in a triple set of veils, which conceal their features 
from the keenest eye. 

Mahomet permitted women to abstain from taking part in public 
prayer in the mosques. It is therefore only in the interior of the 


harem that any gathering of Mussulman women can take place. It 
is there, too, that they give one another parties and entertainments. 

An erroneous impression of the Turkish woman's position is 
prevalent in Europe. Many European women would be glad to 
exchange their lot in life and their liberty for the supposed slavery of 
the Turkish women. Of course, we are only alluding here to their 
material position, and not speaking from a moral point of view. 

The Turkish lady is born to total and complete idleness. A 
young girl who, at fourteen years of age, cannot only sew fairly, but 
can actually read, is considered a very well educated person. If 
she can also write, and is acquainted with the elementary rules of 
arithmetic, she is quite learned. The woman of the middle classes 
never condescends to trade, she is always idle. Even the poor 
woman rarely works, and then only when it suits her. 

The Turkish woman, then, to whatever class she may happen to 
belong, is a votary of the far niente. To drive away ennui, the 
wealthier make or receive visits or give frequent parties. In the 
harems of the rich, each lady receives her friends in her own room. 
There they talk, sing, or tell one another stories. They listen to 
music, they go to pantomimes, to dances, and walk in the gardens. 
They pass the long hours agreeably by taking baths together, by 
swinging in hammocks, by smoking the narguilhe, and by giving 
elegant little dinner parties. 

An evening party in a harem {la Knlva) is rather a rare occurrence, 
f :>r night festivities are not among Mussulman habits. No man is 
present at these parties. As the guests arrive, the lady of the house 
begs them to be seated, and places them side by side on a divan 
with their legs crossed under them, or leaning on one knee. Coffee and 
a tchibouk with an amber mouthpiece are handed round. Small 
portions of fruit jelly are served on a silver embossed dish. Each 
guest, after a little ceremonious hesitation, helps herself with the 
only spoon in the dish, and which everybody uses. Each then puts 
her lips to a large tumbler of water which follows the jelly. 

General and animated conversation then begins. The maids of 
the lady of the house seat themselves so that every one can see them, 
and begin to sing, accompanying themselves on the harp, on the 
mandolin, on little kettledrums, or on tambourines. Afterwards 
other young girls go through a kind of pantomimic dance. When 
the music and the dances are over, they play games of cards, and the 
party winds up with a supper (Fig. 109). 

Pleasure out of doors has other attractions. The Turkish ladies 
of the middle class frequent the bazaars and pay one another visits. 







There are three kinds of these visits : visits that have been an- 
nounced beforehand, unexpected visits, and chance visits. The last 
are the most curious. Several ladies collect together and go about 
in the different quarters of the town, paying visits to people whom 
they have never seen (Fig. iio). 

Walking parties in Constantinople are regular picnics. On 
Sundays and Fridays people leave town provided with all sorts of 
refreshments. The sultans have constructed on some of the public 
walks overhanging terraces, which overlook pieces of water, and 
form level plots of ground. Tumblers and conjurors, musicians and 
dancers give performances on these terraces. Picturesque knots of 
women, clad in their white yaschmaks, which cover the whole face 
and only reveal the nose, are to be seen there. Long flowing over- 
dresses of a thousand different hues envelop the rest of their figure. 

The Turk may be lazy, but he is not at all unsociable, and many 
of his characteristics indicate a great deal of gentleness. Like the 
Indians and the ancient Egyptians, the Turks — and Easterns in 
general — have a great repugnance to the killing of animals. Dogs 
and cats abound, and swarm in the streets of the large towns, but no 
measures are ever taken to prevent the multiplication and the running 
wild of these animals. In Constantinople flocks of pigeons fly hither 
and thither, and levy on the barges laden with wheat a species of 
black mail that no one disputes with them. The banks of the canals 
are thickly peopled with aquatic animals, and their nests are safe 
even from the hands of children, in our country such cruel enemies 
to their broods. This forbearance is extended even to trees. If it 
is true that in China the law requires every landowner who fells a 
tree to plant one in its stead in another spot, it is equally true in 
Turkey that custom forbids an avaricious landowner from depriving 
either town or country of useful and wholesome shade. The wealthy 
townsmen make it a point of honour to embellish the public pro- 
menades with fountains and with resting-places, both of which, on 
account of the frequency of ablutions and of prayers required by the 
Mahometan religion, are indispensable. Those who can only 
perceive in the Turkish nation coarseness, ignorance, and ferocity, 
have been deceived by the pride natural to a Mussulman, which is 
made the more offensive by his silent and sometimes abrupt manners; 
but the basis of the Mussulman character contains nothing to offend. 
The Turks are only what it is possible for them to be with their 
lamentable institutions and their faulty laws. 

Their law, we know, is simply despotism, which is carried out 
from the sultan down to the lowest official, unchecked by any 


guarantee of equity or of justice to individuals. The sultan {padishah, 
meaning great lord), appoints and dismisses at pleasure every digni- 
tary and every official ; he is the master of their fortunes and of their 
life. But anarchy is rife in the kingdom, and the sultan's authority 
is not always obeyed. Paschas have attacked and annihilated the 
troops sent to drive them from their governorships ; others have been 
known to dispatch to Constantinople the head of the general sent to 
crush and degrade them. Under the sultan, legislative and executive 
authority is vested in the grand vizier and " sheik-ul-islam " — i.e., the 
heads of the temporal and spiritual interests of the country. Though 
both are appointed by the sultan, the concurrence of the priesthood is 
nominally necessary in the appointment of the "sheik-ul-islam." The 
empire is divided into vilagets, or governments, which are divided 
into sandjaks, or provinces, of which districts or " kazas " are still 
smaller subdivisions. A vali and council is at the head of the 
administration of each government or "vilaget." 

The paschas are the governors of the provinces. Their rank is 
reckoned by the number of their standards or tails. They unite 
under one head the military and civil power, and by a still greater 
abuse they are deputed to collect the taxes. They would be abso- 
lute sultans in their own provinces if the law did not leave the 
judicial authority in the hands of the cadis and the naibs. 

A pascha with three tails has, like the sultan, the power of life 
and death over all the agents he employs, and even over all who 
threaten public safety. He keeps up a military force, and marches 
at their head when called on by the sultan. A pascha has under his 
orders several beys, or lieutenant-governors. 

. The interior organisation of Turkey may be described as a 
military despotism. The Turkish nation continues to administer 
its conquest as if it were a country taken by assault ; it leads the life 
of an army encamped in the midst of a conquered state. Everybody 
and everything is the property of the sultan. Christians, Jews, and 
Armenians are merely the slaves of the victorious Ottoman. The 
sultan graciously allows them to live, but even this concession they 
are obliged to purchase by paying a tribute, the receipt for which 
bears these words: "In purchase of the head." It must be stated 
that birth confers no exclusive legislative privileges. All subjects, 
from the highest to the lowest, are eligible for the highest offices in 
the state. All the faithful followers of the prophet are equal before 
the law. 

The same principle is carried out in regard to land. The Turks 
have no proprietary rights ; rhey merely enjoy the usufruct of their 


possessions. When they die without leaving a male child the sultan 
inherits their property. Sons can only claim a tenth part of their 
paternal inheritance, and 'the fiscal officials are ordered to put an 
arbitrary value on this tenth part. The officers of the state do not 
even enjoy this incomplete right ; at their death everything reverts to 
the sultan. 

Under such laws it is not to be wondered at if nobody cares to 
undertake expensive and lasting works. Instead of building, people 
collect jewels and wealth easy to carry off or to conceal. 

The sultan, like a man embarrassed with such an abuse of power, 
shifts the cares of government on to the shoulders of the grand 

The grand vizier is the lieutenant of the sultan. He is the com- 
mander-in-chief of the army, he manages the finances, and fills up all 
civil and military appointments. 

But if the power of the grand vizier is limitless, his responsibility 
and the dangers he incurs are equally great. He must answer for all 
the state's misfortunes and for all public calamities. The sword is 
always suspended over his head. Surrounded by snares, exposed to 
all the tricks of hatred and envy, he pays with the price of his life the 
misfortune of having displeased either the populace or the highest 
officials. The grand vizier has to govern the country, with the assist- 
ance of a state council (divan) composed of the principal ministers. 
The reiss effendl is the high chancellor of the empire, and the head of 
the corporation of the kodja, or men of letters. This corporation, 
which has managed to acquire a great political influence, contains at 
the present time some of the best informed men of the nation. The 
duty of watching over the preservation of the fundamental laws of the 
empire is entrusted to the uiema, or corporation of theological and 
legal doctors. 

These laws are very short : they consist only of the Koran and 
of the commentaries on the Koran drawn up by ancient pundits. 
The members of this corporation bear the title of ulemas, or effendis. 
They unite judicial to religious authority ; they are at the same time 
the interpreters of religion, and the judges in all civil and criminal 

The mufti is the supreme head of the ulema. He is the head of 
the church. He represents the sultan's vicar, as caliph or successor 
to Mohamet. The sultan can promulgate no law, make jio declara- 
tion of war, institute no tax, without having obtained a fetfa, or 
approval from the mufti. 

The mufti presents every year to the sultan the candidates for 


the leading judicial magistracies ; these candidates are chosen from 
the members of the ulema. The post of mufti would be an excellent 
counterpoise to the authority of the sultan, if the latter had it not in 
his power to dismiss the mufti, to send him into exile, and even to 
condemn him to death. 

The foregoing political and judicial organisation seems at first 
sight very reasonable, and would appear to yield some guarantee to 
the subjects of the Porte. Dishonesty unfortunately prevents the 
regular progress of these administrative institutions. The venality of 
officials, their greed, and their immorality, are such, that not the 
smallest post, not the slightest service, can be obtained without 
making them a present. Places, the judges' decisions, and the 
witnesses' evidence are all bought. False witnesses abound in no 
country in the shameless way they do in the Turkish Empire, where 
the consequences of their perjury are the more frightful, since the 
cadi's decision is without appeal. Justice is meted out in Turkey as 
it was meted out three hundred years ago among the nomadic tribes 
of the Osmanlis. After a few contradictory pieces of evidence, after 
a few oaths made on both sides, without any preliminary inquiry, and 
without any advocates, the cadi, or simply the naib, gives a decision, 
based upon some passage of the Koran. The penal code of this 
ignorant and hasty tribunal merely consists in fining the wealthy, in 
inflicting the bastinado on the common people, and in hanging 
criminals right out of hand. 

Yet Turkey possesses a kind of system of popular representation. 
The inhabitants of Constantinople elect ayams, real delegates of the 
people, whose business it is to watch over the safety and the property 
of individuals, the tranquillity of the town, to oppose the unjust 
demands of the paschas, the excesses of the military, and the unfair 
collection of taxes. These services are gratuitously performed by 
the most trustworthy men among the inhabitants. The ayams under- 
take all appeals to the pascha, when there exist any just grounds of 
complaint, and if he does not satisfy them, they carry their appeal to 
the sultan. 

Every trade and handicraft in Turkey possesses a kind of guild or 
corporation which undertakes to defend the rights of the association 
and of its individual members. The humblest artisan is protected in 
all legal matters by this corporation. It is unnecessary to say that 
the corporation enforces its rights before the judges by pecuniary 

It is a great mistake to imagine that the Mussulman religion pre- 
dominates in Turkey. In Turkey in Europe not more than a quarter 



• Fig. in. — A Turkish Barber. 


of the population profess the creed of Mahomet. The remainder are 
Christians, subdivided into the leading sects of that faith. The 
Greeks, the Servians, the Wallachians, and the inhabitants of Monte- 
negro belong to the eastern Greek Church. The Armenians are 
numerous, and are the more powerful on account of their known 
character for austerity and honesty. Other religious communities, 
'such as the Jakobites, called Kopts in Egypt, the Nestorians, and the 
Maronites, have some influence, from the unity which reigns among 
their different sects ; the Druzes, for instance, defy the Mahometans 
to their very face. There are more Jews in Turkey in Europe than 
in any other country. 

All these brotherhoods, excepting the Druzes and the Maronites, 
were formerly deprived of the free right of worship, were liable to 
marks of ignominy, and were handed over, defenceless, to injustice. 
But in the beginning of our century, an edict of the Sultan declared 
all his subjects, regardless of their religion, equal in the eyes of 
the law. 

Mahometanism, which prevails in Turkey, and in the greater 
portion of the East, dates from the 6ioth year of our era. Its prin- 
cipal doctrines are purification, prayer, and fasting. The fasting 
takes place in the month of Ramazan, a month which is the Mussul- 
man's Lent, and during which all food must be abstained from in the 
daytime. It is followed by the festival of Beyram, during which the 
faithful are allowed to make up for their preceding abstinence. A 
legal charity is instituted by their creed. It consists in giving every 
year to the poor a fortieth part of their movable property. Another 
religious injunction is the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every Mussul- 
man is obliged to undertake at least once in his lifetime. 

Their devotions -take place five times a day. Friday is the day 
of rest for the Mahometans, as Sunday is that of the Christians, and 
Saturday that of the Jews. 

Mahometanism has inherited from the ancient Arabs the practice 
of circumcision. Mussulmans are forbidden -to drink intoxicating 
drinks, but are allowed to marry four wives, and to make concubines 
of their female slaves. Their religion deprives them of all liberty of 
will, as it tells them that everything that can happen, either for evil 
or for good, is settled beforehand. It is this fatalism that paralyses 
all individual enterprise, and prevents the march of progress. 

Mahometanism has not been more exempt than other creeds 
from schisms, which have brought to pass religious wars always so 
terrible in their consequences. 

Its precepts, which have their advantages from a religious point 




Fig. 112. — Turkish Porter. 


of view, have many disastrous consequences when we regard the 
physical constitution of mankind. The interdict on the use of wine, 
for instance, has given rise to the secret consumption of alcoholic 
drinks, and to the public use of opium. 

The Turks, although their literary civilisation is still in its infancy, 
possess a system of public education. The mosques of Constan- 
tinople, of Erousa, and of Adrianople, have colleges attached to 
them. Young men are sent from all parts of the Mussulman empire 
to these colleges, where they receive some amount of education. 
When they have finished their course of study, in which the commen- 
taries on the Koran play the principal part, and when several exami- 
nations have tested their proficiency, the pupils' receive the title of 
mudir or professor. All civil and judicial posts are monopolised by 
this educated class. 

But in Turkey, what knowledge there is remains absorbed among 
a small quantity of individuals ; no channel exists for the free inter- 
communication of ideas. 

Their kodhis, or writers, have indeed given their fellow-countrymen 
a large number of works, much esteemed by them — works on the 
Arabic and Persian languages, on philosophy, on morality, on Mus- 
sulman history, and on the geography of their country. But these 
writings, whatever their value, never reach the mass of the nation. 
There are but few printing presses in Turkey ; the copyist's art, such 
as it existed in Europe in the middle ages, still flourishes there. 
The state of literature in Turkey shows us what modern civilisation 
would have become in Europe, without the assistance of the printer. 

With this general want of literary and scientific knowledge, we 
naturally expect to find Turkey far behindhand in art,, in manu- 
factures, and in agriculture. The latter, in fact, is in a sad state 
throughout the whole extent of the Ottoman empire. Manufactures 
exist in a few towns ; in Constantinople, in Salonica, in Adrianople, 
and in Rustchuk. Their principal manufactures are carpets, morocco 
leather, a little silk, thread, and swords. Their commerce consists 
in the export of their raw produce, such as wool, silk, cotton, 
leather, tobacco, and metals, particularly copper ; wine, oil, and 
dried fruit are aiso largely exported. The Turks are good cloth 
manufacturers, gunsmiths, and tanners. Their works in steel and 
copper, and their dyes, are equal to the best articles of European 

The Greeks, who are very numerous in Turkey, follow all kinds 
of trades and callings. They make the best sailors of the Ottoman 
Empire, while the Armenians are its keenest traders. The latter 

TURKS. 29 1 

travel all over the interior of Asia and India ; they have branch 
establishments and correspondents everywhere. Most of them, while 
pursuing some mechanical art, are at the same time the bankers, the 
purveyors, and the men of business of the pachas, and other great 
officials. Jews show in a less favourable light in Turkey than in 
Europe ; any business suits them, if they can make something 
out of it. 

Figs, in (p. 287) and 112 (p. 289) represents two common 
Turkish types — a barber and a street porter. 




The nations belonging to the Sinaic branch (from the Latin Siti>r, 
Chinese) have not the features of the Yellow Race so well defined as 
those belonging to the Mongolian branch. Their nose is less fiat- 

Fig. 113. — Indo-Chinese of Stiin^ l'reng. 

tened, their figures are better, and they are taller. They early acquired 
rather a high degree of civilisation, but they have since remained 
stationary, and their culture, formerly one of the most advanced in the 
world, is now very second-rate compared to the progress made by the 
inhabitants of Europe and America. Chemical and mechanical arts 
were early practised and carried very far by nations belonging to the 





Sinaic branch. Living under a despotic government, and accustomed 
to abjectly cringe to those in authority, this race developed a peculiar 
taste for ceremony and etiquette. Their language is monosyllabic, 
their writing is hieroglyphic, and these facts perhaps account for the 
scant progress made by their civilisation in modern times. 

The Sinaic branch comprises the Chinese, the Japanese, and the 
Indo-Chinese families. 

The Chinese Family. 

The Chinese, amongst whom, out of all the Yellow Race, civilisa- 
tion was the first to develop itself, have the following characteristic 
features : — Width and flatness in the subocular part of the face, promi- 
nent cheek-bones, and obliquely-set eyes. Their features as a whole 
partake of the type of the Mongol race : that is to say, they have a 
broad coarse face, high cheek : bones, heavy jaws, a flat bridge to their 
nose, wide nostrils, obliquely-set eyes, straight and plentiful hair, of 
a brownish-black colour with a red tint in it, thick eyebrows, scanty 
beards, and a yellowish-red complexion. Fig. 113 represents the 
Indo-Chinese of Stung Treng, and Fig. 114 the Indo-Chinese of 

They constitute the principal population of the vast empire of 
China, and extend even further. Many having settled in Indo-China, 
in the islands of the Straits, and in the Philippine Islands. China in 
four thousand years has been governed by twenty-eight dynasties. 
The emperor is merely an ornamental wheel in. the mechanism of the 
Chinese government, the councillors possessing the real power. Cen- 
tralisation plays a powerful part in the administrative organisation of 
the country. The emperor's authority is founded on a secular and 
patriarchal respect, boundless in its influence. Veneration for old age 
is a law of the state. Infirm old men, too poor to hire litters, are 
often seen in the streets of Pekin, seated in little hand carriages, 
dragged about by their grandchildren. As they pass, the young 
people about receive them respectfully, and leave off for a moment 
their play or their work. The government encourages these feeling:; 
by giving yellow dresses to very old men. This is the highest mark 
of distinction a private individual can receive, for yellow is the colour 
reserved for the members of the Imperial family. 

Their respect for their ancestors is also carried very far by the 
Chinese. They practise a kind of family worship in their honour. 

There are many different creeds in China. The Buddhist faith, 
so widely spread in Asia, is the most general ; but the higher classes 


follow the precepts of Confucius. But great religious toleration exists 
in the Celestial Empire. The men of the higher classes affect a well- 
founded contempt for the external forms of worship, and the mass of 
the people do not attach much importance to them. Many widely 
differing creeds are seen side by side throughout the whole empire. 

The Buddhist priests are called Bonzes. 

The position of women is in China a humble one. She is con- 
sidered inferior to man, and her birth is often regarded as a mis- 
fortune. The young girl lives shut up in her father's house ; she takes 
her meals alone ; she fulfils the duties of a servant, and is considered 
one. Her calling is merely to ply the needle and to prepare the 
food. A woman is her father's, her brother's, or her husband's pro- 
perty. A young girl is given in marriage without being consulted, 
without being made acquainted with her future husband, and often 
even in ignorance of his name. Fig. 1 1 5 represents a young 

The wealthy Chinese shut their wives up in the women's apart- 
ments. When their lords and masters allow them to pay one another 
visits, or to go and see their parents, they go out in hermetically 
closed litters. They live in a wing of the building, reserved for their 
use, where no one can see them. 

It is otherwise amongst the poorer classes. The women go out 
of doors with their faces uncovered ; but they pay dearly for this 
privilege, for they are nothing but the beasts of burden of their 
husbands. They age very rapidly. 

Polygamy exists in China, but only on sufferance. A man of rank 
may have several wives, but the first one only is the legitimate one. 
Widows are not allowed to re-marry. Betrothals often take place 
beiore the future husband and wife have reached the age of puberty. 
A betrothed girl who loses her betrothed can never marry another. 

A marriage ceremony at Pekin takes place as follows : — The 
bride goes in great state to the dwelling of the bridegroom, who 
receives her on the threshold. She is dressed in garments em- 
broidered with gold and silver. Her long black tresses are covered 
with precious stones and artificial flowers Her face is painted, her 
lips are reddened, her eyebrows are blackened, and her clothes 
are drenched with musk. Many of the Chinese women have the 
complexion and the good looks of Creoles ; a tiny well-shaped 
hand, pretty teeth, splendid black hair, a slender, supple figure, and 
obliquely-set eyes with a piquancy of expression that lends them 
a peculiar charm. The drawback to their appearance is their 
lavish use of paint, and their small, crippled feet. Fig. 117 (p. 301) 




Fig. 115. — A Young Chinese. 

2qS the human rack. 

represents a Chinese lady, Fig. n8 (p. 303) a Chinese woman, and 
Fig. 119 (p. 305) a mandarin's daughter. 

The Tartar and Chinese ladies composing the court of the 
empress, as well as the wives of the officials residing in the capital, 
do nothing to distort their feet, except to wear the theatrical buskin, 
in which it is very difficult to walk. But a Chinese woman, of good 
middle class family, would think herself disgraced, and would have a 
difficulty in getting a husband, unless she had crippled her feet. This 
is what is done to give them a pleasing appearance. The feet of 
little girls of six years of age are tightly compressed with oiled band- 
ages ; the big toe is bent under the other four, which are themselves 
folded down under the sole of the foot. These bandages are drawn 
tighter every month. When the girl has grown up,, her foot presents 
the appearance of a closed fist. Women with their feet mutilated 
in this manner walk with great difficulty. They move about with a 
kind of skip, stretching out their arms to keep their equilibrium. 

Another of their conventional points of beauty is to wear their 
finger-nails very long. For fear of breaking them they cover them 
with little silver sheaths, which they also use as ear-picks. 

A quantity of toilet accessories gives a peculiar appearance to the 
costume of the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire. Fans, parasols, 
pipes, snuff-boxes, tobacco-pouches, spectacle cases, and purses, are 
all hung at the girdle by silken strings. The use of the fan is common 
to both sexes, of all classes. Fig. 116 is an expressive picture of a 
Chinese shopkeeper. 

The kdng, at once a bed, a sofa, and a chair ; some mats stretched 
upon the floor; and a few chairs or stools with cushions on them, are 
to be found in every room of a Chinese house. The interior of these 
dwellings is a true citadel of sloth. The Chinaman squatted on his 
mat, dallying with his fan and smoking his pipe, is amused at the 
European, who actually takes the trouble to use his legs. 

To give a more exact idea of domestic Chinese life, we shall give 
a few extracts from the interesting travels of M. de Bourboulon, a 
French consul in China, edited by M. Poussielgue, and published in 
the "Tour du Monde" in 1864. 

" A Chinese palace," says M. Poussielgue, " is thus laid out : 
more than half the site is taken up with alleys, courts, and gardens, 
crowded with rockwork, rustic bridges, fishponds full of goldfish, 
aviaries stocked with peacocks, golden pheasants, and partridges from 
Pe-tche-li, and especially a quantity of painted and varnished porce- 
lain and earthenware jars, containing miniature trees, vines, jessa- 
mines, creepers, and flowers of all kinds. The principal room on the 



Fig. 116. — Chinese Shopkeeper. 


ground-floor opens on to the ground ; a piece of open trellis-work 
separates it from the sleeping apartment. The ground-floor also 
comprises the dining-room, the kitchen, and sometimes a bath-room. 
When there is a second storey, called leon, it contains bed and lumber 
rooms. The entrance-hall is invariably sacred to the ancestors and 
to the guardian spirits of the family. In every room the kang, which 
serves as a bed, a sofa, or a chair, and thick mats, laid upon the 
floor, are to be met with. The actual furniture is scanty ; a few 
chairs and stools made of hard wood, with cushions placed on them ; 
a small table in red lacquer-work ; an incense burner ; some gilt or 
enamelled-bronze candlesticks ; flower-stands and baskets of flowers ; 
some pictures drawn on rice paper ; and finally the inevitable tablet 
inscribed with some moral apothegm, or a dedication to the ancestors 
of the master of the house. There are no regular windows ; a few 
square openings, pierced in the side wall where the rooms open on a 
court or garden, or inserted beneath the double beams supporting 
the roof where the apartment might be overlooked from the street or 
from the neighbouring houses, allow a dim light to penetrate through 
the cross laths of their wooden lattices which serve as fixed blinds to 
them (Figs. 120 and 121, pp. 307, 309). 

"The wealthy, abandoning themselves to luxurious idleness, spend 
half their existence in these secluded chambers ; it is almost impossible 
for a European to procure admittance to them, for communicative 
as the Chinese are in business, at festivals, or at receptions, they are 
extremely reserved on all points concerning their domestic life. 

" Physical idleness is carried to an enormous extent in China ; 
it is considered ill-bred to take walks, and to use the limbs. Nothing 
surprises the natives more than the perpetual craving for exercise 
that characterises Europeans. Squatted on their hams, they light 
their pipes, toy with their fans, and jeer at the European passers-by, 
whose firm measured footsteps carry them up and down the street. 
It is necessary to make excuses for coming neither on horseback nor 
in a palanquin, when paying an official visit, for to do so on foot is a 
sign of but little respect for the person visited. 

" The palanquin is in constant use. Large depots of these, where 
one can always be hired at a moment's notice, are established in 
Pekin. A palanquin carried by six coolies costs about a piastre per 
day ; with four coolies half a piastre ; with only two, a hundred 
sapecas. The French Legation keeps twenty-four palanquin porters, 
dressed in blue tunics with tricolour collars and facings. Palanquins 
are usually open both in front and behind ; they have a small window 
at the side, and a cross-plank on which the passengers sit 



Fig. 117- — Chinese Lady. 

"The rage for gambling is one of the curses of China; a curse that 
has begotten a thousand others, in all ranks and at all ages. One 


meets in the streets of Pekin a quantity of little movable gaming 
stalls ; sometimes consisting of a set of dice in a brass cup on a 
stand, sometimes a lottery of little sticks marked with numbers, 
shaken up by the croupier in a tin tube. We saw crowds round these 
sharpers, and the passing workman, yielding to the irresistible temp- 
tation, loses in an hour his day's hard earnings. The coolies attached 
to the French army used thus to lose their month's pay the day after 
they got it; some of them having pledged their clothes to the croupiers, 
who do a little pawnbroking into the bargain, had to make their 
escape amid the jeers of the mob, and used to return to the camp 
with nothing on but a pair of drawers. 

" Cock and quail fighting are still practised as an excuse for 
gambling by the Chinese, who stake' large sums on the result. The 
wealthy and the mercantile classes are just as inveterate gamesters as 
the common people ; they collect in the tea-houses, and spend day 
and night in playing at cards, at dice, at dominoes, and at draughts. 
Their cards, about five inches long, are very narrow, and are a good 
deal like ours, with figures and pips of different colours marked on 
them. The game most in vogue seems to be a kind of cribbage. 
Their draughtsmen are square, and the divisions of the board are 
round. Their dominoes are flat, with red and blue marks. They play 
at draughts also with dice, a sort of backgammon. Professional 
gamblers prefer dice to any other game, as it is the most gambling of 
all. When they have lost all their money they stake their fields, 
their house, their children, their wives, and, as a last resort, them- 
selves, when they have nothing else left, and their antagonist agrees 
to let them make such a final stake. A shopkeeper of Tientsin, who 
was minus two fingers of his left hand, had lost them over the dice- 
box. The women and children are fond of playing at shuttlecock; it 
is their favourite game, and they are very expert at it. The shuttle- 
cock is made of a piece of leather rolled into a ball, with one or two 
metal rings round it to steady it ; three long feathers are stuck into 
holes in these rings. The shuttlecock is kept up with the soles of 
their slippers, which they use instead of battledores; it is very seldom 
allowed to fall." Flying kites is another important amusement in 
China — not one confined to children, but indulged in even by the 
" most potent, grave, and reverend " seniors, from the emperor down- 
wards. On the ninth day of the ninth moon " Kite-day" occurs, and 
the whole of it is spent by the inhabitants of the cities flying kites on 
the hills in the country. The kites are gaily painted and quaintly 
cut. They represent all sorts of objects, birds, insects, fishes, dragons, 
tigers, &c, and as many as half a dozen will be kept flying on one 



string only, so that the spectator may often see fluttering in the air 
a group of hawks or dragons, or a shoal of fishes, so skilfully do the 
Chinese manage to fly these gaudy paper toys. 

"Gambling," says M. de Bourboulon, "which paralyses labour, is 
one of the permanent causes of their pauperism, but there is another, 
still more disastrous— dissipation. The thin varnish of decency and 

Fig. 118.— Chinese Woman. 

restraint with which Chinese society is covered conceals a widespread 
corruption. Public morality is only a mask worn above a deep de- 
pravity surpassing all that is told in ancient history, and all that is 
known of the dissipated habits of the Persians and Hindoos of our 
own day. 

" Drunkenness, as understood in Europe, is one of the least of 
their vices. The use of grape wine was forbidden, centuries ago, by 
some of their emperors, who tore up all the vine-trees in China. This 
interdiction having been taken off under the Manchii dynasty, grapes 
are crrown for the use of the table, but the only wine that is drunk is 


rice wine, or samchow. A spirit as strong as our brandy is extracted 
from this, as well as from coarse millet seed. It induces a terrible 
form of intoxication. The abuse of it by our soldiers in the Chinese 
campaign caused a great deal of fatal dysentery in the army. 

"The tea-houses also sell alcoholic liquor, but the eating-houses 
and the taverns drive the largest trade in it. 

" We cannot speak of the process of the manufacture of tea, nor 
of the vast amount ot labom it employs: the subject properly belongs 
to southern China ; we shall only say that the use ot tea is as common 
in the north as in the south. The moment you enter a house tea is 
offered to you. It is a sign of hospitality to do so. It is given to you 
in profusion. The moment your cup is empty a silent attendant fills 
it, and your host will not permit you to mention the subject of your 
visit till you have drunk a certain quantity. The tea-houses are as 
numerous as cafh and taverns in France ; the elegant manner in 
which they are furnished, and their high charges, distinguish some 
from others. The rich trader and the idle man of fashion, not caring 
to mix with the grimy-handed workman or the coarse peasant, only 
frequent those houses that have a fashionable reputation. Tea-houses 
can be recognised by the large range at the end of their rooms, fitted 
up with huge kettles and massive teapots, with ovens and stoves, 
supplying with boiling water immense caldrons as big as a man. A 
singular kind ot timepiece is placed above the range ; it is made of 
a large moulded bar ot incense, divided oft by equidistant marks, so 
that the lapse of hours can be measured by its combustion. The Chinese 
can thus literally use the expression, "consuming the time." Morning 
and evening the rooms are full of customers, who, for two sapecas, 
the price of entrance, can sit there and discuss their business, play, 
smoke, listen to music, or amuse themselves by looking at the feats 
of tumblers, jugglers, and athletes. For the two sapecas they have 
also the right to drink ten cups of tea (certainly extremely small ones), 
with which, on trays covered with cakes and dried fruits, a crowd of 
waiters keep running to and fro." 

" One day," says a letter of M. X., a Trench officer in the roist 
Regiment of the Line, " we determined to dine d la chinoise in a 
Chinese eating-house. Our coolies arranged beforehand that the 
price was to be two piastres a head, a large sum for this country, 
where provisions are so cheap. As a preparation for dinnei, we had 
to thread our way through a labyrinth ot lanes, crowded with dens 
in which crouched thousands of ragged beggars, poisoning the 
atmosphere with their exhalations. At the entrance to the open 
space in front of the eating-house stood a quantity of heaps 01 refuse, 



Fig. 119. — Mandarin s Daughter. 


composed of old vegetable stalks, rotten sausages, and dead cats and 
dogs, and in every hole and corner a mass of filth as disagreeable to 
the nose as to the eye. It required a strong stomach to retain an 
appetite after running the gauntlet of such a horrible mess. A few 
tea-drinkers and card-players were seated at the door, and seemed to 
care very little for the pestilential character of the neighbourhood. 
We tried to be equally courageous, and, after admiring two immense 
lanterns which adorned the entrance, and the sign inscribed in big 
letters, ' The three principal Virtues,' we ventured to hope that 
honesty would prove one of them, and that the tavern-keeper would 
give us our money's worth. 

" Our entry into the principal room created a little excitement, 
for, accustomed as the Chinese are to see us, we still, in the quarters 
of the town where Europeans seldom venture, cause a certain amount 
of curiosity, not unmixed Vith alarm. Two square tables surrounded 
by wooden benches, on which had been placed, as a particular favour, 
some stuffed cushions, had been prepared for us. The waiters 
thronged round us with red earthen teapots and white metal cups. 
There were no spoons. Boiling water was poured on a pinch of tea- 
leaves, placed at the bottom of the cups, and we were obliged to 
drink the infusion through a small hole in the lid. When we had got 
through this ordeal like regular Chinamen, we called for the first 
course, which consisted of a quantity of wretched little lard cakes, 
sweetened with dried fruit ; and for Aors-d'ceuvre, a kind of caviare 
made of the intestines, the livers, and the roes of fish pickled in 
vinegar, and some land shrimps cooked in salt water ; these were 
really nothing but large locusts. This dish, however, found in most 
warm countries, was not at all bad. We did not get along very well 
with the first course, which was immediately followed by the second. 
The waiters placed on the table some plates, or rather saucers, for 
they were no bigger, and some bowl-shaped dishes, full of rice dressed 
in different ways, with small pieces of meat arranged in pyramids on 
top of it. Chopsticks accompanied these savoury dishes. What 
were we to do ? Nobody but a regular Chinese can help himself with 
these two little bits of wood, one of which is usually held stationary 
between the thumb and the ring finger, while the other is shifted about 
between the fore and middle fingers. The natives lift the saucers to 
their lips, and swallow the rice by pushing it into their mouth with the 
chopsticks, but we tried to accomplish this in vain, and all the more 
so, that our fits of laughter prevented us from making any really 
earnest attempt. It was, however, impossible for us to compromise 
the dignity of our civilisation by eating with our fingers like savages, 



and happily one of our number, with more forethought than the rest, 
had brought with him a travelling-case holding a spoon, and a knife 
and fork. We then each in turn dipped the spoon into the bowls 
before us, with an amount of suspicion, however, that prevented the 

Fig. 120. — Chinese Boudoir. 

proper appreciation of the highly-flavoured messes they contained. 
At last some less mysterious dishes, in quantity enough to satisfy 
fifty people,'made their appearance: chickens, ducks, mutton, pork, 
roast hare, fish, and boiled vegetables. White grape wine and rice 
wine were at the same time handed to us in microscopic cups of 


painted porcelain. None of the beverages were sweet ; not even the 
tea, but to make up for it they were all boiling hot. The meal was 
brought to a close by a bowl of soup, which was really an enormous 
piece of stewed meat swimming about in a sea of gravy. 

"Satiated rather than satisfied, we should have preferred some 
more Chinese dishes : some swallows' nests, or a stew of gingseng 
roots, but it appears that such delicacies as these must be ordered for 
days beforehand, and paid for by their weight in gold. We swallowed 
a glass of tafia, a liquor which is becoming quite fashionable in 
Chinese eating-houses, and lighting our cigars, looked about us. 
The day was drawing to a close ; the tavern rooms, which were at 
first nearly empty, were filling with customers, who, after furtively 
scanning us, betook themselves to their usual occupations. The 
waiter kept calling out in a loud voice the names and the prices of 
the dishes that were ordered, and these were repeated by an atten- 
dant standing at a counter, behind which sat the master of the place. 
Some shopkeepers were playing at pigeon fly ; one held up as many 
of the fingers of both hands as he thought fit, his antagonist had to 
guess immediately how many, and to hold up simultaneously exactly 
the same number of his own. The loser paid for a cup of rice wine. 

" The room was beginning to reek with a nauseous odour, in which 
we recognised the smell of opium smoke. It was the hour for that 
fatal infatuation. Smokers with sallow complexions and hollow eyes 
began to disappear mysteriously into some closets at the end of the 
room. We could see them lying down on mat beddings with hard 
horsehair pillows." 

Fig. 122 (p. 311) shows one of these closets kept for the use of 
opium-smokers. The utensils and paraphernalia necessary for the 
preparation and lighting of the opium pipe lie on the table. 

Agriculture has in China reached a remarkable degree of perfec- 
tion. It is the great source of the wealth of the country. It is the 
progress it has attained that allows the Celestial Empire to support 
such an immense population in a relatively confined area. The pro- 
fession of agriculturist is consequently held in great respect. We 
shall quote M. Poussielgue on the subject : — 

"Towards the end of March, 1 861," says that writer, "Prince 
Kung, the imperial regent, proceeded in great state to the Temple of 
Agriculture, on the outskirts of the Chinese part of the town of 
Pekin, and, after offering sacrifices to the guardian deity of mankind, 
who encourages their labour by giving them the gifts of the earth, 
put his own hand to the plough, and turned up several furrows. A 
crowd of notabilities, ministers, masters of the ceremonies, the great 



officers of state, three princes of the imperial family, and a deputation 
of labourers accompanied the emperor's representative. As soon as 
Prince Kung had finished ploughing the plot of ground reserved for 

Fig. i2i. — Chinese Sitting-room. 

him, and marked out with yellow flags, the three imperial princes, 
followed by the nine chief dignitaries of the empire, took their turn 
at the plough, till the whole field was covered with furrows, in which 
mandarins of lesser rank scattered the seed, whilst labourers covered 


with rakes and rollers the sacred germs entrusted to the ground. 
During the whole ceremony choirs of music made the air resound 
with their harmony. 

" This intellectual patronage, this ennobling of agriculture, has 
had immense results. No country in the world is cultivated with so 
much care, or, perhaps, with more success, than China. It does not 
contain a square inch of waste ground. 

" In the province of Pe-tche-li, where land is very much cut up 
into small lots, agricultural operations are conducted on a limited 
scale, but the intelligent manner in which they are carried out makes 
up for the inconveniences of this parcelling our. But few villages are 
seen there, but in compensation for their absence a quantity of farms 
and farmhouses nestle here and there under the shade of lofty trees. 
The buildings take up but little room, and so economical are the 
peasants of the soil, that they place their hayricks and their wheat- 
sheaves on the flat roofs of their dwellings. Fig. 123 represents 
their system. 

" If, however, they are saving of the soil, they are not sparing of 
pains. Thanks to the abundance and cheapness of labour, they have 
been able to adopt a system of cultivating the earth in alternate rows, 
and thus never to let the ground lie fallow, but to have a succession 
of crops during the whole summer. Between the rows of the sorgho 
{Holcus Sorghum), which reaches a height of ten or twelve feet, they 
sow a plant of lesser growth, the smaller kind of millet, which thrives 
in the shade of its gigantic neighbour. When they have reaped the 
sorgho, the millet, exposed to the rays of .the sun, ripens in its turn. 
They plant rows of beans in the midst of their maize fields, and the 
former ripens before the latter, of slower growth, is big enough to 
choke them. They plant the earth they dig out of their draining 
trenches with castor-oil or cotton plants, whose large green leases 
make a kind of hedge to the cornfields. And when the soil is barren 
and full of stones they plant it with the resinous pine, or with the 
cat/isc, an oily plant that flourishes on the poorest ground. 

" Nothing is more stirring than the picture presented by the wide 
plains of the Pe-tche li at harvest time. The toil of the husbandman 
has brought forth its fruit ; the crops of all kinds fill to overflowing 
the granaries ; threshers, winnowers, and reapers, with crowds of 
gleaning women and children, fill the air with their joyous songs, as, 
half-stripped beneath the glowing sun, with their pigtails wound 
around their heads, they zealously toil on from daybreak to nightfall, 
only leaving off for a few moments to swallow an onion or two, or a 
handful of rice, to take a few whiffs at their pipe, or to vigorously fan 



3i r 

x X \> 

Fig. 122. —Opium Smokers. 

themselves when the heat becomes unbearable, and the perspiration 
is running down their stalwart limbs. 

" Water in this province is as little neglected as the land. 

" Pisciculture is practised on a large scale, and in the most 
intelligent manner. When spring returns, a number of vendors of 


fish-spawn perambulate the- country to sell this precious spat to the 
pond owners. The eggs, fecundated by the milt, are carried about 
in small barrels full of damp moss. These spawn- sellers are followed 
by hawkers of young fry, skilful divers who catch in very fine nets 
the new-born fish reposing in the holes in the river beds. These fry 
are reared in special ponds, and disseminated when they have grown 
bigger in the lakes and largest pieces of water. The Chinese have 
succeeded in rearing and preserving in artificial basins the most 
interesting and most productive species of their rivers. In the 
immense lakes close to the Temple of Heaven at Pekin, they rear 
gold-fish, a kind of bream weighing sometimes as much as twenty- 
five pounds, carp, and the celebrated kia-yn, a domestic fish. Morn- 
ing and evening the keepers bring herbs and grains for the fish, 
which greedily eat them, and which soon reach a considerable size, 
thanks to this fattening diet. A lake managed in this way is a 
greater source of revenue to its owner than the most fruitful fields. 

"The sea-shore at the mouth of the Pei-ho is covered with parks 
to hold the fish at low water. These are made of several lengths of 
blue cotton stuff stretched on a cane framework, which is fastened to 
a quantity of small stakes. This framework folds in any direction 
like the leaves of a screen. A drag net is also used by the inhabi- 
tants of the coast. Soles, sea-toads, bream, gold-fish, whiting, cod, 
and a quantity of other fish are caught in the gulf of Pe-tche-li. 
Many cetaceous fish are also found there, dolphins, several kinds of 
sharks, amongst them the tiger shark {Squalus tigrinus), whose striped 
and spotted skin is used in several manufactures, and a large species 
of turtle. 

" River-fishing, with which we are better acquainted, is followed 
in several ingenious fashions. There is trained cormorant-fishing, 
fly-fishing, harpoon-fishing, rod-fishing, and net-fishing ; dams are 
also placed across the streams at the travelling periods of migratory 
fish. The Pei-ho, crowded with fishermen, present a most lively 
appearance. On its surface you see large boats containing whole 
families ; the women occupied in mending the nets, in making osier 
fishing-rods, in cleaning and salting the day's catch, and in carrying 
in vases the fish they wish to keep alive ; the little children, with 
their waists girdled with a life-belt of pigs' bladders, running about 
and climbing like cats up the masts and the rigging ; the men 
dropping their large nets perpendicularly into the water, and easily 
raising them again by a piece of ingenious mechanism consisting of a 
wooden counterpoise, on which they lean the whole weight of their 
body (Fig. 124, p. 317); others watching their nets lying at the bottom 





of the stream, their whereabouts indicated by the wooden floats that 
are bobbing up and down here and there ; others again descending 
the river with the current, and harpooning the larger fish with a har- 
poon fastened to the wrist by a strong cord. To avoid alarming their 
prey, they have invented a kind of raft, made of a couple of beams 
fastened together with wooden rungs ladder-wise ; the stem is pointed, 
and in the stern, which is square, a paddle is kept with which they 
steer themselves. By a wonderful piece of equilibrium they manage 
to keep in an upright position, their feet on different rungs, with one 
hand stretched out grasping the harpoon, and their head extended to 
catch a sight of the fish as it sleeps in the sunshine on the top of the 
water. It is a stirring sight to see five or six fishermen abreast 
descending with the current on these frail barques. They wear a 
broad-brimmed straw hat, and their clothing consists of a waterproof 
jerkin of woven cane, and a pair of drawers made of small pieces of 
reed stitched together. Their naked arms and legs are muscular and 
bronzed; their countenance is resolute, and its calm expression shows 
that they are inured to danger. Although it often happens that the 
harpooned fish, more powerful than the harpooner, makes the latter 
lose his balance and tumble into the water, when his only means of 
safety lie in cutting the rope fastened to his wrist to save himself 
from being dragged under, accidents are seldom heard of, for all are 
excellent swimmers. At night a strange noise is heard on the river, 
lighted up with resin torches ; the fishermen rush about the stream 
beating wooden drums to drive the fish towards the spots where they 
have stretched their nets." 

Living is very cheap in China, owing to the skill of the agricul- 
tural labourers and that of the artisans and mechanics. A whole 
family can cook its meals with one or two pounds of dried grass, 
which costs about a penny a pound. Fireplaces are very little used, 
except in the more northern provinces ; but warm clothing is worn 
when the climate makes it necessary. The dwellings have a low 
pitch, so that with the coal found in'many of the provinces, with the 
prunings of the trees, and with the roots of the mountain shrubs, 
their inhabitants can cheaply procure the fuel necessary to warm 
themselves with.* 

There is a great scarcity of forests in China, as the country has 
been entirely denuded to support its teeming population. Grazing 
fields are equally scarce, so that butchers' meat, beef or mutton, is 
dear. The inhabitants, however, get along without it, thanks to the 

* Simon, "Report of the Acclimatisation Society," March, 1869. 


numerous streams, rivers, lakes, and canals which intersect China, 
and swarm with fish. Fishing does not take place in the streams of 
running water alone. Fish are caught in the rice-fields, and even in 
the pools caused by the heavy rains, so rapid is the production of 
these animals. 

A kind of fish exists in China which multiplies at such an astonish- 
ing rate that it produces two broods in a month; this fish is con- 
sequently not more than a penny, and the dearest tenpence a pound. 
All kinds of fisheries are carried on — net, rod, otter, and cormorant- 
fishing. It is thus that animal food for four hundred millions of 
inhabitants is provided. Fig. 124 represents some Chinese fishing. 

Pigs, ducks, and chickens are also a great resource. Pork has 
become such a general article of food, that its cost is higher than that 
of beef, although the latter is much the scarcer. 

The ducks are found in flocks of three or four thousand on the 
lakes and pieces of water. They are watched by children in a 
kind of small canoe. Sometimes the drakes bring the ducklings to the 
water, keeping guard over them from the bank, and recalling them 
when necessary with a sharp piercing cry which the young ones 
perfectly understand. 

There is a large trade in ducks. They dry them by putting them 
between a couple of planks like plants; and they are sent in this 
guise to the most remote parts of the empire. Dogs of a particular 
breed, reared for the market in the southern provinces, are prepared 
in the same way, but only for the consumption of the very poorest 
classes. Goats and sheep are also rather largely made use of for 
food, but not to such an extent as pigs, ducks, and chickens. 

It may be seen, therefore, that the Chinese have learnt how to 
supply the place of the larger kind of butchers' meat. 

Vegetables, however, form the staple of their food. This explains 
how it is possible for four hundred millions of inhabitants to exist in 
a country whose acreage is not more than four or five times that of 
France. Chinese horticulture contains eighty different kinds of vege- 
tables, and out of these eighty, at least twenty-five constitute a direct 
article of food for man. But the most precious of all is rice, and the 
Chinese spare no pains in perfecting its cultivation. In aid of this 
cultivation they have sacrificed their forests, dug immense lakes, and 
even pierced lofty mountains. For its sake they collect the water of 
both stream and river, and direct its course from the mountain's foot 
over the soil they wish to irrigate. Perhaps no greater or more 
grandiose work exists in the whole world than the gigantic hydraulic 
system which, throughout the whole of China, from the west to the 



Fig. 124. — Chinese Fishing. 

sea coast, directs the flow of its waters, and pours them over the 
fields of every tiller of its soil. 


This great work was carried out four thousand years ago, but 
public gratitude has not forgotten its promoter. They still point out, 
not far from Ning-po, the field where the little peasant used to work 
who, after accomplishing his enterprise, became the great emperor 
Yu. All the inhabitants of the canton where he was born are con- 
sidered as his descendants or as those of his family, and are exempt 
from taxation ; and the anniversary of his birth is celebrated every 
year in a special temple, with as much zeal as if the benefits he has 
bestowed were things of yesterday. 

The Chinese do their best nut only for rice, but for every kind of 
produce, or, to put it better, for the earth itself, the earth that brings 
it forth. Agriculture to the Chinese is more than a calling, it is 
almost a religion. The Chinaman repeats to himself these words of 
the old Persian law : " Be thou just to the plant, to the bull, and to 
the horse ; nor be thou unmindful of the dog. The earth has a right 
to be sown ; neglect it and it will curse thee, fertilise it and it will be 
grateful to thee. It says to him who tills it from the right to the left, 
and from the left to the right, may thy fields bring forth of all that is 
good to eat, and may thy countless villages abound with prosperity." 
It adds again, " Labour and sow : the sower who sows with purity 
obeys the whole law." 

When the earth, therefore, does not produce abundant crops, the 
Chinese lay the blame on themselves. They purify themselves 
and fast. Confucius, besides, has said, " If you wish for good 
agriculture, be of pure morals."* 

The soil in China yields as much as ten thousand pounds of rice 
to every acre. Such a result says a great deal for their rural morals. 
While occupied in making the earth yield so plentifully, they have no 
time for evil thoughts or actions. A moralist has said, " There can 
be no cultivation without public order. Justice is begotten of the 
furrow. Ceres, who at Thebes and at Athens brought men together 
and made the laws, is the reflecting mind of men who till the soil."t 
How could Chinese agriculture be possible without a system of law, 
when for the success of its rice-fields it is so dependent on water, 
which is so easily cut off, for the very essence of its fruitfulness ? The 
uninterrupted distribution of its waters, in the midst of such an 
immense rural population, is a symptom of great honesty and fairness 
among the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire. Fig. 125 is a view 
of the Custom-house at Shanghai. 

Thus we see that patience, gentleness, justice, and benevolence 

•Simon, " Report of the Acclimatisation Society," March, 1869. t Idem. 










lllliil if Ittl Jl 


are the predominant Chinese qualities. The Chinese have been 
often reproached with being atheists; but the devotion of labour, the 
purifications and the atonements to which they submit at the smallest 
warning from heaven, free them from this reproach. 

The Bonzes, the priests of the Buddhist faith, are treated by the 
Chinese with great respect. If this nation is not really a very religious 
one, at least it venerates and respects the ministers of religion. 

Fig. 126 shows the usual dress of the Bonzes. 

Education is widely spread in China; schools abound there. 
Chinese literature, without possessing very numerous works worthy 
of remembrance, has produced a good deal worthy of esteem. 

The theatre is a recreation much sought after by the people and 
by the educated classes. 

We shall make a few extracts on these points from the travels of 
M. de Bourboulon, edited by M. Poussielgue, which we have already 
quoted : " Their Book of Rites," says M. Poussielgue, " directs that 
the education of the child of wealthy parents shall commence from 
the hour even of its birth, and bids the mother take great precautions 
in choosing its nurses, whom it only tolerates. A child is weaned 
the moment it can lift its hand to its mouth. At six years of age the 
elementary principles of arithmetic and geography are taught him ; 
at seven he is separated from his mother and sisters, and no longer 
allowed to take meals with them ; at eight the usages of politeness 
are instilled into him ; the following year he is taught the astrological 
calendar ; at ten he is sent to a public school, where the master 
teaches him to read and write and to calculate ; between the ages of 
thirteen and fifteen he receives music lessons and sings moral 
maxims instead of his hymns ; at fifteen come gymnastics, the use of 
arms, and riding ; finally, at twenty years of age, if he is considered 
worthy of it, he receives the virile cap, and changes his cotton 
clothing for silk garments and furs ; he is also generally married at 
this age. 

" The Chinese schoolmasters (Fig. 127, p. 325) are rejected men of 
letters who have not succeeded in passing the examinations for civil 
employment. They make their scholars call out their lessons in a 
loud voice, and seem to have long since appreciated the value of the 
system of mutual instruction. They chastise culprits with their pigtails 
and with cat-o'-nine-tails, striking them heavy blows on the hands and 
on the back. Moral penalties are also inflicted; a writing fastened 
to his back holds up the idle schoolboy to public contempt. The 
poorest class of children are taught gratuitously in the schools. 

" The importance attached by the Chinese to the writing, the 



reading, the grammar, and the thorough knowledge of their language, 
springs from its inherent difficulties. 

" The ancient Chinese writing was ideographic, that is to say, it 
represented objects by drawn characters, similar to the Egyptian 
system of hieroglyphics, instead of being phonetic, that is, composed 
of signs, corresponding with the sounds of the spoken language. 
Their primitive characters, two hundred and fourteen in number, 
were rough figures imperfectly representing material objects. Ideo- 
graphical writing, the use of which by semi-barbarous peoples is 
easily explained, must be rather awkward for civilised men desiring 
to express abstract ideas. The Chinese have ingeniously modified 
their characters, so as to render them capable of satisfying the wants 
of their growing civilisation.. Anger was represented by a heart undei 
a bond,. a. sign of slavery; friendship, by two pearls exactly alike; 
history, by. a hand holding the emblem of equity. As it was soon 
found that these ingenious figures were no longer sufficient, they were 
combined in an infinite number of ways : they were altered and multi- 
plied to. such an extent, that it takes all the science of an old man of 
letters to-, recognise the designs- of the primitive writing in the present 
characters,, which are more than forty thousand in number. It is in 
this way that their modern writing was gradually formed, an emble T 
matic writing which does- not correspond with the spoken language, 
the one solitary exception, to the rule among all civilised nations. 

" It is therefore easily to be understood that to read and write the 
Chinese language is- a science exacting severe study from natives of 
the country, as- well as from, foreigners : besides, even its gram- 
matical rules vary very much. There are three kinds of style : the 
ancient or sublime style, used in the old canonical books ; the 
academical style, which is adopted for official and literary documents; 
and the common style. 

" The Chinese attach much importance to an elegant handwriting, 
a clever calligrapher, or to use their own expression, a clever brush, 
is worthy of their admiration. Captain Bouvier and one of the in- 
terpreters of the French legation were one day paying a visit to 
Tchong-louen, one of the leading officials of Pekin ; his son, a man- 
darin, with the blue button, a young man of twenty-two, and already 
father of a child — that is to say, of a son, for girls do not count for 
anything — was present in the reception-room. Tchong-louen, wishing 
to give an idea of his son's precocious accomplishments to his visitors, 
sent for a large cartoon in which the youth had traced, in splendid 
outlines, the word longevity, and showed it to them with as much 
■pride 'as if it had been the certificate of some noble action or a 



Fig. 126. — Chinese Bonze. 

literary work. The rooms ot every house contain similar cartoons 
hung upon their walls as we in Europe hang paintings. 

" The appearance of Chinese writing is very odd ; the characters 
are placed one under the other in vertical lines, and run from right 
to left. In a word, on this point, as in many others, the Chinese 


proceed in a manner diametrically opposed to ours. The position 
in which the characters are placed is besides very important ; for 
instance, the emperor's name must be written with two letters 
higher than the others. To omit this would be to commit treason. 
Everybody is familiar with Chinese or Indian ink. It is with this 
substance, diluted in water and used with a brush, that the Chinese 
trace the letters of their writing, holding their hands perpendicularly, 
instead of placing them horizontally, on the paper. 

" Their spoken language is much less difficult ; it is composed of 
monosyllables, the union of which, in an infinite number of ways, 
expresses every possible idea. I must not forget the accents, which 
give a difference of tone and expression to the monosyllabic roots. 
The language of the south differs sufficiently from that of the north 
to prevent the natives from understanding one another without the 
assistance of the brush. Moreover, every province has its particular 

" In spite of the difficulties presented by the reading and writing 
of the Chinese character, China is doubtless the land in which primary 
instruction is most widely spread. Schools are found even in the 
smallest hamlets, whose rnsiics deprive themselves of some of their 
gains in order to pay a schoolmaster. It is very seldom you meet 
with an entirely uneducated Chinese. The workmen and the peasants 
are capable of writing their own letters, reading the Government bills 
and proclamations, and making notes of their daily business. Teach- 
ing in the primary schools has for its basis the San-tse-king, a sacred 
book attributed to a disciple of Confucius, which sums up in a 
hundred and sixty-eight lines all acquired knowledge and science. 
This little encyclopaedia, properly explained and commented on by 
the teacher, suffices to give Chinese children a taste for positive 
knowledge, and even to give them the desire of acquiring a wider 
education. There are also colleges in the large towns, where the 
children of the men of letters and of the mandarins receive a complete 
education. Such among others is the Imperial College at Pekin. 

" The citizens of the Celestial Empire enjoy thorough liberty of 
the press, but at their own risk and peril. The Government, which 
has no right to forbid any publication, revenges itself afterwards by 
inflicting the bastinado on the authors of the pamphlets and the viru- 
lent satires that daily appear attacking it A great quantity of small 
portable printing-presses exists among private individuals, who both 
use and abuse them. There is no country in the world where the 
walls are so thickly covered with bills and advertisements. 

"The Chinese have practised the typographical art from time 



^ II 

Fig. 127. — Chinese Schoolmaster. 

immemorial ; but as their alphabet is composed of more than forty 
thousand letters, they could not make use of movable type : they 
restricted themselves, therefore, to carving on a piece of hard board 
the characters they required, to wetting these characters with ink, 
and to striking off a number of copies by applying different sheets of 


paper to the board. Their binders, in opposition to ours, make these 
leaves up into a volume by fastening them together by their edges. 
A note in the preface generally mentions the place where the boards 
that printed the first edition of the work have been deposited. 

" There are in Pekin several daily papers ; amongst others the 
Official Gazette, a Government print, the subscription for which is a 
piastre quarterly. This print, published in pamphlet shape, is a 
rectangular publication, containing a dozen pages, with a likeness of 
the philosopher Meng-tsen on the cover. It contains a summary of 
all public matters, and all leading events, the petitions and me- 
morials addressed to the emperor, his decrees, the edicts of the 
viceroys of the provinces, judicial ceremonies, and letters of pardon, 
the custom-house tariffs, the court circular, the news of the day, fires, 
crimes, &c, and finally the incidents, fortunate or unfortunate, of the 
war against the rebel Tae-pings. It even acknowledges the Imperial 
defeats, a piece of frankness worthy of notice by the official organs of 
Europe and America." 

Fig. 128 represents a mode of locomotion frequently met with 
in China. 

" The Chinese have a traditional and quasi-religious respect for the 
preservation of all printed and written papers ; they are carefully 
collected and burnt when read so as to put them beyond the reach of 
profanation. It is even asserted that societies exist who pay porters 
to go from street to street with enormous baskets to pick up fragments. 
These new kind of rag-gatherers are paid for saving the waifs and 
strays of human thought. 

" Art, like literature, has been carried out to some extent in an 
utilitarian and manufacturing sense. But imaginative art, the ideally 
beautiful, is a thing a Chinese does not understand. 

" While acknowledging the skill with which the Chinese have 
written on social economy, on philosophy, on history, and on all 
moral and political science based on experience and logic, we must 
note the scarcity of their purely literary works. It must not, how- 
ever, be concluded that China, unlike every civilised country, docs 
not possess plenty of poets, novelists, and dramatic authors; but their 
little esteemed and badly remunerated productions are ephemeral. 
To-day an ode, something appropriate to the moment, is written, it is 
reciied or played in the midst of applause, and to-morrow nothing 
is heard of it. 

" Theatrical propensities are nevertheless very strongly developed 
among the Chinese, and the cause of this forgetfulness, this neglect, 
is that they are ashamed of attaching too much importance to a futile 




amusement. The managers of the theatres are generally the authors 
of the pieces they represent, or at any rate they modify them accord- 
ing to the exigencies of the actors and the suitability of the costumes. 
There are no permanent or authorised theatres in Pekin : the Govern- 
ment only allows their temporary construction in the open spaces of the 
town for a limited period during public festivals. Theatrical representa- 
tions,.however, take place in many of the tea-houses, which are analo- 
gous to our music-halls, and in nearly all the dwellings of the wealthy, 
who, every time they hire a company of actors to celebrate a family 
anniversary take care, with an eye to popularity, to allow the public 
free ingress into that part of their house reserved for the auditorium." 

"I have just been present," relates M. Treves, "at a theatrical 
representation given by the Secretary of State, Tchong-louen, in the 
gardens of his palace in the Tartar-town, in honour of the new year. 
The theatre was something like those constructed in Paris on the 
esplanade of the Invalides on the occasion of the Emperor's/^. It 
was an ample quadrilateral building, in the shape of a Greek temple, 
supported on either side by four columns painted in sky-blue, golden, 
and scarlet stripes, and with a proscenium covered with carvings and 
decorations. The stage, much wider than it was deep, was a wooden 
platform raised about six feet above the level of the rest of the 
building. An immense screen shuts off the back passages, where the 
actors dress themselves and get themselves up. There was no scenery, 
only two or three chairs and a carpet. The circular hall reserved 
for the audience, very large in proportion to the stage, was paved with 
white marble ; it was not roofed in, and the only shelter for the spec- 
tators was the shade cast by the large trees of the garden (Fig. 129). 

" We took our places on a reserved platform, placed expressly 
for us in front of the stage. On either side were boxes with bamboo 
blinds, whence the wives of our host and those of his guests looked 
on at the play. To prevent their being seen, they wore veils of silk 
net. The guests of lower rank were seated in the first row, on chairs 
grouped round small tables capable of accommodating four or five 
people. Behind them I could see a swarm of human heads. These 
were the public, who crowded and pressed together to enjoy the 
spectacle for which they were indebted to the munificence of the 
illustrious Tchong-louen. At Pekin, as in Paris, the common people 
willingly undergo, for the sake of amusement, the fatigue of standing, 
without any means of resting themselves, for hours together. A few 
indulgent fathers had two or three children perched upon their backs, 
and upon their shoulders, but I could not see a single woman. 

" At a signal given from our dais, the orchestra, placed at one 


wing of the stage, and consisting of two flutes, a drum, and a harp, 
began a charivari, which took the place of an overture ; then the 
screen opened, and the actors all appeared in their ordinary dress, 
and after bowing so deeply that their foreheads touched the ground, 
their leader advanced to the edge of the stage and commenced a 
pompous recital of the dramas they were going to perform." 

Here the writer gives a description of the pieces represented, 
which were kinds of allegories and historical pageants. Besides these 
regular theatrical representations, there are in Pekin many acrobatic 
troops, male and female rope-dancers, and itinerant circuses. 

Marionetts, absolutely identical with those in Europe, are seen- 
in China. Which nation is their inventor? The name by which 
they have passed from time immemorial in France, omfo-es chinoises, 
seems to prove that their origin is Chinese. 

Hidden by ample drapery of blue cotton stuffs, the man who 
moves the puppets stands on a stool. A case representing a little 
stage is placed on his shoulders and rises above his head, while his 
hands work without revealing the mechanical means he uses to 
impart the movements of players to these tiny automatons. 

Fig. 130 (p. 333) represents a Chinese junk, and Fig. 131 (p. 335) 
a group of Chinese beggars. 

We shall end our account of the Chinese with a glance at their 
administration of justice and their judicial forms. We again quote 
from M. Poussielgue : — 

" There is a direct relation in China between the penal judicial 
code and family organisation. If the emperor is the father and the 
mother of his subjects, the magistrates who represent him are also 
the father and mother of those they rule over. Every outrage against 
the law is an outrage upon the family. Impiety, one of the greatest 
crimes foreseen and punished by the law, is really nothing but a want 
of respect for parents. This is how the penal code defines impiety : 
' He is impious who insults his nearest relations, or he who bring: 
an action against them, or who does not go into mourning for them, 
or who does not venerate their memory, or he who is wanting in the 
attention due to those to whom he owes his existence, by whom he 
has been educated, or by whom he has been protected and assisted.' 
The punishments incurred for the crime of impiety are terrible. We 
intend to speak of them later. 

" Tn thus carrying the feeling of what is due to family ties into the 
region of politics, the Chinese legislators have created a governmental 
machinery of prodigious power, which has lasted for thirty centuries, 
ind which, neither the numerous revolutions and dynastic changes, 



Fig. 129. — A Chtnese Play. 


neither the antagonism of the northern and southern races, neither 
the immense territorial extent of the empire, neither religious scepti- 
cism, nor finally the selfish creed of materialism, developed to excess 
by a decayed and stationary civilisation, have been able to -destroy, 
or even seriously to disturb. 

"Amongst the supreme courts that sit at Pekin is the Court of 
Appeal (Ta-li-sse). Next to it come the assizes, held in the chief 
towns of each province, and presided over by a special magistrate 
bearing the title of Commissary of the Court of Offences. A 
second magistrate of inferior rank exercises the duties of public 
prosecutor at these assizes. In towns of second and third importance 
inferior tribunals exist which have but one judge, the mandarin or 
the sub-prefect of the department. The punishments that can be 
awarded by the latter are limited ; when the crime deserves a greater 
chastisement, the prisoner is sent to the assizes held in the chief 
town of his province. If this tribunal sentences him to death, the 
proceedings must be sent to the Court of Appeal at Pekin, where a 
final decision is pronounced at the autumn sittings. Thus no provincial 
tribunal has the power of sentencing a prisoner to death : although 
in special cases, such as an armed insurrection, a governor can be 
invested with extreme power, similar to that conferred in Europe by 
martial law. Finally, there are in every part of the empire courts 
of information, where the sub-prefect, in the course of his quarterly 
circuit, has to hear what is taking place, decide differences, and 
deliver moral lectures to the public ; but this excellent institution has 
fallen into disuse, in consequence of the relaxation of governmental 
authority and the carelessness of the mandarins. 

" The result of this judicial organisation is that the sub-prefect is 
invested with the entire correctional power within the limits of his 
civil jurisdiction, a very faulty state of things, which has been the 
cause of enormous abuses. 

" There are no advocates in China, and, as has been seen, very 
few judges. Consequently the mode of administering justice is very 
summary, and the 'guarantees enjoyed by a prisoner amount to 
nothing. His friends or relations can, it is true, plead in his favour, 
but it is of no use, unless it happens to suit the mandarin at the head 
of the tribunal. As for the witnesses, they are liable to be flogged 
with a rattan, according as their evidence is agreeable or not. 
Generally speaking, the long-winded witnesses are the most dis- 
agreeable to the mandarin who has a mass of matters to settle, and 
whose time does not allow him to enter into petty details. In point 
<)f fact the prisoner's acquittal or condemnation depends upon the 



subaltern officeis of the court, who prepare the proceedings in a 
manner favourable to the prisoners or the reverse, accordingly as 
they have received more or less money from his friends. 

Fig. 130. — A Chinese junk. 

" If there is something to be praised in Chinese jurisprudence, 
the way in which the punishments are carried out is on the contrary 
shocking. Man is considered as a being sensitive only to physical 
agony and to death ; Chinese legislators have not sought to restrain 
him by his honour, by his pride in himself, nor even by his self- 
interest. The penal code consists mainly of the bastinado, inflicted 


with a thick bamboo cane, with the thick end or the thin one, and 
consisting of from ten up to two hundred blows, as the crime is 
trifling or serious, or as the object stolen is of little or of great value.: 
The bastinado js given immediately in presence of the tribunal. The 
most common punishments are, after the bastinado, the pillory, 
imprisonment and perpetual exile into Tartary for mandarins who 
have committed political offences. We have mentioned that the 
High Court of Appeal alone can decide on a death sentence ; but 
the sufferings inflicted by the orders of the inferior tribunals are so 
horrible, the executioners are so ingenious in varying the tortures 
without causing death, the management of the prisons is so hateful, 
and finally, a man sentenced to the pillory or the cage is exposed 
to such horrible anguish, that when the death-warrant arrives from 
Pekin, the unfortunate wretch goes cheerfully to the scaffold, as if his 
last day were really the day of his deliverance. 

" Capital punishment, horribly varied in bygone days, is now only 
inflicted in three ways : strangulation, decapitation, and the slow 
death by stabbing. 

"Strangulation is effected by means of a silken cord that two 
executioners pull at each end, or by an iron collar tightened by a 
screw, very much like the garrotte at present used in Spain. Strangu- 
lation by the silken cord is reserved for the princes of the Imperial 
family ; the iron collar is used to destroy, in the silence of the prison, 
those whose death it is desired to conceal. 

" In public, the only mode of execution is decapitation, applied 
to all vulgar crimes. The preparations for this mode of death are 
very simple, and its action very rapid, owing to the temper and 
weight of the swords, and the skill of those who wield them. The 
guillotine never attained the lightning-like rapidity of the satellites of 
the dreaded Yeh, the viceroy from whom the Anglo-French delivered 
the province of Canton ; they could strike off a hundred heads in a 
few minutes. Their master used to boast that their skill was derived 
from a hundred thousand subjects of experiment he had furnished 
them with in less than two years. 

" The slow death of stabbing is inflicted for the crimes of treason, 
parricide, and incest. The preparation for this mode of punishment 
must double the miseries of the condemned convict. Securely tied tc 
a post, his feet and hands fastened with ropes, his head is placed in a 
kind of pillory, while the magistrate delegated to witness the execution, 
of the sentence draws from a covered basket a knife, on the handle 
of which is written the part of the body in which it is to be inserted 
This horrible torture is continued until chance selects the heart, or 

Fig. 131.— Chinese Beggars. 



some other vital part. We hasten to add, that generally the convict's 
friends purchase the connivance of the magistrate, who takes care to 
draw at the very first venture the knife intended for the mortal blow. 
"It is little wonder that the Chinese, accustomed to such penalties, 
and to the hideous and frequent spectacles they afford, should early 
become inured to the idea of death, and that even their women and 

Fig. 132. — Chinese Punishments. 

children should possess in the highest degree the passive courage 
which enables them to meet it with calmness. For many of these 
poor people death is only the welcome termination of a miserable 
and painful existence. 

" I had the curiosity to be present at one of the last sittings of the 
Court, and at my request a place was reserved for me, where I could 
see without being seen. 

" The hall of justice had nothing remarkable in an architectural 
sense. It was surrounded by a lofty wall, nearly as high as the 



principal edifice. The first court is enclosed by buildings used as 
prisons. I saw some boxes made of enormously thick bamboo bars 
placed at a little distance apart, in which prisoners were shut up 
during the night. 

"In this court a crowd of wretched creatures, with emaciated 
limbs, livid faces, and barely covered with a few loathsome rags, iay 

Fig. 133. — Chinese Punishments. 

sweltering in the sun. Some were fastened by the foot with an iron 
chain to a weight so heavy that they were unable to stir it, and 
staggered round it like' caged wild beasts, continually turning in a 
space of a few feet. Others had their arms and legs shackled to- 
gether, so that they could only move about in short jumps, which 
must have been very painful, to judge by the expression of their 

" One of these prisoners had his left hand and right foot fastened 
in a board a few inches in width ; a policeman dragged him forward 



Fig. 134. — A Chinese Court of Justice. 

by an iron chain fastened to a heavy collar clasped round his neck, 
whilst another flogged him from behind to make him go on. This 
wretched creature crept along with great difficulty on the leg tha>. 
was still free, his body bent double in the most painful position 
(Fig. 132, p. 337). 


"In another corner of the court other prisoners were under- 
going the punishment of the cangue. I also saw another unpleasant 
sight, a thief buried alive in a wooden cage. 

" Imagine a heavy tub upside down, under which a human being 
is made to crouch ; his head and his hands are slipped through three 
round holes, made so excessively tight that he cannot remove them ; 
the weight of the cage pressing on his shoulders, whatever movement 
he makes he must carry it about with him. When he wishes to rest, 
he can only crouch upon his knees in a most fatiguing position ; 
when he wishes to take exercise, he can hardly lift the weight of the 
tub (Fig. 133, p. 338). One shrinks from attempting to realise the 
existence of a man condemned to a month of such a punishment. 
The miserable sufferer I saw being unable to eat or drink by him- 
self, his wife had undertaken to help him. She was standing close 
to the cage feeding him with rice and some little pieces of pork, 
which she pushed into his mouth with chopsticks. From time to 
time she wiped with an old piece of cloth the livid countenance of 
her husband, which was running down with perspiration, whilst her 
little child, slung to her back with a strap, smiled in its utter igno- 
rance of misery, and played with its mother's hair. This sight 
affected me deeply, and I hurried on to avoid making a protest 
against such atrocity. 

" The entrance to the hall of justice is embellished with an 
external portico, on which some mythological scenes are painted in 
glowing colours. 

" Presently the folding gates opened with a loud creaking, and 
admitted the crowd that had gathered in the first court. At the end 
of the large hall, on a raised dais, I perceived Tchong-louen, in his 
ceremonial costume, surrounded with his councillors and the subaltern 
officers of justice. In front of him, on a table covered with a red 
cloth, were the records of criminal proceedings, brushes and saucers 
for the Indian ink, a bookcase containing the codes and the books of 
jurisprudence that might have to be consulted, and a large case full 
of painted and numbered pieces of wood. Behind the mandarin 
stood his fan-bearer, and two children richly dressed in silk, who held 
over his head the insignia of his dignity. On the twelve stone steps 
that ascended to the dais were posted, first, the .executioner, con- 
spicuous for his wire hat and his red dress. He leant his right hand 
upon an enormous rattan cane, while his left wielded a curved sword; 
then came his assistants and the jailors carrying different instruments 
of torture, which they clashed noisily together, whilst continuing at 
measured intervals to utter horrible yells, intended to throw terror 



Fig. 135.— Chinese Soldiers. 

into the minds of the prisoners. All round the hall stood police 
soldiers, in the red-tasselled Manchu cap, armed with a short spear, 
and with two swords sheathed in the same scabbard. Red draperies 
inscribed with various sentences, and lanterns representing different 
monsters were hung around the walls. In short, the whole scene was 


Fig. 136. — Chinese Trooper. 

got up to impress the eager and curious mob, which crowded thickly 
beneath the overhanging side galleries, with the imposing spectacle 
of the symbols of justice (Fig. 134, p. 339). 

" I witnessed from the place reserved for me behind the judg- 
ment seat the trial of half a score of robbers. I shall not attempt to 



describe the scenes of torture that followed their repeated denials of 
guilt. When a prisoner persisted in asserting his innocence, the 
judge tossed to the executioner one of the painted sticks or counters 
lying in the case on the table before him, on which was marked the 
number of blows or the description of torture to be inflicted. This 
was immediately carried into effect under the eyes of the judge and 

Fig. 137.— The Great Wall of China. 

registrars, who made careful notes of the half avowals uttered by the 
victim in the midst of his screams of agony." 

Military matters are but little attended to in China. This sceptical 
and timorous nation is no believer in military glory and power. Euro- 
pean campaigns in China showed the value of a Chinese army, and 
the unworthy cowardice of the Chinese explains the fact that they 
have always been an easy prey to conquerors. 

In Chinese military matters we shall restrict ourselves to repro- 
ducing their uniforms. Fig. 135 represents that of their infantry, and 
Fig. 136 that of their mounted troops. 

The real army of the Chinese nation is the care with which it 


holds itself aloof from foreigners, and the manner in which it forbids 
them access to its territory. 

The wall of China (Fig. 137), which rigorously excludes all 
strangers from the empire, is no mere metaphor. It is a solid reality. 

The Marquis de Moges, an attache of the embassy when M. Gros 
was French Ambassador in China, has wittily summed up, in his 
account of his travels, the contrast between Chinese and Western 
civilisation. " In China," he says, " the magnetic needle points to 
the south ; the cardinal points are five in number ; the left hand 
is the place of honour ; politeness requires you to keep your head 
covered in the presence of a superior, or in that of a person whom 
you wish to honour ; a book is read from right to left ; fruit is 
eaten at the beginning of dinner and soup at its close ; at school 
children learn their lessons aloud, and repeat them all together ; their 
silence is punished as a sign of idleness ; and finally, a title of 
nobility conferred upon a man for some signal service rendered to 
the state does not descend to his posterity, but goes backwards and 
ennobles his ancestors." 

The Japanese Family. 

Japan, consisting of a large island, that of Nipon, and seven other 
smaller islands, of which the principal are Yesso, Sitkokf, and Kiou- 
siou, is inhabited by an industrious and intelligent people. The 
Japanese are far superior in a moral point of view to the inhabitants 
of the Celestial Empire. There are two alphabets and kinds of 
writing in Japan — (1), the Chinese ideographic system; (2), the 
phonetic syllabarium, of recent adoption, consisting of forty-seven 
characters and a few supplementary monosyllabic sounds. The 
former, however, is the most used, especially for diplomatic and 
literary purposes. The literature of Japan is abundant, and is 
partly indigenous, partly Chinese. The language differs from that 
of China. It is soft in intonation, easily acquired, and is not mono- 
syllabic, but agglutinative. The Chinese classics form the basis of 
Japanese literature, and give the tone to their system of ethics, and 
the whole current of their thought. 

The two creeds of Buddha and of Confucius prevail in Japan as 
they do in China. The buildings and the junks of both nations are 
identical. Their food is the same, a diet of vegetables, principally 
rice and fish, washed down by plenty of tea and spirit. The coolies 
carry their loads in exactly the same manner in Japan and in China, 
at Nangasaki and at Pekin, and make the streets resound with the 


same shrill measured cries. The Japanese women wear their hair as 
the Chinese women used to do before they adopted the fashion of 

Fig. 138 — Japanese. 

pigtails, and the townspeople in Yeddo, as in Nankin, seclude them 
selves in their houses, which are impervious both to heat and cold. 

But the resemblance stops here. The Japanese, a warlike and 
feudal nation would be indignant at being confounded with the 


servile and crafty inhabitants of the Celestial Empire, who despise 
war, and whose sole aim is commerce. A Chinaman begins to laugh 
when he is reproached with running away from the enemy, or when 
he is convicted of having told a lie ; such matters give him little 
concern. A Japanese sets a different value on his life and on his 
honour ; he is warlike and haughty. A Japanese soldier always con- 
fronts his enemy. To deprive him of his sword is to dishonour him, 
and he will only consent to take it back stained with the lite-blood of 
his conqueror. The duello, unknown in China, is carried out in a 
terrible fashion among the Japanese. The islander of Nipon dis- 
embowels himself with a thrust of his own sword, and dares his 
adversary to follow his example. The Chinese race live in a state 
of disgusting and perpetual filth ; every Japanese, on the contrary, 
without distinction of rank or fortune, takes a warm bath every other 
day. Of a jovial and frank disposition, and of great intelligence, 
they are always desirous of knowing what is going on in the world, 
and ever anxious to learn ; whilst the Chinese, on the other hand, 
shut themselves up behind their classic wall, and recoil from every- 
thing that is strange to them. These characteristics show that the 
Japanese are a far superior race to the Chinese. 

A few peculiarities, more especially found in the inhabitants of 
the sea coast, the fishermen, and the sailors, separate the Japanese 
physical type from that of the Chinese. The former are small, 
vigorous, active men, with heavy jaws, thick lips, and a small nose, 
flat at the bridge, but yet with an aquiline profile. Their hair is some- 
what inclined to be curly. 

The Japanese are generally of middle height. They have a large 
head, rather high shoulders, a broad chest, a long waist, fleshy hips, 
slender short legs, and small hands and feet. The full face of those 
who have a very retreating forehead and particularly prominent cheek- 
bones is rather square than oval in shape. Their eyes are more 
projecting than those of Europeans, and are rather more veiled by 
the eyelid. The general effect is not that of the Chinese or Mongolian 
type. The Japanese have a larger head than is customary with 
individuals of these races, their face is longer, their features are more 
regular, and their nose is more prominent and better shaped. 

They have all thick, sleek, dark black hair, and some have a con- 
siderable quantity of it on their faces. The colour of their skin varies 
according to the class they belong to, from the sallow sunburnt com- 
plexion of the inhabitants of southern Europe to the deep tawny hue 
of that of the native of Java. The most general tint is a sallow brown, 
but none remind you of the yellow skin of the Chinese. The women 



are fairer than the men. Amongst the upper and even the middle 
classes, some are to be met with with a perfectly white complexion. 

Two indelible features distinguish the Japanese from the European 
type : their half-veiled eyes and a disfiguring hollow in the breast, 
which is noticeable in them .in the flower of their youth, even in the 
handsomest figures. 

Both men and women have black eyes and white sound teeth. 

Fig. 139 — A Japanese Father 

Their countenance is mobile, and possesses great variety of expression. 
It is the custom for their married women to blacken their teeth. The 
national Japanese costume is a kind of open dressing-gown (Fig. 138), 
which is made a little wider and a little more -flowing for the women 
than for the men. It is fastened round the waist by a belt. That 
worn by the men is a narrow silk sash, that by the women a broad 
piece of cloth tied in a peculiar knot at the back. 

The Japanese wear no linen, but they bathe, as we have said, 


every other day. The women wear an under-garment of red silk 

In summer, the peasants, the fishermen, the mechanics, and the 
Indian coolies follow their calling in a state of almost complete nudity, 
and the women only wear a skirt from the waist downwards. When 
it rains they cover themselves with capes, made of straw or oiled 
paper, and with hats, made shield-shape, of cane bark. In winter the 
men of the lower classes wear, beneath their kiritnon or dressing- 
gown, a tight-fitting vest and pair of trousers of blue cotton stuff, and 
the women one or more wadded cloaks. The middle classes always 
wear a vest and trousers out of doors. 

Figs. 138, 139, 140, and 141 represent different Japanese types. 

Their costume generally differs only in the material of which it is 
made. The nobility alone have the right to wear silk. They only 
wear their costlier dresses on the occasions of their going to court, or 
when they pay ceremonial visits. All classes wear linen socks and 
sandals of plaited straw, or wooden shoes fastened by a string looped 
round the big toe. They all, on their return to their own house, or 
when entering that of a stranger, take off their shoes, and leave them 
at the threshold. 

The floors of Japanese dwellings are covered with mattings, which 
take the place of every other kind of furniture. 

A Japanese has but one wife. 

The Japanese have a taste for science and art, and are fond of 
music and pageants. Their manufactures are largely developed. 
They make all sorts of fine stuffs, work skilfully in iron and copper, 
make capital sword-blades, and their wood-carvings, their lacquer- 
work, and their china, enjoy a wide reputation. 

Political power was divided between an hereditary and despotic 
governor, the Tai Koon, and a spiritual chief, the Mikado. The truth 
is, that in a.d. 1192 the Tai Koon, or generalissimo of the army, 
usurped supreme power, owning nominal homage to the Mikado, or 
real ruler, to whom, however, he left the exercise of supreme spiritual 
authority. Till very recently there were two rulers — the Tai Koon, 
who governed, the Mikado, who reigned —with two courts ; one at 
Yeddo, and the other, that of the Mikado, at Miako. In 1867-68, 
as a result of the opening up of Japan to foreign influence, the unifi- 
cation of the nation under one ruler, the Mikado, was resolved upon, 
and, after a short civil war, the Tai Koon abdicated. The feudal 
nobility (daimios) magnanimously surrendered their privileges, and 
the Mikado once more assumed the sole supreme authority — the 
temporal as well as the spiritual sovereignty of the empire. Japan 



became thoroughly modernised, the French imperial system of ad- 
ministration being pretty closely imitated. The Mikado has a 
ministry, council of state, and senate. For the daimios prefects were 
substituted, who manage provincial affairs. Railways, telegraphs, the 

Fig. 140. — Japanese Soldier. 

various arts, sciences, and even the system of public instruction 
characteristic of Europe were introduced. The army and navy were 
organised on European models. A code of laws, on the model of 
the Code Napoleon, was introduced, and it is said that now a move- 
ment is on foot to introduce representative parliaments. 

M. Humbert, the Swiss plenipotentiary there, published in 1870, 


under the title of " Japan," a work which gives in some passages a 
vivid picture of the picturesqueness and pageantry of the country 
before the most recent reforms were instituted. 

M. Humbert was present at the ceremonies which took place on 
the occasion of an official visit paid by the Ta'i Koon to the Mikado, 
and he gives the following account of it : — 

" While I was in Japan it happened that the Ta'i Koon paid a 
visit of courtesy to the Mikado. 

" This was an extraordinary event. It made a great sensation, in- 
spired the brush of several native artists* and gave resident foreigners 
a chance of seeing rather more clearly into the reciprocal relation of 
the two powers of the empire. Their respective position is really 
one of considerable interest. 

" In the first place, the Mikado* has over his temporal rival the 
advantage of birth and the prestige of his sacred character. Grand- 
son of the Sun, he continues the traditions of the gods, the demigods, 
the heroes, and- the hereditary sovereigns who have reigned over 
Japan in an uninterrupted succession since the creation of the empire 
of the eight great islands. Supreme head of their religion, under 
whatever form it may present itself to the people, he officiates as the 
sovereign pontiff of the ancient national creed of the Kamis. At the 
summer solstice, he offers sacrifices to the earth ; at the winter solstice, 
to heaven. A god is specially deputed to watch over his precious 
destiny ; from the shrine of the temple he inhabits at the top ot 
Mount Kamo, in the neighbourhood of the Mikado's residence, this 
deity watches night and day over the DaTri; and finally, at the death 
of a Mikado, his name, which it has been ordained shall be inscribed 
in the temples of his ancestors, is engraved at Kioto, in the temple 
of Hatchiman, and at Isye, in the temple of the Sun. 

" It is indubitably from heaven that the Mikado, both theocratic 
emperor and hereditary sovereign, derives- the authority which he 
exercises over his people. Though nowadays, it must be acknow- 
ledged, he scarcely knows how to employ it. However, from time 
to time it seems proper to him to confer pompous titles, which are 
entirely honorary, on a few old feudal nobles who have deserved well 
of the altar. Sometimes also he allows himself the luxury of openly 
protesting against those acts of the temporal power which seem to 
infringe on his prerogatives. This is the course he took with special 
reference to the treaties made by the Ta'i Koon with several western 
nations ; it is true that he finally sanctioned them, but that was 
because he could not help himself. 

" Now the Ta'i Koon, as everybody knows, is the fortunate 


Fig. 141. — Japanese Noble. 

successor of a common usurper. In fact, the founders of his 
dynasty, subjects of the then Mikado, robbed their lord and master 
of" his army, his navy, his lands, and his treasure, as if they were 
desirous of depriving him of any subject of earthly anxiety. 


" Possibly the Mikado was too ready to fall in with their plans. 
The offer of a two-wheeled chariot, drawn by an ox, for his daily 
drive in the parks of his residence, doubtless a considerable privilege 
in a country where nobody uses a conveyance, should not have per- 
suaded him to sacrifice the manly exercises of archery, hawking, and 
hunting the stag or wild boar. He might likewise, without making 
himself absolutely invisible, have spared himself the fatigue of the 
ceremonious receptions where, motionless on a raised platform, he 
accepts the silent adoration of his courtiers prostrated at his feet. 
The Mikado, now, they say, only communicates with the exterior 
world through the medium of the female attendants entrusted with 
the care of his person. It is they who dress and feed him, clothing 
him daily in a fresh costume, and serving his meals on table utensils 
fresh every morning from the manufactory which for centuries has 
monopolised their supply. His sacred feet never touch the ground ; 
his countenance is never exposed in broad daylight to the common 
gaze ; in a word, the Mikado must be kept pure from all contact 
with the elements, the sun, the moon, the earth, mankind, and 

" It was necessary that the interview should take place at Kioto, 
the holy town which the Mikado is never allowed to leave. His 
palace, and the ancient temples of his family, are his sole personal 
possessions there, the town itself being under the rule of the temporal 
emperor ; but the latter dedicates its revenues to the expenses of the 
spiritual sovereign, and condescends to keep up a permanent garrison 
within its walls for the protection of the pontifical throne. 

"The preliminaries on both sides having been carried out, a 
proclamation announced the day when the Tai Koon intended to 
issue forth from his capital, the immense and populous modern town 
of Yeddo, the head-quarters of the political and civil government of 
the empire, the seat of the Naval and Military Schools, of the In- 
terpreters' College, and of the Academy of Medicine and Philosophy. 

" He was preceded by a division of his army equipped in the 
European manner, and, while these picked troops, infantry, cavalry, 
and artillery, were marching on Kioto by land, along the great 
imperial highway of the Tokai'do, the fleet received orders to set 
sail for the inland sea. The temporal sovereign himself embarked 
in the splendid steamer, the Lycemoon, which he had purchased of the 
firm of Dent and Co. for five hundred thousand dollars. Six other 
steamers escorted him : the Kanditnarrah, notorious for its voyage 
from Yeddo to San Francisco to convey the Japanese embassy sent 
to the United States : the sloop of war, the Soembing, a gift from the 



Fig. 142. — Japanese Palanquin. 

King of the Netherlands ; the yacht Emperor, a present from Queen 
Victoria; and some frigates built in America and in Holland to orders 
given by the embassies of 1859 and 1862. Manned entirely by 
Japanese crews, this squadron left the bay of Yeddo, doubled Cape 
Sagami and the promontory of Idsou, crossed the Linschoten Strait"., 



and coasting along the eastern shores of the island of Awadsi, dropped 
its anchors in the Hiogo roadstead, where the Ta'i Koon disembarked 
amid larboard and starboard salutes. 

" His state entry into Kioto took place a few days later, with no 
military parade but that of his own troops, as the Mikado possesses 
neither soldiers nor artillery, with the exception of a body-guard of 
archers, recruited from the families of his kinsmen or of the feudal 
nobility. Indeed, he can hardly afford, even on this moderate scale, 
the expenses of his court ; and his own revenue being insufficient, he 
is obliged to accept with one hand an income the Ta'i Koon consents 
to pay him out of his own private purse, and with the other the 
amounts that the brethren of a few monastic orders yearly collect for 
him, from village to village, in even the furthest provinces of the 
empire. Another circumstance that assists him to support his rank 
is the disinterested abnegation of many of his high officials. Some 
of them serve him with no other remuneration but the free use of 
the costly regulation dresses of the old imperial wardrobe. On their 
return home, after doffing their court costume, these haughty gentle- 
men are not ashamed to seat themselves at a weavers' loom or at an 
embroidery frame. More than one piece of the rich silk productions 
of Kioto, the handiwork of which is so much admired, has issued 
from some of the princely houses, whose names are inscribed in the 
register of the Kamis. 

"These drawbacks did not prevent the Mikado from inaugurating 
the day of the interview, by exhibiting to his royal visitor the spectacle 
of the grand procession of the Dai'ri. Accompanied by his archers, 
by his household, by his courtiers, and by the whole of his pontifical 
staff, he left his palace by the southern gateway, which, towards 
the close of the ninth century, was decorated by the historical 
compositions of the celebrated painter- poet, Kose Kanaoka. He 
descended along the boulevards to the suburb washed by the Yodo- 
gawa, and returned to the castle through the principal streets of the 

" The ancient insignia of his supreme power were carried in state 
at the head of the procession ; the mirror of his ancestress, Izanami, 
the beautiful goddess who gave birth to the sun in the island of 
Awadsi ; the glorious standard, the long paper streamers of which 
had waved above die heads of the soldiery of Zinmou the conqueror; 
the flaming sword of the hero of Yamato, who overcame the eight- 
headed hydra to which virgins of princely blood used to be sacrificed; 
the seal that stamped the first laws of the empire ; and the cedar- 
wood fan, shaped like a lath and used as a sceptre, which for more 


than two thousand years has descended from the hands of the dead 
Mikado to those of his successor. 

" I shall not stop to describe another part of the pageant, intended, 
doubtless, to complete and enhance the effect of the rest, namely, the 
banners embroidered with the armorial bearings of all the ancient 
noble families of the empire. Perhaps they were intended to 
remind the Ta'i Koon that, in the eyes of the old territorial nobility, 
he was nothing but a -parvenu ; if so, the parvenu could smile com- 
placently at the thought that the whole of the Japanese grandees, 
the great as well as the lesser dai'mios, are, nevertheless, obliged to 
pass six months of the year at his Court in Yeddo, and offer him their 
homage in the midst of the nobles of his own creation. 

" The most numerous and the most picturesque ranks of the pro- 
cession were those of the representatives of all the sects who recognise 
the spiritual supremacy of the Mikado. The dignitaries of the ancient 
creed of the Kamis are scarcely distinguishable, as to dress, from the 
high officials of the palace. I have already described their costume ; 
it reminds the spectators that the Japanese possessed originally a 
religion without a priesthood. Buddhism, on the contrary, which 
came from China, and rapidly spread throughout the empire, has an 
immense variety of sects, rites, orders, and brotherhoods. The bonzes 
and the monks belonging to this faith composed in the procession 
endless ranks of devout-looking individuals, with the tonsure or with 
entirely shaven heads, some of them uncovered, and some wearing 
curiously shaped caps, mitres, and hats with wide brims. Some of 
them carried a crozier in their right hand, others a rosary, others 
again a fly-brush, a sea-shell, or a holy water sprinkler made of 
paper. They were dressed in cassocks, surplices, and cloaks of 
every shape and hue. 

" Behind them came the household of the Mikado. The pontifical 
body-guard in their full dress aim beyond everything at elegance. 
Leaving breastplates and coats of mail to the men-at-arms of the 
Ta'i Koon, they wear a little lacquer-work cap, ornamented on both 
sides with rosettes, and a rich silk tunic trimmed with lace edgings. 
The width of their trousers conceals their feet. They are equipped 
with a large curved sabre, a bow, and a quiver full of arrows. 

" Some of the mounted ones had a long riding-whip fastened to 
their wrist by a coarse silken cord. 

" A great deal of brutality is too often hidden beneath this imposing 
exterior. The wildness and the dissipation of the young nobles of 
the Japanese pontifical court have supplied history with pag^s recal- 
ling the worst period of Papal Rome, the days of Caesar Borgia 


Conrad Kramer, the envoy of the Dutch West Indian islands to the 
Court of Kioto, was allowed to be -present in 1626 at a festival held 
in honour of a visit of the temporal emperor to his spiritual sovereign. 
He relates that the following day corpses of women, young girls, and 
children, who had fallen victims to nocturnal outrages, were found in 
the streets of the capital. A still larger number of married women 
and maidens, whom curiosity had attracted to Kioto, were lost by 
their husbands and parents in the turmoil of the crowded streets, and 
were only found a week or a fortnight later, their families being 
utterly unable to bring their abducers to justice. 

" Polygamy being a legal institution for the Mikado only, it was 
perhaps natural for him to make some display of his prerogative. It 
costs him sufficiently dear. It is the abyss hidden with flowers that 
the first usurpers of the Imperial power dug for the feet.of the suc- 
cessors of Zinmou. It is easy to imagine the cynical smile on the 
lips of the Ta'i Koon as he saw the long row of the equipages of the 
Dairi make its appearance. 

" A pair of black buffaloes, driven by pages in white smocks, were 
harnessed to each of these cumbrous vehicles, which were made of 
precious woods, and glistened with coats of varnish of different tints. 
They contained the empress and the twelve other legitimate wives of 
the Mikado, seated behind doors of open lattice-work. His favourite 
concubines, and the fifty ladies of honour of the empress, followed 
close behind in covered palanquins. Fig. 142 (p. 353) represents a 
Japanese palanquin. 

'• When the Mikado himself leaves his residence, it is always in his 
pontifical litter. This litter, fastened on long shafts, and borne by 
fifty porters in white liveries, can be seen from a long distance off, 
towering above the crowd. It is constructed in the shape of a 
mikosis, the kind of shrine in which the holy relics of the Kamis are 
exposed. It may be compared to a garden summer-house, with a 
cupola roof with bells hanging all round its base. On the top of the 
cupola there is a ball, and on top of the ball there is a kind of 
cock couchant on its spurs, with its wings extended and its tail 
spread. This is meant as a representation of the mythological bird 
known in China and Japan under the name of F06. 

"This portable summer-house glistening all over with gold, is so 
very hermetically closed that it is difficult to believe that anybody 
could be put inside it. A proof, however, that it is really used for 
the high purpose attributed to it, is that on each side of it are seen 
walking the women who are the domestic attendants of the Mikado. 
They alone have the privilege of surrounding his person. To the 

Fig. 143.— The Tai Koon's Guards. 


rest of his court as well as to his people, the Mikado remains an 
invisible, dumb, and inapproachable divinity. He kept up this 
character even in the interview with the Tai Koon. 

"Amongst the group of buildings that constitute the right of 
Kioto to be styled the pontifical residence, there is one that might 
be called the Temple of Audience, for it is constructed in the sacred 
style of architecture peculiar to the religious edifices of the faith of 
the Kamis, and it bears, like them, the name of Mia. Adjoining the 
apartments inhabited by the Mikado, it stands at the bottom of a 
large court paved and planted with trees, in which are marshalled the 
escorts of honour on high and solemn festivals. 

" A detachment of officers of the artillery and of the body-guards 
of the Tai Koon (Fig. 143), and several groups of dignitaries of the 
Mikado's suite drew up successively in this open space. 

" The women had retired to their own apartments. 

" Deputations of bonzes and different monastic orders occupied 
the corridors along the surrounding walls. Soldiers of the Tai Koonal 
garrison of Kioto, posted at intervals, kept the line of the avenue 
which led to the broad steps reaching up to the front of the building. 
Up this avenue the courtiers of the Mikado, clad in mantles with 
long trains, passed with measured tread, majestically ascended the 
steps, and placed themselves right and left on the verandah, with 
their faces turned towards the still closed doors of the great throne 
room. Before taking up their position they took care to lift the trains 
of their mantles and throw them over the balustrade of the verandah, 
so as to display to the crowd the coats of arms which were em- 
broidered on these portions of their garments. The whole verandah 
was soon curtained with this brilliant kind of tapestry. 

" Presently the sound of flutes, of sea-shells, and of the gongs of 
the pontifical chapel, proceeding from the left wing of the building, 
announced that the Mikado was entering the sanctuary. A deep 
silence fell upon the crowd. An hour passed away in solemn expecta- 
tion, whilst the preliminaries of the reception were being performed. 
Suddenly a flourish of trumpets announced the arrival of the Tai 
Koon. He advanced up the avenue on foot and without any escort ; 
his prime minister, the commanders-in-chief of the army and navy, 
and a few members of the council of the Court of Yeddo, walked at 
a respectful distance behind him. He stopped for a moment at the 
foot of the great staircase, and immediately the doors of the temple 
slowly opened, gliding from right to left in their grooves. He then 
ascended the steps, and the spectacle, which had held in suspense 
die expectation of the multitude, at last unveiled itself to their eyes. 


" A large green awning of cane-bark, fastened to the ceiling of the 
hall, hung within two or three feet of the floor. Through this narrow 
space could be perceived a couch of mats and carpets, on which the 
broad folds of an ample white robe spread themselves out. This was 
all that could be seen of the spectacle of the Mikado on his throne. 

" The chinks in the plaits of the cane awning allowed him to see 
everything without being seen. Wherever he directed his gaze, he 
perceived nothing but heads bent before his invisible majesty. One 
alone remained erect on the summit of the stairs of the temple, but 
it was one crowned with the lofty golden coronet, the royal symbol 
of the temporal head of the empire. And even he, too, the powerful 
sovereign whose might is boundless, when he had reached the last 
step, bent his head, and sinking slowly, fell on his knees, stretched his 
arms forward towards the threshold of the throne-room, and bowed 
his forehead to the very ground. 

"From that moment, the ceremony of the interview was ac- 
complished, the aim of the solemnity was gained. The Tai Koon 
had openly prostrated himself at the feet of the Mikado." Fig. 144 
represents a lady of the Court. 

As to the art of war in Japan, previous to recent reforms, we 
quote a few details from M. Humbert, on the equipments and the 
uniforms of the Tai Koon's soldiers. 

" The common soldiers are," M. Humbert tells us, " inhabitants of 
the mountains of Akoui. They return to their homes after a short ser- 
vice of two or three years. Their uniform is made of blue cotton stuff, 
striped with white across the shoulders, and consists of a tight-fitting 
pair of trousers, and a shirt like that worn by the followers of Garibaldi. 
They wear cotton socks, leather sandals, and a waist-belt supporting 
a large sword in a japanned scabbard. Their cartridge-pouch and 
their bayonet are slung to their right side by a baldric. Their get-up 
is completed by a pointed hat, sloping at the sides, and made of 
lacquered cardboard ; but they only wear it when on guard or at drill. 

"As for the muskets of the Japanese troops, they have all, it is 
true, percussion-locks, but they vary both in calibre and in make, 
according to where they happen to come from. I saw four different 
kinds in the racks of some barracks at Benten, which a Yakounine 
did me the favour to show me. He showed me first a Dutch sample 
musket, and then one of an inferior quality, manufactured in some 
workshops that had been started in Yeddo to turn out arms copied 
from this sample ; he then pointed out an American gun ; and finally, 
a Minid ritle, the use of which a young officer was teaching a squad of 
soldiers in the barrack-yard." 


Fig. 144. — A Lady of the Court. 

The dress of the old Japanese soldiery was curious in this respect, 
that it reproduced and preserved the whole military paraphernalia of 
European feudal times. A helmet, a coat-of-mail, a halberd, and a 
two-handed sword, such was the equipment of the better class of 

Fencing is held in high esteem in the Japanese army. The men 

M * 


are very clever at this exercise, which keeps up their vigour and their 
skill. Even the women practise it. Their weapon is a lance with a 
bent piece of iron at the end of it. The ladies learn how to use it irj 
a series of regular positions and attitudes. The Japanese Amazons 
can also skilfully make use of a kind of knife, fastened to the wrist 
with a long silken string. When they have hurled this weapon at the 
head of their enemy, they draw it back again by means of the cord. 
The men also hurl the knife, but without fastening it to their wrist, 
and in the same way as they practise throwing the knife in Spain. 

The Japanese nobles carry very costly weapons. The temper of 
their sword-blades is matchless, and their sword-hilts and scabbards 
are enriched with finely-chased and engraved metal ornaments. But 
the chief value of their swords lies in their great age and reputation. 
In old families every sword has a history and tradition of its own, 
whose brilliancy corresponds with the blood it has shed. A maiden 
sword must not remain so in the hand of its purchaser. Till an 
opportunity turns up of dyeing it with human blood, its possessor 
tries its prowess on living animals, or better still, on the corpses of 
executed criminals. The executioner, having obtained permission, 
hands him over two or three dead bodies. Our Japanese then pro- 
ceeds to fasten them to crosses, or on trestles, in a courtyard of his 
house, and practises cutting, slashing, and thrusting, till he has 
acquired enough strength and skill to cut a couple of bodies in two 
at one stroke. ■ 

The sword in Japan is the classical, the national weapon. Never- 
theless, in process of time, it will have to give way to the new 
firearms. In spite of the traditional prestige with which the Japanese 
nobility still endeavour to surround the former old-fashioned weapon; 
in spite of the contempt they affect for military innovations ; the rifle, 
the democratic arm of arms, is becoming more and more used in 
Japan. This weapon will inaugurate a social revolution, which will 
put an end to the feudal system. The rifle will cause an Eastern '89 
in Japan. 

The religions of Japan are two in number — viz., Sintuism and 
Buddhism, which it may be said is a comparatively recent importation. 
" The hierarchy of the former," says a recent writer on the " History 
of Ancient Nations," or, Sin-syn, "consists of the Mikado, who, as 
descendant of the Sun-goddess, unites in himself the attributes of the 
deity — two ecclesiastical judges, monks, and priests. The chief 
object of worship is Ten-sio-dai-sin, the great Sun-goddess ; but there 
are hosts of demi-gods, for every patriot, warrior, or great man is made 
one after death. The chief tenets are purity of heart, abstinence from 



Fig. 145. — A Kamis Temple, Japan. 

all that leads to impurity, diligent observances of holy days, and 
pilgrimages to holy places, and (according to some) mortification of 
the flesh. The worshippers first wash in a font, pray before the 
sacred mirror (which, is a symbol of purity, is placed on the altar), 


then drot> a few cash in the money-box, and strike a bell to indicate 
their devotions are finished." Figs. 145 represents a Kamis temple, 
and Fig. 146 a Japanese pagoda. 

We quote some of M. Humbert's remarks on Buddhism. 

" Our imagination can hardly conceive," says this traveller, " that 
nearly a third of the human race has no religious belief but that of 
Buddhism — a creed without a God, a faith of negation, an invention 
of despair. 

" One would wish to persuade oneself that the multitudes who 
follow its doctrines do not understand the faith they profess, or at 
least refuse to admit its natural consequences. The idolatrous 
practices engrafted on the book of its law seem, in fact, to bear 
witness that Buddhism has neither been able to satisfy or destroy the 
religious instinct innate in man, and germinating in the bosoms of all 

" On the other hand, it is impossible not to recognise the in- 
fluence of the philosophy of final annihilation in many of the habits 
and customs of Japanese life. The Irowa teaches the school children 
that life disappears like a dream, and leaves no trace behind. A 
Japanese, arrived at man's estate, sacrifices with the most disdainful 
indifference his own life, or that of his neighbour, to appease his 
pride, or for some trifling cause of anger. Murders and suicides are 
of such every-day occurrence in Japan, that there are few families of 
gentle birth who do not make it a point of honour to boast at least 
one sword that has been dyed in blood. 

" Buddhism is, however, superior in some respects to the creeds 
it has dethroned. It owes this relative superiority to the justice of its 
fundamental axiom, which is an avowal of a need for a redeeming 
principle, grounded on the double fact of the existence of evil in the 
nature of man, and of an universal state of misery and suffering in 
the world. 

" The promises of the religion of the Kamis* had all reference to 
this life. A strict observance of the rules of purification would 
preserve the faithful from the five great ills, which are, the fire of 
heaven, sickness, poverty, exile, and early death. The aim of their 
religious festivals was the glorification of the heroes of the empire. 
But were patriotism idealised and exalted into a national creed, 
it would still be true that this natural feeling, so precious and so 
appropriate, could never suffice to satisfy the soul and answer its 
every craving. The human soul is more boundless than the world. 

* By this is meant the old worship of the Great Sun-goddess. 



Fig. 146. — Japanese Pagoda. 



It needs a belief to raise it beyond the earth. Buddhism to a certain ex- 
tent met these aspirations, which had been hitherto neglected. This 
circumstance alone will explain the success with which it is propagated 

Fig. 147. — Burmese Nobles. 

in Japan and elsewhere, by the mere force of persuasion. At all 
events we may well believe that it is not its abstract and philosophical 
form that has made it so popular, and nothing is a better proof of 
this than its present state. 



" The bonzes Sinran, Nitziten, and twenty or thirty others, have 
Hiade themselves a reputation as founders of sects, each of which is 

Fig. 148. — Burmese Lady. 

distinguished by some peculiarity worthy of rivalling the ingenious 
invention of Foudaisi. 

" Thus one particular brotherhood has a monopoly of the patron- 
age of the great family rosary. It must be explained that a Buddhist 


rosarv can only exercise its power if its beads are properly enumerated. 
Now, in a numerous family, there is no guarantee against errors being 
committed in the use of the rosary ; whence the inefficiency it is 
sometimes accused of. Instead of indulging in recrimination, how- 
ever, the plan pursued is to send for a bonze of the Order of the 
Great Rosary to set matters right again. 

" This good man hastens up with his instrument, which is about 
as big as a good-sized boa-constrictor, and places it in the hands of 
the family kneeling in a circle, whilst he himself, standing in front of 
the shrine of the domestic idol, directs operations with a bell and a 
small hammer. At a given signal, father, mother, and children intone 
with the whole force of their lungs the prayers agreed upon. The 
small and the large beads of the rosary and the strokes of the hammer 
fall with a cadenced rhythm that inspires them. The rosary ring 
grows excited, their cries become passionate, their arms and hands 
work like machinery, the perspiration streams down them, and their 
bodies get stiff with fatigue. At last the close of the ceremony leaves 
everybody breathless, exhausted, but radiant with happiness, for the 
interceding gods must be satisfied ! 

" Buddhism is a flexible, conciliating, insinuating religion, which 
accommodates itself to the bent and the habits of the most different 
races. From the very first, the bonzes in Japan managed to get 
themselves entrusted with some of the shrines and small chapels of 
the Kamis, in order to protect them in the enclosure of their 
sanctuaries. They hastened to add to their ceremonies symbols 
borrowed from the ancient national faith ; and in short, for the 
purpose of better fusing the two creeds, they introduced into their 
temples Kamis deities, invested with the titles and attributes of 
Hindoo divinities, and at the same time Hindoo gods transformed 
into Japanese Kamis. There was nothing inadmissible in these 
exchanges, which were explained in the most natural manner by the 
dogma of transmigration. Thanks to this combination of the two 
creeds, which received the name of Rioobon-Sintoo, Buddhism has 
become the prevalent religion of Japan. 

" . . . . Within their temples the bonzes officiate at the altar, in 
the sight of the people, beyond the sanctuary which a veil separates 
from the crowd. The latter are only directly addressed by them in 
preaching, and only on the special festivals consecrated to this 

" They are allowed to go in procession only at certain periods of 
the year, and then only in the presence of the government officials 
who superintend public pageants. 

Fig. 149. — Women of Bankok. 

IN DO- CHINESE. 3 7 ~ 

" The pastoral portions of their duty have been cut down to such 
narrow limits, that I can find only one word to apply to the duties 
that remain. They are simply the duties of a mute. In fact, the 
bonzes perform the sacramental ceremonies that the Japanese of all 
sects are accustomed to see accompany the last moments of the 
dying. They arrange the funeral procession, and provide, according 
to. the wishes of the relatives of the deceased, for the burial or for the 
burning of his remains, and for the consecration and protection of hi? 

The Indo-Chinese Family. 

The people of Indo-China, whom we consider to belong to the 
Yellow Race, have a darker complexion than the Chinese and the 
Japanese. Their stature is smaller, and their civilisation is less 
developed. They are generally of an indolent disposition. 

To this group belong the Burmans, the Annamites, and the 

The Burmans and the Annamites. — The Burmese are a nation 
which has made a good deal of progress in civilisation. In this 
respect the Annamites are not behind them. The physical, moral, 
and political characteristics of these two nations have no particular 
point of interest to engage our attention. We content ourselves with 
showing the reader (Figs. 147 and 148) the types and the costumes 
of the inhabitants of the Burmese Empire. 

The Siamese. — The population of the kingdom of Siam, or Mang 
Thai (the kingdom of the free), can hardly be well estimated, owing 
to the custom which prevails there of counting only males in the 
census. " Native registers," says Mrs. Leonowens,* in her " Romance 
of Siamese Harem Life " (Triibner, 1873), "give the number of men 
as 4,000,000 Siamese, 1,000,000 Laolians, 1,000,000 Malays and 
Indians, 1,500,000 Chinese, 350,000 Cambodians, 50,000 Peguans, 
and 50,000 hill tribes — in all nearly 8,000,000. If we are to rely on 
their figures, and add the women and children not included in that, 
the population of Siam is, it will be seen, usually very seriously under- 
estimated. The late King of Siam, a most accomplished pundit, 
concluded from some of his researches, that of 12,800 Siamese words 

* This lady was, we understand, for some years attached to the Siamese 
court as governess to the Royal Family. Her information seems to be generally 
very trustworthy. — [Ed.] 



more than 5,000 were Sanskrit in origin, and the rest may be placed 
to other Indo-European tongues. A good many names, however, 
are derived from Cambodia and China. On this account some 

Fig. 150. — Siamese Domestic 

philologists would class the Siamese with Indo-European Races, 
which is, however, ethnologically impossible." 

The Siamese are effeminate in appearance and servile in physi- 
ognomy. Nearly all have rather a flat nose, prominent cheek-bones, 
a dull unintelligent eye, broad nostrils, a wide mouth, lips reddened 
by their habit of chewing betel, and teeth as black as ebony. They 
all keep their heads entirely shaved, except just on the top, where 
they allow a tuft to grow. Their hair is black and coarse. The 



Fig. 152. — Tomb ot a Bonze, at Laos. 

women wear the same tuft, but their hair is finer and carefully 
kept. The dress of both men and women is by no means an 
elaborate one. 

Figs. 149, 150, and 151, give an exact idea of the type and mode 


of dress of the Siamese. A piece of cloth, which they raise behind, 
and the two ends of which they fasten to theii belt, is their only 
garment The women wear besides a scarf across their shoulders. 
Apart from the delicacy of her features, a Siamese girl of from 
twelve to twenty need but little envy the conventional models of 
our statuary. 

The Siamese are passionately fond of trinkets. Provided they 
glitter, it matters little whether they are real or false. They cover 
their women and their children with rings, bracelets, armlets, and 
bits of gold and silver. They wear them on their arms, on their legs, 
round their necks, in their ears, on their bodies, on their shoulders, 
everywhere they can place them. The king's son is so covered with 
them, that the weight of his clothes and jewellery is heavier than 
that of his body. Only one wife is allowed to each man by law. 
The king, however, can marry two, and their children alone are 
legitimate. Concubinage is the curse of the country : it is limited 
only by the means of the men. The king being the fountain of all 
honours and wealth, all his vassals strive to rival each other in the 
assiduity with which they pander to his lusts, and from princes 
downwards, they eagerly bring the most beautiful of their daughters 
as offerings for the royal seraglio, which is filled with poor doomed 
women whose lives are often of the saddest description. In Siam 
woman is at the mercy of man, for husbands and fathers have 
limitless power, even of life and death, over their wives and children. 
Parents can and do sell their children to slavery ; and this, with con- 
cubinage, is the chief curse of the country. Though polygamy is 
not legal, yet divorce is attainable with such facility, that a man who 
is tired of his wife and wants another can easily do so. He can 
take priestly vows which dissolve his marriage ; and, as these vows 
are revocable at will, he may marry again as soon as he pleases. It 
must be stated, that when a woman becomes a mother she is treated 
most respectfully, but if childless, her lot in life is hard indeed. 

The Siamese have retained intact all the superstitions of the 
Hindoos and the Chinese. They believe in demons, in ogres, in 
mermaids, &c. They have faith in amulets, in philtres, and in sooth- 
sayers. They support a king, a court, and a seraglio, with its 
numerous progeny. Between him and the people intervene twelve 
different ranks of princes, an endless series of governors and 
lieutenant governors, all equally incapable and rapacious. The King 
of Siam is as much the object of veneration all over the Buddhist 
part of Indo-China as the Sultan of Turkey is to the Mussulman 
world. Roya'ty in Siam is a religious sentiment; yet it is a despotism 




tempered by law and custom. The king names his successor ; but it 
appears his secret council have the power of frustrating his nomina- 
tion if they choose, and they have the privilege of nominating a 
second sub-king, whose functions are unimportant when the real 
king has much personal desire to exercise power and authority. 
The empire is divided into forty -nine provinces, each under a.P/iaya, 
or governor. Every subject has a legal right to complain to the king 
about the conduct of even the highest official, and at the eastern 
gate of his palace the monarch sits in public to receive petitions from 
his people. 

Like all degraded and servile nations, the inhabitants of Siam 
devote a great part of their existence to games and amusements. 

M. Mouhot visited Oudon, the old capital of Cambodia, now 
under a French protectorate. The houses of this town are made ot 
bamboo, sometimes of planks. The longest street is nearly three- 
quarters of a mile long. The tillers of the soil and the hard-wofking 
classes, as well as the mandarins and the other employes of the 
government, dwell in the suburbs of the town. M. Mouhot met at 
every moment mandarins in litters or in hammocks, followed by a 
swarm of slaves, each carrying something : some, a red or yellow 
umbrella, the size of which is an indication of the rank and quality of 
its owner ; others, boxes of betel. Horsemen, mounted on small, 
active horses, caparisoned in a costly manner, and covered with 
little bells, and followed by a pack of slaves begrimed with dust and 
sweat, often took their turn in the panorama. He also noticed some 
light carts, drawn by a couple of small but swift oxen. Elephants, 
too, moving majestically forwards with outstretched ears and trunk, 
and stopped occasionally by the numerous processions which were 
wending their way to the pagodas to the sound of boisterous music. 

Bankok, the capital of the great kingdom which threatens even 
r.ow to impose itself on all Indo-China, was formerly called Siam, 
whence the name of the country. 

An absolute sovereign, looked upon as the incarnation of Buddha, 
rules over the kingdom of Siam, which is divided into four provinces : 
Siam, Siamese Laos, Siamese Cambodia, and Siamese Malacca. At 
one time a tributary of the Burmese Empire, the kingdom of Siam 
recovered its independence in 1759, and in 1768 even increased its 
territory by conquest. Fig. 152 contains a view of the tomb of a 
Bonze at Laos, and Fig. 153 represents a group of Cambodians. 

There are scarcely any manufactures in Siam, but commerce still 
flourishes there, although less vigorously than formerly. The Siamese 
exchange their agricultural produce, their wood, their skins, cotton, 



Fig. 154. — The Prince-Royal o( Siam. 


3 8l 

rice, and preserved fish, with the Chinese, the Armamites, the Bur- 
mese, and especially with the English and Dutch possessions, 

Fig. 155. — Chinese Girl. 

Elephant's tusks are also an important article of barter, and elephant- 
hunting is the calling of many of the natives. 

The country is rather fertile. It is an immense plain, hilly towards 


the north, and intersected by a river, the Meinam, on the banks of 
which are placed its principal towns. Bankok is situated on tins 
river, not far from its mouth in the gulf of Siam, and is consequently 
the principal port of the whole kingdom, the head-quarters of its 
entire trade. The periodical overflowings of the Meinam fertilise the 
whole of its basin. 

Art and science are not entirely neglected in the kingdom of 
Siam. Literature is also cultivated with success. The late king was 
a remarkably able polemical writer. His apology for Buddhism, 
published in a series of letters to a local Siamese newspaper, is a 
remarkably subtle and ingenious one, and above the average standard 
of such writing in the country. It is one of the few Asiatic countries 
which possess a literature of its own, and some artistic productions. 

Although the Buddhist religion prevails in Siam, and is the state 
religion, yet different sects are tolerated there, and Christianity can 
reckon 2,500 disciples. 

Fig. 154 represents the young prince-royal of Siam, and Fig. 155 
a Chinese girl — a description of the Chinese Races, it will be re- 
membered, has already been given. 

The Stieng savages are subjects of the King of Siam. Their stature 
is a little above the average. They are powerful, their features are 
regular, and their well-developed foreheads show intelligence. Their 
only clothing is a long scarf. They are so much attached to their 
mountains and forests, that when away from their own country they 
are frequently seized with a dangerous kind of honie-sickness. 

These Siamese aliens of civilisation work in iron and ivory, and 
make hatchets and swords which are sought after by collectors. Their 
women weave and dye the scarves they wear. They cultivate rice, 
maize, tobacco, vegetables, and fruit-trees. They possess neither 
priests nor temples, but they acknowledge the existence of a Supreme 
Being. The time they can spare from their fields they devote to 
hunting and fishing. Indefatigable in the chase, they penetrate with 
extraordinary rapidity the densest jungles. The women appear to be 
as active and untiring as the men. They use powerful cross-bows 
with poisoned arrows to shoot the elephant, the rhinoceros, and the 
tiger. They are fond of adorning themselves with imitation pearls of 
a bright colour, which they make into bracelets. Both sexes pierce 
their ears, and widen the hole every year by inserting iu it pieces of 
bone and ivory. 


With M. d'Omalius d'Halloy we class in the Brown Race a great 
variety of peoples who have nothing in common but a complexion 
darker than that of the White and Yellow Races, and whom we are 
led to believe the product of the mixture of these two with the Black 
Race. This theory accounts for one portion of the Brown Race 
possessing White characteristics, while the other has a greater re- 
semblance to the Yellow Race. 

The Brown Race forms three branches or geographical groups, 
viz. : — 

i. The Hindoo branch. 

2. The Ethiopian branch. 

3. The Malay branch. 

We shall proceed to describe the principal peoples belonging to 
these three branches. 




The peoples composing the Hindoo branch have been frequently 
classed in the White Race. In fact, their shape, their language, and 
their institutions partly correspond to those of Europeans and Persians, 
but their darker and sometimes black skins distinguish them from 

The civilisation of the Hindoos was, in the earliest historic times, 
already far advanced ; but for many centuries it has remained sta- 
tionary, or has gone backwards. 

Most Hindoos practise the creed of Brahma, a religion sprung up 
in their own land. A few have embraced Mahometanism, others have 
become Buddhists. 

The most striking features of Hindoo society are what is called 
caste and the village system. 

Castes, according to the laws of Menu, are four in number. The 
Brahman caste, whose members are devoted to the Dractice of 
religious rites, to the study of the law, and to teaching : they are 
said at the moment of creation to have issued out of the mouth of 
Brahma. The Kshatrya or Chuttrce, who issued out of the arm of 
Brahma, are professional soldiers. The Banians, or more correctly, 
the Vaisya or Bats, who sprang from the thigh of Brahma, and who 
are agriculturists, cattle breeders, and traders. Lastly, the Sndras, 
who sprang from the foot of Brahma, and whose function it is to 
serve the other three castes, follow various callings, and are sub- 
divided into many sub-cistes corresponding to as many different 

Each caste was to have peculiar religious observances. Its mem- 
bers must always follow the profession in which destiny had placed 
their parents. Mixture of castes is not absolutely prohibited ; but 
the descendants of those who, by mixed marriages or otherwise, have 
forfeited their caste, become Cftandalas, or outcasts. Finally, below 
even this last division, come the Pariahs, beings cursed by destiny, 



Fig. 156. —Natives of Hyderabad. 



who exist in the most deplorable state of moral degradation. Caste, 
however, does not, as a matter of fact, exist in this form, and there is 
no proof it ever did. Recent scholars have shown that in the oldest 
dramas society is depicted in a state but very slightly influenced by 
caste. In the Toy Cart, the oldest Hindoo drama, the Brahman 
caste commands no superstitious reverence ; indeed, one of them is 
even condemned to death. Some think that the Code of Menu only 
gives a philosopher's ideal of a state, just as does Sir Thomas More's 
"Utopia." The laws of caste according to Menu are a dead letter. 
The Brahman caste is still pretty pure ; but of the others, all are 
intermixed, and out of them have arisen innumerable castes, resting 
on no divine sanction, save that of popular caprice or superstition. 
Existing castes are often more close trade-guilds than anything else ; 
and in the lower classes it is kept up as a pretence for preventing 
servants being burdened with more than one kind of duty in a house- 
hold. Caste does not prevent one following some other business than 
his fathers ; though perhaps it does prevent the more sacred functions 
of the Brahmans being discharged by other castes. It is a popular 
delusion that loss of caste is a terrible calamity. In most cases a good 
dinner to the members of the caste will reinstate a deserter from it ; but 
outcasts join or form other castes usually, and are eagerly welcomed 
when they come as recruits to other castes. It is a different thing if 
a Christian pervert wishes to be restored to the Brahman caste : some- 
times that cannot be done at any cost or sacrifice. Fig. 156 represents 
two natives of Hyderabad, and Fig. 157 a Banian of Surat. 

The village system is a primitive form of municipal government — 
corresponding to the township system in America — for a village is a 
district or area of given acreage, and not a collection of houses at a 
point. Each village has over it a pot ail, or head-man, who settles all 
local disputes, and attends to the taxes and police. There are the 
Curnum, or registrar of produce and property, deeds of sale, transfers, 
&c. ; the Brahman or priest, and the schoolmaster; a representative 
of each trade, a barber, smith, carpenter, doctor, poet, musician^ 
astrologer, &c, who are all paid out of the common good, or pro- 
duce of the village land. This village system never changes, though 
the central government may change never so much. It is a little state 
within a state, and it matters not to whom the supreme power 
is transferred; so long as this little local self-government exists, the 
people are quite happy. 

The Hindoos are well-made, but their limbs are f;ir from robust 
They have small hands and feet, a high forehead, black eyes, well- 
arched eyebrows, fine bright black hair, and a more or less brown 

Fig 157. — A Banian of Surat. 



. 158. — An a^eu Sikh, 

skin, which in the south of India, and particularly among the 
lowest classes, is sometimes black. Ethnologically speaking, there 
are two families in the Hindoo branch — the Hindoo family, and the 
Malabar family. 

Hindoo Family. 

The Hindoo family constitutes the greater part of the population 
of northern Hindostan. The dialects spoken in this country have 


generally some relation to Sanskrit. The colour of the skin in the 
higher classes is fair enough, but becomes darker among the lower 

Among the people belonging to the Hindoo family we may name 
the Sikhs, a warlike people, remarkable for the beauty of their oval 
countenances; the Jats, the Rajpoots, and the Mahrattas ; the 
Bengalese, a peaceful people, devoted to trade, and the Cingalese, or 
inhabitants of the island of Ceylon. Fig. 158 represents an aged 
Sikh, and Fig. 159 a Parsee gentleman. 

An accomplished traveller, M. Alfred Grandidier, has published 
in the "Tour du Monde," in 1869, an account of a "Voyage dans 
l'lnde." We learn from him a few general facts that perfectly sum 
up the social condition of the India of to-day, especially that of the 
central portion of the peninsula, for it would, perhaps, be difficult to 
generalise on the manners and customs of the whole of India, of 
which the population amounts to probably more than two hundred 
and forty or fifty millions, and the superficies to that of the whole 
of continental Europe, with the exception of Russia. 

India is, in fact, divided into three distinct basins : that of the 
Indus, that of the Ganges, and the plain of the Deccan, constituting 
Central India. This last is classic India, that is to say, the part of 
the country best known to non-official Europeans. M. Grandidier's 
travels were in the Deccan, to which refer the remarks we are about 
to quote : — 

" The Hindoos of the Deccan," says M. Grandidier, " resemble 
the Aryan (Caucasian) race in the oval shape of their head, in the 
formation of their cranium, and in their facial angle. They are 
distinct from it, however, in colour. Their bodies are frail ; the low 
caste native is thin and slight, but makes up for his lack of strength 
by his activity and lightness. His skin varies from a light copper 
colour to a dark brown ; his hair is a fine glossy black, and grows 
plentifully on his face. 

" Gentle and timid, the Hindoo is wanting in perseverance and 
firmness ; gifted with a rapid comprehension, he is yet incapable of 
any sustained effort. A double yoke, from time immemorial, has 
weighed him down ; caste distinctions and a foreign sway have made 
him a flexible creature, possessing more prudence and cunning than 
energy and uprightness ; more keenness of wit than nobility of soul; 

" A lively imagination, never subdued by a rational education, 
has brought him under the influence of the gross superstitions 
sanctioned by the Hindoo religion, with its train of ignoble 
divinities. The timidity of his character has preserved him from 

^'g- '59- — A I'arsee Gentleman. 


the violent fanaticism of the Mussulman, but his religion is very dear 
to him, and the belief of the lower classes is at least a sincere one. 

" Sivaism, to which belong most of the inhabitants of the Deccan, 
is so priceless in their eyes, that they value it far beyond their lives. 
They repose an ardent and lively faith in the most absurd doctrines. 
This form of religion pleases their imagination by its fantastic dreams 
and by its poetic materialism, and its ceremonies amuse them, while 
gratifying their passions. 

"The paucity of their wants tends to render them improvident, 
and their lively and childish imagination, feeding on the smallest and 
vaguest facts, which they poetise and exaggerate in their own manner, 
develops in them a dreamy and indolent mode of life. 

" Their doctrine of metempsychosis still further increases the 
natural tendency of their mind, and helps to cause their almost 
incredible mental inaction, which nothing can surprise or stimulate. 
The only lever that can move the masses must be one attacking 
their religious faith. 

" The dress of the Hindoos is the dhoti, a long scarf of cloth 
rolled round the figure, passing under the legs and fastened behind 
the back. This garment leaves the legs and the upper part of the 
body uncovered. The upper classes wear a short shirt (angaskak) 
and a long white robe (jama/t). Their head is always covered with 
a turban, of different size and colour, according to their caste. Few 
Hindoos wear shoes, sandals being in almost universal use. The 
women wear the choli, a little jacket with short sleeves, just covering 
the bosom, which it supports, and the sari, a large piece of cloth 
which they fold around them, and throw coquettishly over the 
shoulder or the head. This graceful drapery recalls the chlamyde 
worn by the Diana of Gabies. 

" This dress of the Hindoos is, as a rule, tasteful, and suited to 
the climate and to their mode of life. Although each caste, each 
sect, has its own particular method of wearing it, it is still, all over 
India, the most uniform and the most characteristic feature of the 

" Both sexes are passionately fond of jewellery ; women of the 
very poorest class often wear gold rings set with pearls in their noses. 
Their arms are covered with silver, copper, and glass bracelets. The 
large toes of their feet are adorned with rings, and their legs with 
heavy metal bangles. As for their ears, they literally droop beneath 
the weight of the golden earrings with which they are laden ; and 
their lobes are pierced with large holes, often nearly an inch in 
diameter, into which are introduced gold ornaments in the shape of 

N * 


smaii wheels, replaced on working days by pieces of rolled leaves. 
This custom has actually reached Polynesia. 

" Hindoos turn all their little capital into jewellery. This habit 
springs from a medley of vanity and superstition, the latter leading 
them to consider trinkets as talismans against spells and witchcraft. 

" It was also, under the ancient Mogul dynasty, a means of pre- 
serving their property from the rapacity of the Mussulman tyrants, 
whose religion forbade them to appropriate women's chattels. 

" The Hindoos are very tenacious of their prerogatives, and India 
has frequently been convulsed by sanguinary struggles occasioned by 
some one of its castes refusing to conform to traditional custom. 
Terrible conflicts have, ere new, been caused by an inferior caste 
attempting to wear slippers of a certain shape, the privilege of a 
higher one, or because it wished to use, in its religious rites, certain 
musical instruments hitherto reserved for the worship of the superior 

" The Hindoos may lay claim to a refined politeness and elegant 
manners ; but the smallest concession in the respect to which their 
social position entitles them, the least relaxation in the prescribed 
etiquette, are considered a sign of weakness and an avowal of 

"The conversational formulae used towards a native vary accord- 
ing to his station. Nothing is easier than to affront their susceptibility. 
Never speak to an Oriental of his wife or of his daughters. To do so 
is contrary to custom. To use the left hand in bowing, in eating, or 
in drinking, is to offer an insult ; the right hand alone is reserved for 
the higher uses, and the left, the ignoble hand, is used for ablutions. 

"In Europe, it is a sign of respect to uncover the head ; in the 
East, to take off the turban is a disrespectful act. On entering a house, 
conversely to us, they keep their heads covered, but leave their shoes 
at the threshold. This habit seems to me a most sensible one. A 
white cloth is stretched on the floor of their apartments, and cushions 
placed on which they sit cross-legged. It appears to me that shoes 
were invented to preserve the feet from the roughness of the ground, 
from the mud and from the dust of the roads. Are they not then ob- 
jectionable, or, at any rate, useless in the interior of a well-kept house? 

" When paying a visit, the Hindoo waits until his host bids him 
adieu. They very properly suppose that a visitor can be in no hurry 
to leave the friend whom he has purposely come to see. The host, 
on the contrary, may have urgent business claiming his immediate 
attention. The forms of this dismissal vary : — ' Come and see me 
often,' or ' Remember that you will always be welcome.' Presents of 



Fig. 160— Sir Salar Jung, K.S.I. 

flowers and fruit generally terminate these visits, and betel is in- 
variably handed round. 

" The usual food of the Hindoo is very simple, and their meals 
are of but short duration. Rice boiled in water, and curry (a com- 
pound of vegetables, ghee — a sort of clarified butter, spices, and 


saffron), sometimes eggs or milk, a little fish, and occasionally coarse 
meal cakes, bananas, and the fruit of the bread-tree, form the morn- 
ing and evening meal of rich and poor. The leaves of the banana- 
tree are used instead of plates and dishes. In eating vegetables and 
rice, fingers are used instead of spoons and forks ; and the meat is 
torn by the teeth in default of the absent knife. An European is 
rather likely to be disgusted with the sauce trickling down the chins 
and the fingers of the guests at a Hindoo meal. Water is the pre- 
vailing drink, and but little use is made of arrack (a spirit extracted 
from the palm-tree). 

" Faithful observers of their religious injunctions, which forbid 
them to touch animal food under pain of being excluded from society 
and from the bosom of their families, the high caste natives never 
eat meat ; as for the Pariahs, they eat all kinds of animals, and are 
very fond of arrack. 

" Betel is incessantly used all over India. In hot countries, where 
the inhabitants lead a sedentary life, their digestion becomes sluggish, 
and can neither receive nor absorb the same quantity of nourishment 
as it does in Northern countries. The vegetable diet of the Hindoos 
is not very rich in nitrogenous matter, and its continual use would 
cause an internal formation of gas, without the alkaline stimulant 
used by all the inhabitants of India to prevent its development. 
This stimulant is the astringent areca nut, which they chew with a 
little lime placed on a betel leaf. 

" This mixture dyes the lips and the tongue red ; it is pernicious 
in its effect on the teeth, but it is certainly useful to the digestive 

" Tobacco, rolled in a green leaf and lighted like a cigarette, is a 
very common method of smoking. 

"Many different languages are spoken in India. Philologists 
have enumerated as many as fifty-eight, but not more than ten have 
an alphabet and literature of their own. Sanskrit, a dead language, 
is more or less mixed with all the dialects of India. In the north 
it forms their incontestable basis, but in the south it is merely 
grafted on to pre-existing tongues, and frequently but faint traces are 
found of it. All the alphabets seem to have been invented separately, 
but they have been improved by the regular and philosophical ar- 
rangement of the Devanagri. This is the name of the Sanskrit 
alphabet, the most perfect of all. The living languages have a very 
simple grammatical construction. 

" Hindostani, which is spoken in the province of Agra, is the 
most cultivated and the most generally employed of all Indian 



languages. It has received a large Persian element since the Mussul- 
man conquest. Besides the local dialect of each district, Hindostani 
is everywhere spoken by the educated classes, and by all professing 
the Mussulman faith. 


Fig. i6r. — Nautch Girl of Baroda 

"The ties of caste replace in India the ties of Hindoos 
love their wives and children ; but this affection is subordinated to 
their caste duties. Expulsion from the caste is principally caused by 
violation of religious observances, or by the illicit connection ot high 
caste women with men of a lower rank. The Brahmans and the 


Su< Iras, and even the Pariahs themselves, are divided into a number 
of sub-castes. If a Hindoo becomes degraded, if he loses his caste, 
he is disowned by his relations ; his wife is considered a widow, his. 
children orphans; he must expect no assistance, no pity, from those 
who hitherto have surrounded him with the most considerate care.* 

"Europeans are ranked with Pariahs, on account of their daily 
habit of eating beef. It is true that the Brahmans consent to shake 
hands with an European, but on their return home after doing so, 
their first care is to undress and perform their ablutions, so as to 
purify themselves from the stain of such an impure contact ; it is 
even asserted by them that the mere gaze of a Pariah is enough to 
cause contamination. 

" Every village of the Deccan is composed of two parts, separated 
by an interval of a few yards. These are two distinct quarters, one 
reserved for the men of caste, the other, surrounded by hedges, 
allotted to the Pariahs. These miserable beings are not allowed to 
enter the streets of the village without the consent of the inhabitants, 
and they must only presume to draw water in the wells set aside for 
their particular use. Where the Pariahs have no special wells, they 
place their chatties by the well-sides of the men of caste, and await 
humbly and patiently the alms-offering of a few glasses of water. It 
is always the women that attend to this household care. 

"The higher castes often make the Pariahs presents, which they 
invariably place on the ground, for fear of contracting, by mere 
physical contact, the moral leprosy with which, in their eyes, the 
Pariahs are affected. A person of caste never accepts a gift from the 
hands of a Pariah. 

" If, on the one hand, the high-caste natives are physically and 
intellectually superior to the Pariahs, on the other hand the latter 
are more laborious, more docile, and more accessible to European 
influence. In the Presidency of Madras they constitute the best and 
the most solid nucleus of the native English army. 

" If I wished to enumerate all the subdivisions of caste based on 
the conduct, the calling, and the occupation of every one ; if I de- 
scribed in detail the clothes and the ornaments, which vary ad infinitum 
according to caste ; if I attempted to recite all the existing prejudices 
about food, and the daily minutiae of life, I should fill several volumes. 
. "The same tendencies are met with everywhere — the desire of 
making a figure in the world, and the ambition for command, without 
having taken the necessary trouble to become worthy of it. Yet the 

• This is slightly exaggerated. — Vide p. 386. 

Fie. 162. — A Coolie of the Ghats. 

Fig. 163. — Pagoda at Sirrhingham. 

existence of caste has always prevented the formation of a really 
homogeneous nation. Caste is the cause of the sharp rivalries, the 
endless hostilities, that have always been fatal to national inde* 
pendence, and facilitated the invasions of strangers. 


" Besides the social consequences we have mentioned, the Hin- 
doos believe in religious ones. Their different castes cannot here 
below receive the same education, nor be initiated into the same 
mysteries. These differences, according to the dogmas of Siva, are 
to extend into the next world." 

The preceding paragraphs refer to the inhabitants of the Dcccan. 
It would be too tedious to describe the other populations of the 
peninsula, the Bengalese, the Rajpoots, the Mahrattas, &c. We shall 
merely say a few words about the Cingalese, or inhabitants of the 
island of Ceylon. 

The Cingalese are entirely Indian in figure, in language, in 
manners, in customs, in religion, and in their government. Their 
features are not widely different from those of Europeans, but they 
differ from them in their colour, in their height, and in the proportions 
of their bodies. The hue of their skin varies from yellow to black. 
Black is the usual colour for their eyes and hair. They are shorter 
than Europeans, but well made, with well-defined muscles. Their 
chests and their shoulders are broad, their hands and feet small. 
Their hair grows in large quantity and to great length, but they have 
little on their faces. Their women are, as a rule, well made. 

The attractions which a lady ought to combine in order to be 
a perfect beauty are, according to a Kandian fop, as follow : — Her 
hair should be as bushy as the tail of a peacock, long enough to 
reach the knees, and gracefully curled at the ends ; her eyebrows 
arched as the rainbow, eyes blue as sapphires, and her nose like a 
hawk's beak ; her lips must vie with coral in redness and lustre ; and 
small, even, and closely-set teeth, resembling jessamine buds, should 
complete the picture. 

Ceylon, as everybody knows, is indebted for its great prosperity 
to its coffee plantations, a large trade being carried on between the 
English and its inhabitants, who enjoy a well-earned reputation as 
cultivators of that shrub. 

"The Kandians," says M. Alfred Grandidier, "possess more 
robust constitutions, less feeble limbs, and features not so effeminate 
as their countrymen of the coast ; their lusty shoulders, broad chests, 
and short but muscular legs, are a proof of the effect which climate 
can produce on the development of the human frame. 

" The habits of the mountaineers have undergone scarcely any 
change in consequence of the foreign influences which have impressed 
a complex character upon the manners of the people nearer the sea. 
Their primitive customs, originated by the imperious necessities of 
life, are still found in existence among them ; and they have none of 



the timidity and servility which are the attributes of the dwellers in 
the maritime districts. The feudal state in which they have long 
lived has preserved in them an energy and independence rare among 
Indian populations. The configuration of the country enabled them, 
in fact, to retain their freedom more easily than their brethren of the 

Fig. 164. — Palanquin. 

northern plains, either when aggression came from their own ruler 
or from foreign intruders ; but, nevertheless, that indolence still 
prevails among them which comes naturally to every people who are 
not obliged to contend against any material obstacle in order to 
supply themselves with the necessities of life. The tyranny of their 
masters, whether chiefs or kings, has unhappily accustomed them to 
hypocrisy, and made them vindictive. 

Whilst the Cingalese of the coast have applied themselves to 


trade and industry, those of the high regions always show repugnance 
to such occupations. They have invariably shunned any connection 
with foreigners; and so great, even at the present day, is their desire 
to withdraw as much as possible from association with the English 
settlers, that they conceal their villages in the middle of the jungle, 
and at a distance of some hundreds of yards from the least frequented 
paths. A rice-field in the midst of a forest, or a glimpse of the tall 
tops of cocoa-trees, alone indicate the presence of human beings 
in places that would otherwise be thought uninhabited. In countries 
like these, where Nature has accumulated so many of her treasures, 
the relations of man with man, which assuredly conduce to the happi- 
ness of all, are not indispensable; and the natives love a solitude, 
where they enjoy benefits of every kind in profusion. 

" The Cingalese of the hills have a traditional respect for their 
chiefs, and a deep attachment to ancient usages. Their costume 
differs from that of the inhabitants of the plains, insomuch that they 
do not habitually wear the vest, this garment being, dn fact, exclusively 
reserved for their nobles, who assume it on grand occasions ; their 
hair is allowed to grow to its full length, and is not confined by a 
comb. Sumptuary laws and religious injunctions settle in other 
respects the clothing suitable to each class, the greater part of these 
laws being, to the present day, still in force among the Kandians, in 
spite of the abolition of castes, which has been decreed by the English 

" The length of the frock-like petticoats worn by men and women, 
both in the high and low lands, and which seem to be the part of 
the national costume to which the greatest importance is attached, 
was formerly proportioned according to the social position of the 

" The Pariahs were not permitted to let this skirt come lower than 
the knee, and males and females of inferior caste had the breast 
uncovered. Among the chiefs themselves a difference existed, and 
still exists, as to the method of wearing the comboy. After rolling 
it two or three times round the hips and legs, they form with it 
round the waist a more or less bulky girdle, the dimensions of which 
depend upon their rank. The nobles are also distinguished from the 
lower orders by their extraordinary headgear, consisting of a sort of 
round, flat, white linen cap, like that worn by the Basque peasantry, 
while the lower classes merely surround the head with a silk handker- 
chief, leaving none of it bare except the top. The king alone 
possessed the privilege of wearing sandals. Prohibitions, such as 
one against wearing gold and silver chains or ornaments, are still 


scrupulously observed by the Kandians, who strenuously resist any 
encroachments of the inferior castes." 

M. Guillaume Lej.ean has published some interesting particulars of 
his travels in Cashmere and the Punjaub. It is not our intention to 
follow the learned wanderer in his rapid journeys across Hindostan, 
but we should like to draw attention to a novel opinion which has been 
expressed by him as to the ethnology of the Indian population. 

M. Lejean believes that he has re-discovered in Hindostan the 
Aryans, that is to say,, the primitive people from whom the Ayran or 
Caucasian race is descended. The features of these peoples, our own 
genuine ancestors, are regular,, and of an European type. Their 
complexion is not browner than that of the inhabitants of Provence, 
Sicily, or Southern Spain. This statement does not apply to the 
lower castes, whose skin grows, darker and darker, until, it reaches the 
sooty tint of the Nubian. The country people have long and slightly 
wavy hair, blacker and more brilliant than jet.. Though not effeminate 
in appearance, the race is deficient in muscular vigour, an effect 
attributed by the traveller to the torrid heat of the climate: The 
women are generally of middle height, with pleasing but expression- 
less countenances of little originality ; their eyes are large,, black, and 
submissive, and their hands delicately beautiful.. 

In the opinion of M. Lejean, the fine, symmetrical heads,, small,, 
well-formed hands, and regular features of the natives- of Scinde,. 
remind one completely of the white European race,, and allow us to 
identify the inhabitants of that part of Asia with the ancient Aryans,. 
who were the colonisers of primitive Europe, and who springing, as 
it is said, from the regions of Persia,, spread themselves over our own 
continent and that of Asia*. 

This is an opportune moment for alluding to a race, sprung- seem- 
ingly from Hindoos of the lower classes, which had probably abandoned 
its own land, and from which those detached groups that traverse the 
entire globe, without ever fixing themselves anywhere, or ever losing 
their peculiar characteristics, derive their origin. Under this cate- 
gory come the wandering tribes, commonly known in different 
languages, as Gipsies, Bohemians, Zingari, Gitanos, &c, who wander 
over countries either as beggars or in. pursuit of the lowest callings. 
These Gipsies and Bohemians, who are especially numerous in the 
south of France, and enjoy a considerable repute as horse-clippers 
and tinkers, who are invariably vagrants, and now and then thieves, 
appear to be descended from low-caste Hindoos. They are travelling 
Pariahs. Such, at least, is the opinion entertained by some modern 
ethnologists, Fig. 160 (p. 395) is a portrait of Sir Salar Jung, K.S.I. ; 


Fig. 161 (p. 397) represents a Nautch Girl of Baroda ; Fig. 162 
(P- 399) a Coolie of the Ghats; Fig. 163 (p. 401) a Pagoda at 
Sirrhingham, and Fig. 164 (p. 403) a Palanquin. 

Malabar Family. 

The Malabar family inhabiting the Deccan differs in many re- 
spects from the Hindoo, and the peoples included in it are very 
dark, and sometimes black in complexion. This branch is divided 
into three principal divisions : the Malabars proper, who dwell in the 
country of that name ; the Tamuls, in the Carnatic ; and the Telingas, 
in the north-east. Neither the language nor the customs of the 
tribes composing this group exhibit peculiarities sufficiently important 
to induce us to stop to describe them. 




The African populations, which we class with the Brown Race, have 
a resemblance in the formation of the body to those of the White 

Fig 165. — Abyssinian 

Race, but their skin is darker in colour, being intermediate between 
that of the Negro and that of the White. The natives constituting 
this branch have never attained to any appreciable degree of civilisa- 
tion, and there is a complete void of positive notions as to their 
origin or migrations, while even the different languages in use among 
them are partly unknown to us. We shall distinguish in the Ethio- 
pian Branch two great families, the Abyssinian and the Feilan. 

403 the human race, 

Abyssinian Family. 

That portion of Eastern Africa which bears the name of Abyssinia 
contains several tribes, speaking different languages. These tribes are 
ranked by many ethnologists as belonging to the White Race, and 
their complexion, though darker invariably than that of the European, 
is fairer than that of the Negro. Their hair, which is generally 
frizzled, their lips usually thick, and their nose less flat than that of 
the Negro, are so many characteristics which assign to them a place 
intervening between the Black and the White Races. These tribes 
doubtless spring from a union of black inhabitants, aborigines of the 
country, with the Orientals who conquered them. 

We shall instance among the principal groups belonging to this 
family the Abyssinians, the Barabras, the Tibbous, and the Ga/ias, 
about any of whom, with the exception of the first named, little is as 
yet known. 

Abyssinians.-- — Most authors place this people in the White Race 
and the Semitic family. There is, in fact,, reason to believe that 
Abyssinia was many times overrun, and perhaps- civilised, by the 
nations of Western Asia ;. but the colour of their skin., which is very 
much darker than that of the Arameans, is a proof that the conquerors 
intermarried with the conquered,, and. that from this union the present 
Abyssinian race has sprung. 

According to- Dr.. Riippel, there are two predominant types exist- 
ing among the- people- of this country, the more widely spread 
approaching to- that of the Arabs> while the second approximates 
closely to the Negro; 

The Abyssinians- forming the first group are finely-formed, show- 
ing resemblance to the Bedouins in feature and expression of 
countenance. Their peculiar characteristics are,. an oval face, a long, 
thin, finely-cut nose,, a well-proportioned mouth, with lips of moderate 
thickness, lively eyes, regular teeth,, slightly crisp or smooth hair, and 
a middle stature: Most of the people dwelling on the high mountains 
of Samen, and the plains surrounding Lake Tzana, belong to this 
branch, which also includes the Fal<zshas, 01 Jews; the Garnants, 
who are idolators ; and the Agows-.. 

The second type is chiefly distinguishable -by a shorter and 
broader nose, slightly flattened ; thick lips ; long eyes, with little 
animation in them ; and very curly and almost woolly hair, which is 
so close that it stands straight out from the head. A portion of the 
population along the coast, in the Province of Hamasen, and other 
neighbouring districts, belongs to this second group. 

Fig. 166.— Nouers of ihe Whi'e Nile. 


The results of Baron Larrey's comparison of the Abyssinian with 
the Negro are, that the eyes of the former are larger and of a more 
agreeable look, and have the inner angle slightly more inclined. In 
the Abyssinian the cheek-bones and the zygomatic arches are more 
prominent than in the Negro; the cheeks form a more regular triangle 
with the angle of the mouth and the corner of the jaw ; the lips are 
thick, without being turned out like a Negro's ; the teeth are hand- 
some, well set, and less projecting; and the alveolar ridges are not 
so prominent. The complexion of the Abyssinian is not so black as 
that of the Negro in the interior of Africa. Baron Larrey adds, 
that the features which he has described above belonged to the 
genuine Egyptians of olden times, and that they are to be found in 
the heads of Egyptian statues, and above all in that of the Sphinx. 

In the account which he published in 1865, of his journey 
through Abyssinia two years previously, M. Guillaume Lejean has 
given considerable information as to this part of Africa and its in- 
habitants ; and the victorious enterprise undertaken by England in 
1866, afforded an opportunity of establishing the accuracy of the 
French traveller's statements. 

At the moment when the British expedition was directed against 
him, the army of the Abyssinian potentate, the Emperor Theodore, 
numbered about 40,000 men. The infantry carry a spear, shield, 
and long, curved sabre, and they attack their enemy impetuously at 
close quarters. The light cavalry is excellent. The horsemen, when 
charging, let go their bridles, fight with both hands, and guiding and 
urging their horses with leg and knee only, make them perform the 
most prodigious feats. Each man has a sword and two lances ; the 
latter always hit the mark, and their wound is deadly. They are used 
like javelins, and are about two yards long. Every horseman is fol- 
lowed by an attendant retainer, whose duty it is to dash among the 
enemy, sword in hand, in order to recover his master's weapon, and 
bring it back to him. These horsemen charge headlong against an in- 
fantry square, making their horses bound into its midst over the heads 
of the soldiers, and then backing them in order to break its formation. 

The skirmishers are Tigre mountaineers, of cool, resolute courage, 
and their aim is remarkably good. 

The Emperor Theodore seldom occupied his palace. His real 
■capital was his camp, which he kept incessantly moving from one end 
of his dominions to the other. He maintained strict discipline in his 
household and on his staff, among the members of which the bas- 
tinado was often liberally used. Fig. 165 (p. 407) represents the 
head of an Abyssinian. 


Two-fifths of the Abyssinian population are in the service of the 
wealthier classes, and probably there is no country in the world where 
servitude is more widely spread. A person possessed of an income 
equal to ;£i6o a year keeps at least eight dependents. M. Lejean 
had no fewer than seventeen attendants during his journey, and his 
travelling companion, an Englishman, as many as seventy. 

The religion of this country is a corrupted Christianity, chiefly 
notable for its long and frequent fasts. The head of the Abyssinian 
church is styled the Abonna, and his theocratic powers are almost 
boundless. King and pontiff entertain a mutual hatred of one 
another, each dreading his rival and keeping close watch upon his 
movements. Whichever of the two possesses greater courage and 
energy gains the upper hand. 

The monks and priests are common in Abyssinia, but are dis- 
tinguished for little piety and less learning. 

The natives take a decoction of kousso once a month as a cure 
for the tapeworm. The fact is, that in consequence of some local 
circumstances, the meat used in the country is full of cysts, which, 
getting into the stomach along with the food, generate in the in- 
testines this troublesome guest that must be got rid of from time to 
time. This remedy for tapeworm has been recently introduced into 

Barabras-. — The Barabras,. or Berberines, inhabit the valley com- 
prised between the southern frontier of Egypt and Sennaar, that is to 
say, Nubia. They are divided into the Nubas, Kenous, and Dongo- 
lawisy each speaking a different dialect. 

This race differs widely from the Arabs, and all adjoining nations. 
They dwell on the banks of the Nile, and, wherever the soil is found 
favourable, plant date-trees,, sink wells for irrigation, and sow various 
kinds of leguminous plants.- 

Blumenbach was forcibly struck with the resemblance of the 
Barabras to the figures and paintings to be met with on the different 
monuments of ancient Egypt This people, like the Egyptians, have 
a reddish-brown skin, sometimes approaching a darker tint. The 
characteristic features of the pure Barabras are oval and somewhat 
long faces, with aquiline noses r very well formed and slightly rounded 
towards the point, lips thick without being protruding, a receding 
chin, thin beard, animated eyes, frizzled hair, a body perfectly in 
proportion and usually of the middle height. 

According to Burckhardt, the Nubas differ in many respects from 
the Negroes, especially in the softness of their skin, which is very 



Fig. 167. — A Nouer Chief. 

smooth and flexible, while the palm of a genuine Negro's hand is 
rough and as hard as wood. Their noses, too, are less flat, their lips 


less thick, and their cheek-bones less prominent than those of a 
Negro. 'Hie Barabras are now thought to be the descendants of the 
Nobatae Diocleatan, brought, in a.d. 300, from an " oasis in the west" 
to inhabit the Nile. 

A description of this race may be found in the "Voyage en 
Egypte," by MM. Henri Cammar and Andre Lef6vre, by whom the 
country was explored in i860, and from its pages we take the follow- 
ing extract : — 

" We are in Nubia, and Arabic is no longer spoken. The in- 
habitants, though usually inoffensive, have nevertheless a warlike 
^ait ; the dagger hanging by a strap to their arm, their ironwood bow, 
and ».heir buckler of crocodile hide are the tokens and protectors of 
their liberty. Their rulers obtain nothing from them except by force. 

"The moment the river recedes, these vigorous husbandmen 
dispute with it for the fertilising slime which suffices for a fourfold 

" Do not imagine that they labour : it is enough for them when 
they have sown pinches of corn in shallow holes, for nature does 
all the rest. 

" So favoured a climate, as may well be imagined, does not impose 
on the Nubian the inconvenience of having to wear clothing. The 
majority carry nothing more upon them than a few weapons and 
their dusky skins. The women's costumes are oddly fashioned. 
They stain their lips-, and twist their hair into numberless tiny plaits, 
which are not re-made every day. Egyptian females would look on 
them as indecent, for allowing the lower part of the face to be seen ; 
and more than that even, the girls, up to the time of their marriage, 
wear no covering beyond a narrow girdle. The villages are rather 
near each other, and seldom consist of more than fifteen or twenty 
earthen huts, having flat roofs, thatched with palm branches. In front 
of the cabins are ranged, as at Dolce for instance, large jars, in which 
the corn is kept stored. 

" Ruins belonging to all ages and every ancient divinity are to be 
found in Nubia." 

The inhabitants of Eastern Nubia are merely wandering tribes 
who traverse the country included between the Nile and the Red Sea, 
and are made up of various tribes, such as the Ababbehs, the Bisharis, 
who have spread as far as the Abyssinian frontiers, the Hadharebes, 
who are still more to the south, reaching to Souakin on the Red Sea, 
where the Souakinys are found. In Eig. 166 (p. 409) is shown a 
group of Nouers of the White Nile. Fig. 167 represents a Nouer 
chief, and Fig. 168 a chief of the Lira. 



Fig. 168.— Chief of the Lira. 


The Bisharis are savage and inhospitable, and are not hunters, 
though some have asserted that they drink the warm blood of living 
animals. They are chiefly nomadic, and maintain themselves on the 
flesh or the milk of their flocks. All travellers agree in representing 
them as fine men, with regular features, large, expressive eyes, light, 
elegant frames, and a dark, chocolate-coloured complexion. Their 
method of wearing the hair is very curious. Those who possess it in 
sufficient length to reach below the ear allow it to hang in straight, 
tangled locks, each of which terminates in a curl. This headgear is 
impregnated with grease, and is so much matted that there would be 
a difficulty in getting a comb through it. They refrain, besides, from 
touching it, and in order not to spoil its arrangement are always 
provided with a bit of pointed stick, like a large needle, which they 
put into requisition whenever scratching becomes necessary. 

The headdress of the Souakins is equally extraordinary, and the 
scratching pin is also an obligatory accompaniment of their toilet. 

The Ababbehs have hair from two and a half to three inches 
long ; their lips are slightly thick, their noses rather long, and in 
complexion they are almost black. They are nomadic, and live in 
the same way as the Bedouins. 

Tibboos. — The Tibboos, an athletic race of horsemen and slave- 
traders, who wander over the country to the east of the Sahara, 
have been looked upon as belonging to the Berber family, but their 
complexion is darker and they do not speak the Arab tongue. Their 
noses are aquiline, their lips but slightly thick ; they have ugly faces, 
much disfigured by their habit of snuff-taking. Their activity is very 
great, and they are addicted to robbing caravans. Though they are 
terribly afraid of Touarick Arabs, they are cruel and merciless to 
weaker races. 

Gallas. — The Gallas are the hereditary enemies of Abyssinia, and 
are scattered over the plains which extend to the south of Abyssinia, 
leading a pastoral and nomadic life. They are divided into a great 
many independent tribes, being kept united, however, by origin and 
language. They are warlike, cruel, and given to plunder. Their 
colour is brown, sometimes in the warm valleys almost black, and 
<heir hair usually curly or woolly ; they have coarse, short features 
^nd large lips. Islamism has been embraced by a few tribes, but 
the greater number remain attached to the old African Paganism, 
resembling that of the Kaffirs. They are ruled by a monarch, the 
crown descending in the female line. 

FELLANS. 4 1 7 

Fellan Family. 

The Fellans, who are also called Fellatahs, Pouls, or Peuhls, have 
not been long known except by some tribes who inhabit Senegambia, 
and who sometimes penetrated the Soudan. Their skin is extremely 
dark, inclining sometimes to a reddish, and sometimes to a copper 
colour, but being never really black ; they have rather long hair, 
smooth and silky ; their nose is not flattened ; the shape of their 
face is oval ; their stature tall and slight ; the extremities of the limbs 
delicate and small j their step light and commanding. 

We class among the Fellan family the people dwelling in the 
western part of Africa, such as the inhabitants of Nigritia and 

The capital of Nigritia, Sego or Segou, is a tolerably large town, 
situated on the Niger. 

Probably many other nations of Western Africa ought to be 
placed side by side with the Fellans, and a comparison should 
also be established between them and the people of Madagascar, 
the Hovahs. 

All these races differ from the Negroes, although dwelling on the 
confines of the country belonging to the latter branch, with which 
some authors erroneously confound them, but the physical character- 
istics that mark them as distinct are well established. 





Tins branch approaches closely to the Indo-Chinese. The races 
composing it are of medium height, regularly made, and with well- 
proportioned limbs. Their skin varies from an olive-yellow to a 
reddish-brown hue, and their hair is smooth, black, or occasionally 
brown. Their faces are almost beardless, and their breasts and limbs 
are destitute of hair. They appear susceptible of civilisation, and are 
often divided into regular nations. 

Dumont d'Urville has distinguished among these races three 
civisions, which he has designated by the appellations of Malays, 
Polynesians, and Micronesians ; and these groups will be treated here 
as so many families. 

Malay Family. 

The Malay family, which inhabits Malaysia and the peninsula of 
Malacca, is made up of a vast number of nations, the widely varied 
characteristics of which partake more or less of those of the Indo- 
Chinese, the Hindoos, and even the Negroes. We shall specify in 
this family the Malays, Javanese, Battaks, Bugis, the Macassars, 
Dyaks, and Tagalas. 

Ma/ays. — The Malays constitute the most numerous and remark- 
able branch of this family. They are spread over the peninsula of 
Malacca, the islands of Java, Borneo, Sumatra, and Celebes, and in 
the Moluccas, &c. This group of islands was formerly known as the 
Indian Archipelago, and owes its name of Malaysia to the naturalist 

The chief characteristics of the Malays are a lithe and active 
body, medium stature, somewhat slanting eyes, prominent cheek- 
bones, a flat nose, smooth glossy hair, and a scanty beard. Their 
limbs are elegantly formed, and their hair is black and straight. 
The flatness of their noses is attributable to an artificial cause, as, 
immediately on the birth of an infant, this feature is compressed 



until the cartilage is broken, for a broad flat face is considered a 
point of beauty, and a projecting nose would be looked on as a 
snout. Their lips are deformed by the inordinate chewing of the 
betel leaf, and become, ultimately, repulsive in appearance on account 
of their exaggerated redness, and the extravasated blood beneath 
their surface. The vellow colour of their skin is heightened still 

Fig. 169 Malay "Running a Muck." 

more by artificial means, for it is regarded as an attraction, and is the 
aristocratic tint ; daily rubbing with henna or turmeric brings it to a 
saffron tinge. The natural complexion of the women is pale and dull : 
brown is predominant among the men. The princes and dignitaries 
stain a dark yellow every part of the body exposed to view. 

A Malay's clothing is of a very light description, consisting, both 
for men and women, of two large pieces of stuff, skilfully arranged, 
and confined at the waist by a scarf. Princes and moneyed persons 
alone wear a kind of drawers. 


The indolence of the Malays is excessive. With the exception of 
the slaves, no one works. They are, in fact, a reckless, careless, cruel 
set of people, poor in intellectual capacity, without much taste for 
indigenous civilisation, and utterly regardless of human life. Murder, 
pillage, and outrage are familiar to them, they possess neither honour 
nor gratitude, and have no respect for their pledged word. Play is 
with them a passion, a frenzy. They gamble away their property, 
their wives, and children, everything, in fact, except their own persons. 
They are victims of opium and the betel plant. Nevertheless some 
laws have existence among them, for murder and robbery are punish- 
able by fines and corporal punishments. 

The Malays of the Malacca peninsula are not, like the inhabitants 
of the Archipelago, violent, passionate, and lazy. They are an ener- 
getic, provident, trading, industrious race, but quite as rapacious and 
as tricky as the others. Like the inhabitants of Malaysia, too, they 
are prone to vengeance, and when under the influence of opium this 
sentiment becomes inflamed, and turns into a kind of fury, directed, 
not only against the person of the offender, but also against harmless 
passers-by. The Malay, who is a prey to this double paroxysm of 
opium and frenzy, snatches up a sharp weapon, dashes forth furiously, 
shouting "Kill! kill!" and strikes everyone who crosses his path. 
This is the custom called amok or " running a muck." 

The police of the country employ a small body of very strong and 
active men, whose special duty it is to seize these raving maniacs. 
They hunt the miserable wretch through the streets, and having 
caught him by the neck in a kind of fork, throw him on the ground, 
and pin him there until a sufficient reinforcement arrives to enable 
them to tie him hand and foot, when he is brought before a court of 
justice, and nearly always sentenced to death (Fig. 169). 

Javanese. — These people, who inhabit the island of Java, are 
rather light in complexion, and bear a close resemblance to the Indo- 
Chinese. For the following information about the population of this 
wonderful and splendid country, we are indebted to M. de Molins, 
who made a stay of two years there, and whose notes have been 
arranged and published by M. F. Coppee, in the "Tour du Monde." 

The stranger traversing Batavia, the chief town of Java, cannot be 
an uninterested observer of the motley crowd perpetually renewing 
itself before his eyes. Among the numberless hall-clothed men he 
sees none but brawny shoulders, and wiry, muscular frames He is 
struck by the dull, dark-brown complexion of the Indian, whose hue 
appears to vary with the district where he happens to be located ; for 


his skin, which seems brick-red on the sea coast, assumes a violet 
and pinkish tinge near masses of vegetation, and becomes almost 
black in a dusty region. The perfectly naked children gambolling 
in the full rays of the sun look like fine antique bronzes, so graceful 
are their attitudes and so faultless their mould. The Malay, in his 
turban, tight-fitting green vest, and grey petticoat striped with whim- 
sical patterns, has quite a handsome head. His face is oval, with 
eyes of almond shape, and a thin, straight nose ; the n outh is shaded 
by a slight, glossy black moustache, and his high, broad forehead is 
admirably formed. All do not perhaps possess so many advantages, 
but they are, without exception, finely made, with beautiful black, 
smooth, and silky hair. Figs. 170 and 171 represent respectively 
a Malay and a Javanese head. 

The Javanese wear hats of bamboo, the plaiting of which is per- 
fect. These are of all patterns, large and small, round, pointed, or 
made in the shape of shields, extinguishers, or basins. Their costume 
varies ; some of the men wear Arab vests and wide trousers ; some 
would be naked but for a sort of drawers ; while a few swathe their 
loins in a piece of Indian calico, which displays the form ; and others 
are clad in a very narrow petticoat, that produces a most picturesque 
effect. The natives make all their garments out of a broad piece of 
stuff manufactured in the country, the devices and colours of which 
manifest extraordinary variety and astonishing taste. 

The women's headdress consists of a handkerchief, which is tied 
and arranged in a more or less artistic manner. 

At Sourabaya the traveller mingled in the throng, composed of 
a sprinkling of Chinese, Malays, and natives of Madura, but through- 
out which the Javanese element predominated. The typical costume 
of the country may be said to consist of the long-folded sahrong, a 
very close-fitting vest, and a kind of sunshade on the head, covered 
with blue cloth interwoven with gold and silver thread, and lined with 
red. The colours used here are not very gaudy, and the priests may 
at once be recognised by their ample turbans and white muslin vests. 
A few palanquins were moving about through the crowd ; those of 
the Javanese are formed of a hammock suspended from a bamboo 
cross-stick, and sheltered from the rays of the sun by a little roof of 
bamboo or palm-leaf matting. Long boats, laden with cargo, and 
having gracefully curved prows, were passing up and down the 

On fete days all the components of this motley multitude are 
drawn together by the performances of the Javanese bayaderes, or 
dancing girls (Fig. 172, p. 425). 

4 2 2 


When visiting the cemetery, M. de Molins saw the native Prince 
of Sourabaya, who had come there to pray at the tomb of his fore- 
fathers. His excessively simple costume was distinguished from that 
of ordinary Javanese only by a loop of diamonds stuck in the very 
small turban enveloping his head, and by a beautiful gold clasp 
fastening the belt of his sahrong. 

In the Javanese Katnpong our traveller saw copper articles \ such 

Fig. 170.— Malay. 

as betel-roll boxes, bowls, and water-vases, which were ornamented 
in charming and fantastic taste with engraved arabesques, represent- 
ing the flowers, fruits, and animals of the country ; and he was struck 
with surprise at the goldsmiths being able to form such marvellous 
trinkets with tools of the most primitive description. He went to see 
one of the large manufactories, where are made the curious sahrongs 
worn by the inhabitants, the shades of colour in which rival those of 
the most valuable cashmeres in brilliancy, harmony, and richness. 
The process of making these fabrics is a slow and difficult one. A 
fine sahrong is worth more than ^4, and does not exceed two and a 
half yards in length by one yard in width. 



in one of his excursions M. de Molins met a wedding procession. 
The happy couple, who belonged to two equally rich families, were 
in a very pretty palanquin surmounted by a canopy ornamented with 
palm leaves and a trellis-work of bamboos and reeds. The garments 
of the newly married pair were of red silk brocaded with gold em- 
broidery, and their heads, necks, arms, and hands were covered with 
jewellery. Children ran alongside and. in front shouting and making 

Fig. 171.- Javanese 

the air resound with the noise of gongs, tom-toms, and cymbals 
(Fig. 173). Four men in yellow breeches, with blue and white 
girdles, their hips adorned by long pointed, strips of blue and yellow 
silk, and their heads bound with a tightly-fitting turban of the same 
colours, carried at the end of long poles, bright, waving bouquets 
made of tiny rosettes of blue, yellow, and white paper attached to 
thin canes. Relatives, friends, and all those who expected to partake 
of the repast, which was generously provided, followed the palanquin. 
Ceremonies of different kinds precede this solemn procession ; 
and for several days before it takes place the betrothed couple are 
obliged to submit to a public exhibition and general hubbub, and 


are condemned to remain nearly completely motionless and in almost 
total abstinence, lest they should in any way damage their clothes. 

This marriage festival is the grand occasion for displaying all the 
resources of Javanese culinary art. The fruits are served at the 
beginning of the banquet, and steamed rice only slightly cooked 
forms the principal dish. 

The feast would be a sorry one if the bill of fare did not include 
pickles, salt fish dried in the sun while alive, half-hatched eggs also 
salted, a hash of meats perfumed with roses and jessamine, the seeds 
of various plants, and slices of cocoa-nut rolled in pimento. The 
first time a European tastes these dishes he feels a dreadful sensation 
of burning, which passes from the mouth to the stomach, and seems 
to be ever-increasing. But people soon appear to grow accustomed 
to these spicy ragouts ; and M. de Molins says that in a short time 
this kind of cookery, which greatly tends to stimulate the appetite, 
becomes indispensable. 

During this gentleman's stay at Sourabaya, the Dutch Governor- 
General of Java was there on his tour of inspection of the island, 
which takes place every five years. High festivities had been ordered 
for the reception of this exalted personage, and M. de Molins gives 
us a sketch of the princes who were present at a grand revel. The 
skin of many was blue ; their perfectly delicate and regular features 
bore the melancholy stamp peculiar to Orientals, and their move- 
ments were full of ease and grace. Their sahrong, woven in silk of 
the most beautiful shades, was fastened at the waist by a flowing 
girdle that fell over extremely tight pantaloons, and sparkled with 
gold embroidery ; their chest, shoulders, and arms were left naked, 
and had been thickly coated with saffron-coloured powder for the 
occasion. Their headgear consisted of a truncated cone, either blue, 
red, or black, braided with gold or silver lace ; and their ears were 
adorned with a kind of wing, in gold-work of the most exquisite finish 
and lightness. The princes were accompanied by the officers of 
their suite, among whom the umbrella-bearer was conspicuous. The 
enormous sunshades carried by these functionaries bear a double 
resemblance to a shield and a lance, and are at once warlike-looking 
and foppish. They are gilt or silvered, green, blue, or black, and 
produce the most uncommon effect. 

Battaks. — The Battaks, who inhabit the island of Sumatra, exhibit 
a very singular mixture in their habits, as they unite with ideas of 
order and civilisation practices quite as ferocious as those of the mosi 
savage people. 


O * 



Bugis and Macassars. — The Bugis and Mankasses (Mangkassars, 
which Europeans have turned into Macassars) occupy the Celebes 
Islands, and are renowned for their courage. 

Fig. 173. — Javanese Wedding. 

The former nation is looked on as the most ancient and en- 
lightened race in the Celebes group. Not only have they a secret 
and sacred language, but a second idiom which is familiar to all 
classes, and in addition a written tongue. They possess a system of 


writing, and even a literature. These men are upright, faithful to 
their promise, and thoroughly loyal in diplomatic and commercial 
dealings. Their mere word is of more value than the most solemn 
oaths of the inhabitants of Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

Tagalas. — The Tagalas and Bissayes who dwell in the Philip- 
pines—the former in Luzon, and the latter in the centre group — speak 
dialects very different from those of the Malays, properly so-called. 
The anonymous author, who has described the voyage of the Austrian 
frigate Novara, has supplied us with some details as to the varied 
and amusing aspect of the population of Manilla, the chief town of 

The ftadres, in long black soutanes, and spout-shaped felt hats, 
stroll under the shade of the palm-trees ; Christian Brothers jostle 
Confraternities of the Virgin and the Fathers of the Conception and of 
the Nativity, and you have to make way for grey, yellow, and brown- 
frocked monks, and for those who discipline themselves with hair shirts 
and whips ! Spain, in the days of her decadence, clings, with redoubled 
tenacity, to the few dependencies that have been left in her possession, 
and she has spared no pains to inculcate Spanish habits, tastes, and 
customs amongst the natives of this, the fairest of her Eastern posses- 
sions, so that Spanish rule might ultimately become an absolute 
necessity of their existence. Hence the vigour and success with 
which they have propagated the Romish faith in the Philippines. The 
most of the people are, nominally at least, Roman Catholics. Com- 
pleting the picture of a street scene in Luzon, galley-slaves, chained two 
and two, are seen quietly moving hither and thither with pails of water. 
Charming sehoritas, mostly Spanish half-bloods, with mantillas falling 
like a cascade of black lace along their raven and glossy tresses, in 
which green leaves and scarlet blossoms intertwine, compel us to 
admire their listless mien and their well-arched eyebrows shading their 
almond-shaped eyes. After the half-breeds, come the native Tagalas, 
of pure or of mixed blood, Chinese women, and little negresses selling 
fruit and bouquets, or lounging about with cigarettes in their mouths. 

The Tagalas whom M. de Molins saw at Manilla were small and 
weak. Their faces were. by no means disagreeable, their colour a 
little lighter than that of other Malays, and their hair black without 
being woolly. The combinations of this race with the Negroes and 
Chinese appeared to him most interesting. 

Many travellers have described the natives of the Philippines. 
They are well-made men, of elegant, easy figure, and medium stature. 
Their feet and hands are small, exhibiting extreme delicacy at the 

DYAKS. 429 

point where they join the limbs. They have oval faces, with small 
but regular noses, well-coloured lips, and teeth that are long and 
white until they become spoiled by chewing the betel-leaf. The men's 
hair is silky and curled ; that of the women, soft, fine, and glossy. 

The brown tint of the complexion is very changeable among these 
islanders, varying from the dark shade which belongs to those living 
in the open air, such as fishermen, hunters, and tillers of the soil, to 
the fair skins of the upper and sedentary classes. That portion of the 
people which has not been subjected to foreign influence is ingenious, 
industrious, and active. The men are warlike, and make excellent 
boat-builders. Their junks, made of plaited bamboo, and manned 
by a couple of hundred warriors and rowers, spread such powerful 
sails and possess such speed, that they are the envy of the Spanish 

The Dyaks are a numerous people, who, under various tribal 
names, inhabit the interior and sea coasts of Borneo. 

The Dyaks (Fig. 174) have well-made bodies and the women's 
faces are mild and agreeable in expression, but the men's far from 
attractive. The constant warfare which they carry on with the 
Malays of the coast may be the cause why their features become 
ultimately so changed, under the combined influences of fear, passion, 
and revenge. 

The byaks who occupy the plains, and those living on the borders 
of rivers or in the woods, may be separately classed. Both groups 
are of similar stature, possess features alike, and the same lank, black 
hair, with large curls, which is, however, never woolly or frizzled; but 
those occupying the dense forests rising from the river banks have 
fairer complexions. Mutual hatred has been sworn between the two 
races, and they abandon themselves to incessant conflicts, and have 
ever to be on their guard against terrible surprises in which many 
heads are cut off. No Dyak would present himself to a girl without 
being able to show her the head of an enemy who had been over- 
come and sacrificed by him. A warrior's renown depends on the 
number of heads he has acquired, and skulls, dried in the fire, form 
the ornaments and trophies of his hut. 

These decapitators are very cleanly, and bathe twice a day regu- 
larly. They have extremely severe laws, by which murder, outrage, 
and robbery are punished with the same severity. They profess great 
veneration for old age, as well as towards the dead. Their chrono- 
logical system is based upon the yongas, or ages, as among the 
Hindoos, and they believe the present to be the age of misfortune. 


Their notion is, that some day, during an eclipse of the sun or moon, 
a dragon will devour the stars ; consequently, whenever such phe- 
nomena occur, they make a terrific uproar in order to scare the 
monster away, a proceeding which has been invariably successful ! 

In her travels along the rivers Lappas and Kapouas (western side 
of Borneo), Madame Ida Pfeiffer visited a tribe of independent 
Dyaks, who are called "Head-cutters" by the English and Dutch. 
She saw an immense cabin, about sixty yards long, in the verandah 
of which fabrics made of cotton or of plaited bark of trees, splendid 
mats and baskets of every shape and size, were displayed. Drums 
and gongs hung on the walls, and large piles of bamboos, bags of 
rice, and dried pork, showed that the Dyaks had exhibited all their 
wealth for the occasion. 

Nor were their own persons by any means forgotten. They had 
loaded their necks down to the breast with glass beads, bears' teeth, 
and shells ; brass rings covered the lower part of their legs, reaching 
half-way to the knee; their arms were adorned in the same way to the 
shoulders, and similar decorations were in their ears. Some wore a 
sort of red stuff cap, embellished with pearls, shells, and flat bits of 
brass ; others had wound round their heads a fillet formed of a piece 
of bark, the deeply-fringed ends of which stuck out like feathers. A 
man decked out in this fashion, covered with ornaments from head 
to foot, presents a rather comical appearance. They differ from 
most other tribes in Malacca, in that they do not tattoo themselves — 
indeed, they look upon this style of ornamentation with contempt. 

The women had fewer adornments. They wore no earrings, nor 
bears'-teeth collars. A few displayed some glass beads ; but more 
were satisfied with an incalculable number of brass or leaden rings. 

Madame Pfeiffer, while among the Dyaks, witnessed a sword- 
dance, which was executed in the most skilful and elegant manner. 

This travelled lady also visited another tribe located higher up the 
river, where she observed the same things, and in addition saw two 
human heads lately cut off. When showing them to Madame Pfeiffer, 
the Dyaks spat in their faces, and the children cuffed them, and spat 
on the ground. 

The shocking custom of decapitation owes its origin to super- 
stition. If a rajah falls ill, or sets out on a journey among another 
tribe, he and his subjects undertake to sacrifice a human head in case 
of his recovery or safe return ; and should he die, they chop off a 
skull or two. The heads which they have sworn to immolate must 
be obtained at any cost. The Dyaks hide themselves in the long 
jungle grass, behind felled branches of trees, or under the dry leaves, 



Fig. 174. — Dyaks. 


and lie in wait for entire days. If anybody, man, woman, or child, 
comes in sight, they shoot a poisoned arrow at him, and rush like 
tigers on their prey. At one blow the head is severed from the body, 
and placed in a little basket reserved for this purpose, and ornamented 
with human hair. 

These assassinations frequently give rise to bloody wars ; for the 
cribe, a member of which has been thus sacrificed to the law of 
chance, takes up arms, and never lays them down until the most 
terrible reprisals have been exacted. Severed heads are borne back 
in triumph, and solemnly hung up in the place of honour, the retalia- 
tion being celebrated by festivities which last a month. 

On One occasion, when Madame Pfeiffer had been received with 
profuse respect by a tribe, she found a freshly cut-off head suspended 
over her bed, along wilh others already dried. She could not close 
her eyes. She felt in a perfect fever at being thus encompassed 
by frenzied men, at being smothered by the odour of these human 
remains, and at being lulled to rest by the sinister sound of skulls 
jangled together by the wind. 

Yet, in spite of chopped-off heads and festoons of human skulls, 
this lady considers .the Dyaks to be honest, prudent, and endowed 
with some good qualities. She places them higher in the scale than 
the other tribes with which she had an opportunity of coming in 
contact. Their domestic life, which is truly patriarchal in its nature, 
is alluded to by her with pleasure, as are also their morality, the love 
they bear their offspring, and the respect evinced by the children 
towards their parents. 

The independent Dyaks are richer than those living subservient 
to the Malay yoke. They cultivate rice, maize, tobacco, and some- 
times the sugar-cane; find in the woods Dammana resin, which 
answers lighting purposes ; and gather large harvests of sago, yams, 
and cocoa-nuts. Some of these productions are exchanged by them 
for pearl beads, brass, salt, and cloth. Their houses, or huts, are 
clean and well-kept (Fig. 175). 

A Dyak can take to himself as many wives as he pleases, but he 
usually contents himself with one, whom he treats well, but burdens 
with work. Their habits are purer and better than those of the 
Malays. They eat their food in a half-rotten state, and indulge in a 
vile kind of intoxicating drink called tuak. As to religion, they seem 
to believe in a Supreme Being, with inferior deities. Charms and divina- 
tions, and hobgoblins continually at war with mankind, are also believed 
in. It is doubtful whether they believe in a future state. They have 
neither temples, priests, idols, or sacrifices of a religious character. 

taboo. 435 

Polynesian Family. 

The tribes included by Dumont d'Urville under the name of 
Polynesians inhabit the entire eastern part of Oceania — namely, the 
Sandwich Islands, the Marquesas, the Friendly and Society groups, 
the Low Archipelago, New Zealand, &c. 

The people of all these bear the closest affinity to each other. 
Their complexion is olive, verging on brown, but not copper- 
coloured ; they are tall in stature, and have sinewy limbs, high 
foreheads, black, lively, and expressive eyes, and but slightly flattened 
noses. Their lips are generally larger than those of the whites, but 
they nevertheless have handsome mouths and splendid teeth. Their 
hair is straight, long, and black. Throughout the whole vast ex- 
panse occupied by them they speak the same language. 

Most of the tribes belonging to the Polynesian family are thorough 
savages, but their stock is diminishing day by day, and the final 
result of neighbouring civilisation will be to replace the native 
element by European races. Meanwhile, the most cruel customs 
prevail among them, and even cannibalism is practised by some. 

" Taboo " holds universally an important place among the popu- 
lations of Oceania. 

This word expresses a state of interdiction, during which the 
object struck with it is placed under the immediate control of the 
divinity. No man can infringe upon its power without becoming 
exposed to the most disastrous consequences, that is, unless he has 
impaired its action by certain formalities. 

Thus, the piece of ground consecrated to a god, or which has 
become the burial-place of a chief, is " tabooed ;" and they place 
under the same spell a canoe which they desire to render safer for 
long voyages. To fight in a spot subject to "taboo" is forbidden; 
and in order to prevent certain productions from becoming scarce, 
they are placed under similar protection. Anyone guilty of robbery 
or other crime commits a fault against " taboo ;" and the man who 
touches the dead body of a chief, or anything he was in the habit of 
wearing, falls under a like ban, which time alone can remove, &c. 

We shall allude chiefly to the aborigines of New Zealand, giving 
also some details about the natives of the Sandwich Islands, as well 
as about the Tongas, or Friendly Islanders. 

New Zealanders. — The inhabitants of New Zealand, sometimes 
designated by the name of Maoris (a New Zealand word, meaning 
native or indigenous},, are tall, robust, and of athletic frames. Their 

436 the human race. 

stature is generally from five feet seven inches to five feet eight 
inches, seldom lower, and their skin is not very much darker than 
that of the people of the South of Europe. Indeed, the women of 
the higher classes, who are not much exposed to the weather, are as 
fair as Spanish ladies. It must be mentioned, however, that the 
New Zealanders may be divided into two varieties — a dark, and a 
less dark variety. The darker are thought by some to be the relics 
of the aboriginal population of the islands, living there when the 
fairer, or Maori races, conquered it. The dark variety, or Moriories, 
are a miserable, stunted race, a remnant of which lingers yet about 
the Chatham Islands. They are much better fishermen than the 
Maoris, who have almost extirpated them. The expression of their 
countenance nearly always indicates a gloomy ferocity. The face is 
oval, the forehead narrow, the eye large, black, and full of fire. The 
nose is sometimes aquiline, but oftener broad and flat, the mouth 
wide, the lips big, and beneath them rows of small, beautifully- 
enamelled teeth. 

The New Zealanders wear their hair long, and falling in scattered 
locks over the face ; chiefs alone take the trouble to comb it back 
on the head in a solitary tuft. It is rough and black, and seems 
occasionally reddish, because some individuals sprinkle it with 
powdered ochre. Few of them have beards, for the hair of the face 
is usually plucked out when it appears with pipi-shells. 

Women who are not slaves possess strong vigorous figures, and 
are rarely under five feet and a few inches in height. The young 
girls have a broad face, masculine features, coarse lips, frequently 
stained blue, a large mouth, flat nose, and uncombed hair hanging 
about them in disorder. They become marriageable at a very early 
age. After marriage they are remarkably faithful to their husbands, 
but previous to that ceremony they are utterly given over to licen- 
tiousness. The teeth of a New Zealand female are of excessive 
whiteness, and her black eyes beam with intelligence and fire ; but 
household work, and the birth of a family, soon cause these attrac- 
tions to disappear. Both sexes are capital swimmers. 

There is little difference between the costume worn by males and 
females. The natives know how to weave very elegant textures from 
the fibres of the Phormium tenax (or New Zealand Max), and a broad 
mat of this material floats carelessly over their shoulders and body, 
while another is wrapped round the waist, descending to the knee. 
In winter they throw over the former garment a thick, heavy cloak, 
generally made from the peelings of a kind of osier, but which, in 
the case of chiefs, consists of dogskins sewn together. These fabrics 


are also varied in design, some being smooth and without any 
pattern, while others are covered with very delicate ornamentation. 
The slave girls stick unthreshed slips of the P/wrmium tenax in their 
skirts, thus giving immoderate fulness to their bodies. 

A warrior's rank and bravery are denoted by a great number of 
little pins made of bones or green jade, which are worn across the 
breast at the edge of the matting. The original use of these articles 
was to scratch the head, and kill the insects on it. 

Like all the other races, the New Zealanders have a fancy 
for personal ornaments. They like to stick plumes in their hair, 
and a tuft of soft white feathers is thrust into the ears. Their 
unkempt locks are seldom covered by any kind of headdress ; but 
Lesson, the naturalist, from whom we derive these details, saw a few 
young girls in whom a coquettish taste was more developed, and 
who wore graceful wreaths of green moss. 

The women adorn themselves with shell necklaces, from which 
little dried hippocampi are sometimes suspended. They are very 
fond of blue glass beads of European make. The most precious 
ornament of this people, however, consists of a green jade fetish, 
which hangs on the breast attached to some portion of a human 
bone. There are religious ideas connected with this amulet, and it 
is worn by men only. 

One of the New Zealanders' superstitions is to fasten a shark's 
sharp tooth to one ©f their ears, with the point of which the women 
lacerate their bosoms and faces when they happen to lose a chief or 
one of their relations. The greatest value attaches to these objects 
when they have been handed down from ancestors, and have become 
" tabooed," or sacred — the happiness of a native's whole existence 
seems bound up in their possession; yet they are rated as completely 
worthless when derived from a slain enemy. 

Tattooing, previous to their conversion to Christianity, played an 
important part among the New Zealanders ; and they submitted 
annually to the painful operation which it requires. This marking 
usually covered the face all over ; and, as it was renewed very often, 
produced deep furrows stamped in regular rings, which imparted the 
oddest expression to the countenance. Circles, one within the other, 
were also punctured on the lower part of the loins, and the women 
had a broad zone of lozenge-shaped figures engraved round their 
waist. Deep black lines were cut in the lips, and a design like a 
spear-head was traced at the angles of the mouth and in the middle 
of the chin. The young men drew large flies on their noses, staining 
them black, and the girls sketched similar insects in blue. None 


but slaves and persons of the lowest class were without tattooing of 
some sort, and it was considered a downright disgrace to have the 
skin in its natural state. A strange custom — that called " taboo," or 
" tapu," prevailed before the natives were Christianised. By means 
of this a priest could proclaim anything or anybody sacred — inviolate 
— set apart for the service of specially sacred persons or things. 
This custom has gone out of use since Christianity was introduced, 
the last relic of it being the native name for the Christian Sunday — 
La tabu, " sacred day." 

In a region subject to the terrible storms of the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, the dwellings ought to be, and are, in fact, small and low. 
Villages are never found in a plain, because there they might be 
surprised and pillaged, but are situated in steep localities difficult of 
access ; the huts cannot be entered except on all fours ; families 
sheltered by them, sleep huddled together on the straw in a narrow 
space ; and there is no furniture inside, beyond a few carved boxes, 
and some red wooden vessels thickly covered with designs. 

The industry for which these islanders are chiefly noted is the 
manufacture of matting. We have already alluded to the beautiful 
materials made from the fibres of the Phormium tenax by the women 
and girls. 

The soil of New Zealand does not, like that of Equatorial Asia, 
furnish a large supply of edible substances. The basis of the 
inhabitants' food consists of the root of a fern tree, resembling our 
Pteris, which covers all the plains. The natives catch a large 
quantity of fish in the bays along the coast, and dry or smoke the 
greater portion of it, in order to guard against famine in time of 
war; and to be provided with sustenance whenever the fury of the 
elements makes it impossible for them to launch their boats. Euro- 
pean grasses and cereals have spread readily in the easily tilled and 
fertile land. 

Their cookery is as simple as their food ; they drink little else 
than pure water, and are not at all addicted to intemperance. Their 
victuals are laid on the ground, and each one eats with his fingers. 
The warriors, however, sometimes use instruments, made of human 
bones ; and Lesson bought from one of them a four-pronged fork, 
fashioned from the large bone of a man's right arm, minutely carved, 
and adorned with many raised ornaments in mother-of-pearl. 

New Zealand canoes are remarkable for the carving which em- 
bellishes them. Most of these boats are hollowed from the trunk of 
a single tree, and are generally about forty feet long. Lesson 
measured a specimen, made in this way from one piece, the depth of 



Fig 176.- -New Zealand Chief, 


which was three, the breadth four, and the length sixty feet They 
are painted red, and have their sides festooned with birds' feathers. 
The stern rises to a height of about four feet, and is covered with 
allegorical carvings; the prow exhibits a hideous head, with mother- 
of-pearl eyes, and a tongue protruding to an inordinate extent, in 
order to show contempt for an enemy. These canoes are capable of 
holding about forty warriors. The oars are sharp-pointed, and can 
be used, in case of need, as weapons against an unforeseen attack. 
The sails consist of reed mats, coarsely woven, and triangular in shape. 

Although they are an eminently warlike race, the New Zealanders 
possessed no great variety of destructive implements. Arrows were 
unused by them. A patonpaton, or tomahawk, of green jade, which is 
fastened to the wrist by a strap of hide, was the weapon above all 
others with which they smashed the skull of their enemy. They 
rushed headlong one against the other, and conquered by dint ot 
sheer weight and force. The badge which betokens a priest's 
functions is a heavy whalebone stick, covered with carvings. Their 
tokis are hatchets, also made of jade, with carefully worked handles, 
decorated with tufts of white dog's hair. A great many of their 
clubs are of extremely hard polished red wood. 

In latter days, the numerous tribes inhabiting these islands use 
modern firearms, which they buy in exchange for the fresh provisions 
with which they supply the European vessels and colonists. 

The chant of the New Zealanders is solemn and monotonous, 
made up of hoarse drawling, and broken notes. It is always 
accompanied by movements of the eyes and well-practised gestures 
that are very significant. Most of these chants turn upon licentious 
subjects. Their dance is a pantomime in which the performers 
seldom move from one place, and consists of postures and motions 
of the limbs, executed with the greatest precision. Each dance has 
an allegorical meaning, and is applicable to declarations of war, 
human sacrifices, funerals, &c. 

The only musical instrument that Lesson saw in the hands of the 
New Zealanders was a tastefully-worked wooden flute. The language 
of these tribes is said to be rich and sonorous. It belongs to the 
Malay family ; and its alphabet consists of fourteen letters, viz., 
A, E, H, I, K, M, N, O, P, R, T, U, W, and Ng. Some poems of 
high antiquity have been transmitted to them by oral tradition. 
They possess a religion, a form of worship, priests, and ceremonials. 
Marriages are made by purchase ; a chief who had some dealings 
with the crew of the ship to which Lesson belonged had bought his 
wife for two firelocks and a male slave. 


The friendship which the aborigines of the same tribe entertain 
for each other is very warm, and Lesson has depicted for us the 
strange manner in which they evince it. When one of them came 
on board, and met there an intimate whom he had not seen for some 
time, he went up to him in solemn silence, applied the end of his 
own nose to that of his friend's, and remained in that attitude for 
half an hour, muttering some confused sentences in a doleful tone. 
They then separated, and remained for the rest of the time like two 
men utter strangers to each other,, A similar formality was observed 
by the women among themselves. 

No race cherishes the desire of avenging an insult longer than that 
of which we are sketching an account ; consequently, eternal hatreds 
and frequent wars desolate their islands. 

The loss of a chief is deeply felt by the whole tribe. The 
funeral obsequies last for several days. Should the deceased be of 
high rank, captives are sacrificed who will have to attend him in the 
other world, and the women, girls, and female slaves tear their 
bosoms and faces with sharp shark's teeth. Each tribe forms a sort 
of republic. The districts are ruled by a chief who has a special 
kind of tattooing, and who is the most generally esteemed for 
bravery, intrepidity, and prudence. 

Cannibalism disappeared fully thirty years ago from New Zealand. 
Indeed the last instance of it on record occurred in 1843. The 
natives are now so much ashamed of their race having once indulged 
in this hideous vice, that it is almost impossible to get them to answer 
any questions put to them on the subject. In the same way infan- 
ticide and polygamy have been abolished since the introduction of 
Christianity. It is said that even yet the victors in any fight feast 
on the bodies of the vanquished ; but this is more than doubtful. 
A.t one time they drank the blood of their fallen foes, and cut off their 
heads and sold them to the colonists, or anybody who would buy 
them. The Government, however, prohibited such purchases. 

A chiefs head is preserved. If the victorious clan wishes to make 
peace, it sends this trophy to the defeated tribe. If the latter raises 
loud shouts, a reconciliation will take place ; but should it preserve 
a gloomy silence, it is a sign that preparations are being made to 
avenge the chief's death, and hostilities are recommenced. Fig. 176 
(p. 439) represents a New Zealand chief. 

M. Hochstetter, during a recent voyage, visited these same 
islanders. A chief of Ohinemuta, named "Pini-te-Kore-Kore," 
came to see the travellers. He was attired in European fashion, 


wore a cloak and straw hat, and carried a white banner, which bore 
in blue letters the inscription, " Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis." He 
was a Christianised chief, and modified as to exterior appearance. 
He had been brought up at the missionary school, was about thirty 
years of age, and tattooed only on the lower part of the face. He 
had acquired much from his French masters, both in manner and 
demeanour; and being extremely communicative, gave M. Hoch- 
stetter some curious particulars about the horrible wars to which his 
forefathers had devoted themselves. 

For the last thirty years the conflicts have not been carried on as 
they were formerly ; that is to say, they consist no longer in a series 
of duels, as it were, but of musketry firing kept up by bodies of 
troops from a distance, in the European style. 

The traveller had occasion to pay a visit to the Maori king, 
" Potateau-te-Whero-Whero," before the door of whose dwelling was 
posted a solitary sentinel, clad in a blue uniform cloak, with red 
facings and brass buttons, forming the whole guard of the palace. 
About twenty persons were assembled in a hut, where his Majesty, 
who was biind and bent double, sat upon a straw mat. His face, 
though overloaded with tattooings, was fine and regular, and a 
deep scar on his forehead bespoke him as a warrior who had 
taken part in severe battles. He was wrapped in a blanket of a 
dark brown colour. Like Homer's Nausicaa, daughter of the king 
of the Phoenicians, the daughters of this supreme chief of a proud 
and warlike race were engaged in washing. His son, seated near 
him, was a young man with black and sparkling eyes. 

The Maori tribes had risen in rebellion a few years previously, 
with a desire of founding a national government, as soon as they had 
recovered their independence. But the natives were overcome after 
much bloodshed, and fell again under the yoke of the British 

Tongas. — The inhabitants of the Tonga or Friendly Islands 
resemble Europeans, but their physiognomy presents such varied 
expressions that it would be difficult to reduce them to a charac- 
teristic type. At the first glance, flatness of the nose seems a 
distinguishing mark of their race, but according as we examine a 
large number of individuals, we find that different shapes of that 
organ grow more numerous. It is the same with the lips, which are 
sometimes fleshy and sometimes thin. The hair is black ; but brown 
and light chestnut are also to be met with. The colour of the com- 
plexion is equally changeable. Women and girls of the better classes, 


who avoid the rays of the sun, are but little coloured ; the others are 
more or less dark. 

The population of these islands has been carefully described by 
Dumont d'Urville, in an account of a voyage which he made in com- 
mand of the Astrolabe, during the years 1826, 1827, 1828, and 1829. 

"The natives of the Tonga Islands," he says, "are in general 
tall, well made, and of good proportions. Their countenances are 
agreeable, and present a variety of features that may be compared 
with those observable in Europe. Many have aquiline noses and 
rather thin lips, while the hair of nearly all is smooth. Finally, the 
colour of their skin is only slightly dark, especially among the chiefs. 
Women may be seen whose tall stature, stately step, and perfect 
forms are united to the most delicate features, and a nearly white o» 
merely dusky complexion." 

Cook and Forster had previously affirmed that the women of the 
Tonga Islands might serve as models for an artist. 

In their first dealings with Europeans these aborigines displayed 
themselves in the most favourable light. Tasman, Cook, Maurelle, 
and Wilson bore witness to their gentleness, politeness, and hospi- 
tality ; Cook even gave the name of " Friendly " to their islands. 
The crew of the Astrolabe was at first led astray by these appearances; 
but the natives gave many and repeated proofs that, at the very 
moment when they were overpowering the navigators with caresses 
and marks of friendship, they were meditating how to attack and 
plunder them. 

These men are also endowed with a force of character and energy 
by no means common. Their bravery often approaches the most 
reckless temerity, and they do not recoil an inch from the greatest 
danger. They possess, nevertheless, a general tone of suavity and 
courtesy, and a natural ease of manner, which no one would in the 
least expect to find among a people verging so closely upon the 
savage state. Their intelligence is more developed than that of the 
Tahitians. They treat their wives with kindness, have great love for 
their children, and profess deep respect for old age. 

They make canoes which are remarkable for their proportions 
and the elegance and finish of their handiwork ; carve whales' teeth 
for necklaces, and incrust their various instruments with the same 
material ; know how to construct houses, as well as stone vaults for 
the burial of their chiefs ; and trace delicate chasings on their clubs 
with a sharpened nail fastened in a handle. The culinary art has 
advanced to a higher degree among them than among any other of 
the Polynesian islanders. They prepare from thirty to forty different 


dishes, consisting of pork, turtle, fowl, fish, bread-fruits, bananas, 
cocoa-nuts, &c, mixed according to certain processes, and dressed in 
different methods. The peasants till the land by means of stakes 
flattened and sharpened at the extremity, and furnished a little way 
from the end with a stirrup for supporting the foot. 

The manufacture of cloth, mats, and reed baskets is the special 
occupation of the women. In order to make the cloth in most 
common use, they take a certain quantity of the inner bark of the 
paper-mulberry tree properly prepared, beat it flat, stain it with 
different vegetable colours, and print patterns of all kinds upon it. 
Mats of the finest quality are woven from leaves of the Pandanus ; 
others, stronger, are made from the bark of a kind of banana-tree. 
Those resembling horsehair are worn by the common people in the 
canoes to protect them against wet. Mattings of other descriptions, 
ornamented in different patterns, and formed from the young leaves 
of the cocoa-tree, are used to preserve the walls of their buildings 
against the inclemencies of the weather. 

Women of a certain rank amuse themselves by making combs, 
the teeth of which are formed from the libs of cocoa-leaves. The 
manufacture of thread appertains to females of the lower classes, 
and the material for it is extracted from the bark of the banana- 

These islanders tattoo their bodies in various places, especially 
the lower part of the stomach and the thighs, with designs which are 
really elegant and present a vast variety of patterns, but they leave 
the skin in its natural state. Their tattooing never exhibits deep 
incisions, and does not seem to be a sign of distinction or of warlike 
prowess. The women tattoo only the palms of their hands. 

Their houses are neatly and solidly built; the master and mistress 
sleep in a division apart, while the other members of the family lie 
upon the floor, without having any fixed place. The beds and their 
covering are composed of matting. 

The clothing of the men, like that of the women, consists of a 
piece of cloth six feet square, which envelops the body in such a 
way as to make a turn and a half round the loins, where it is confined 
by a belt. Common people are satisfied with wearing an apron of 
foliage, or a bit of narrow stuff like a girdle. 

The natives of the Friendly Islands bathe every day. Their skin, 
besides, is constantly saturated with perfumed cocoa-nut oil. When 
preparing themselves for a religious feast, a general dance, or a visit 
to the residence of a personage of high rank, they cover themselves 
with oil in such profusion that it drips from their hair. 


The ornaments of both sexes consist of necklaces composed of 
the red fruit of the Pandanus, or fragrant flowers. Some of them 
hang from their necks little shells, birds' bones, sharks' teeth, and 
pieces of carved and polished whalebone or of mother-of-pearl, and 
high up on the arm they wear bracelets of the last material or of 
shells. They have also mother-of-pearl or tortoiseshell rings, and 
hanker greatly after glass beads, especially those of a blue colour. 
The lobe of their ears is pierced by large holes for the reception of 
small wood cylinders about three inches in length, or of little reeds 
filled with a yellow powder used by the women as paint. 

They have flutes and tomtoms for beating time. The most 
ordinary form of the former instrument is a piece of bamboo, closed 
at both ends and pierced with six holes, into which they blow with 
the right nostril while the left is stopped by the thumb. 

Their chants are a kind of recitative, which has for its subject 
some more or less remarkable event ; or else consist of words in- 
tended to accompany different descriptions of dances or ceremonies. 

The inhabitants of these islands recognise a host of divinities, 
who possess among themselves various degrees of pre-eminence. 
Of these gods, those of elevated rank can dispense good or evil in 
proportion to their relative powers. According to the natives' notion, 
the origin of these divine beings is beyond the intelligence of man, 
and their existence is eternal. Now, however, they are almost all 

" Taboo" reigns as despotically in these islands as it does in New 

There is a barbarous ceremony in use here, by which a child it 
strangled as an offering to the gods, and to gain from them the cure 
of a sick relation ; the same rite also takes place when a chief in- 
advertently commits a sacrilege which might draw down the anger of 
the divinities upon the whole nation. 

In other cases, they cut off a joint of the little finger in order to 
obtain the recovery of a parent who is ill, and, consequently, crowds 
of people may be seen who have lost in succession the two joints of 
the fourth finger of each hand, and even the first joint of the next. 

Charms and signs occupy a prominent place in the religion ot tnis 
people. Dreams are warnings from the divinity ; thunder and light- 
ning are indications of war, or of some great catastrophe. 

Sneezing is an act of the worst possible omen. A chief was near 
clubbing to death a traveller who had sneezed in his presence, at the 
moment when the native was going to fulfil his duties at his father's 



Tahitians. — Tahiti and the whole group of the Society Islands are 
almost exclusively inhabited by the same branch of the Malaysio- 
Polynesian race. The people of these islands have become celebrated 
in France by the charming and interesting accounts of their manners 

Fig. 177. — Native of Tahiti. 

and habits, which have been published by Bougainville. We have 
taken the details which follow from Lesson, the naturalist, who made 
a somewhat lengthened stay in this island. 

The natives of Tahiti are all, with scarcely an exception, very fine 
men. Their limbs are at once vigorous and graceful, the muscular 
projections being everywhere enveloped by a thick cellular tissue, 
which rounds away any too prominent development of their frames. 


Their countenances are marked by great sweetness, and an appearance 
of good nature ; their heads would be of the European type but for 
the flatness of the nostrils, and the too great size of the lips ; their 
hair is black and thick, and their skin of light copper colour, and very 
varying in intensity of hue. It is smooth and soft to the touch, but 
emits a strong, heavy smell, attributable, in a great measure, to in- 
cessant rubbings with cocoa-nut oil. Their steps want confidence, 
and they become easily fatigued. Dwelling on a soil where alimen- 
tary products, once abundantly sown, harvest themselves without 
labour or effort, the Tahitians have preserved soft, effeminate man- 
ners, and a certain childishness in their ideas. Fig. 177 shows the 
head of a native of Tahiti. 

The seductive attractions of Tahitian women have been very 
charmingly painted by Bougainville, Wallis, and Cook, but Lesson 
assures us, on the contrary, that they are extremely ugly, and that a 
person would hardly find in the whole island thirty passable faces, 
according to our ideas of beauty. He adds, that after early youth all 
the females become disgusting by reason of a general flabbiness, which 
is all the greater because it usually succeeds considerable stoutness. 
There is room for believing that the good looks of the race have 
deteriorated, in consequence of contagious diseases, since the first 
European navigators landed in this island, a very fortunate one in the 
magnificence of its vegetation and the mildness of its temperature. 

Tahitian girls, before marriage, have full legs, small hands, large 
mouths, flattened nostrils, prominent cheek-bones, and fleshy lips ; 
their teeth are of the finest enamel, and their well-shaped, prominent 
eyes, shaded by long, fringed lashes, and sheltered by broad black 
eyebrows, beam with animation and fire. Too early marriage and 
suckling, however, very soon destroy any charms which they may 
possess. Their skin is usually of a light copper colour, but some are 
remarkable for their whiteness, particularly the wives of the chiefs. 

Family ties are very strong among the Tahitians. They have great 
love for their children, speak to them with gentleness, never strike 
them, and taste nothing pleasing without offering them some of it. 

The women manufacture cloth, weave mats or straw hats, and 
take care of the house. The men build the huts, hollow canoes, 
plant trees, gather fruits, and cook the victuals in underground ovens. 
Essentially indolent, the Tahitians generally go to bed at twilight. 

All the members of the family live huddled together in the same 
room, on mats spread upon the ground ; chiefs alone reposing upon 
similar textures stretched on frames. The siesta is also one of the.r 
habitfi, and they invariably sleep for three hours after noon. 


Flesh-meat, fruits, and roots constitute their usual sustenance ; 
but the basis of their food is the fruit of the bread-tree. They 
venerate the cocoa-tree. 

Their ordinary drink is pure water. They have an unrestrained 
fancy for European garments, and seek, by every imaginable means, to 
get themselves coats, hats, silk cravats, and especially shirts. But as 
they do not possess sufficient of our manufactures to dress themselves 
completely in our style, they frequently exhibit a sort of motley 
attire. The women when within-doors are almost naked ; some 
pieces of cloth, skilfully arranged and half-covering their bosoms, 
form a kind of tunic, while their feet are bare. They have a great 
liking for chaplets of flowers, and bright blossoms of the Hibiscus Rosa 
sinensis, or China rose, adorn their foreheads. They pass through 
the lobe of their ears the long tube of the white and perfumed corolla 
of the gardenia, and protect their faces from the fiery rays of the sun 
with small leaves of the cocoa-tree. 

The chief employment of the Tahitians is the manufacture of 
cloth. Ty very simple means they form fabrics from various barks, 
with which they clothe themselves in a manner as ingenious as it is 
comfortable. The paper-mulberry tree, the bread-tree, the Hibiscus 
tiliaceus, &c, are the plants of which they generally use the inner 
bark. They dye these stuffs with the red juice extracted from the 
fruit of a species of fig-tree, or in canary-yellow. 

Their garments are not the only things which these people 
embellish in brilliant colours and with different patterns. They have 
a passionate love for tattooing, but, nevertheless, do not bear a single 
device on their faces. The parts on which they trace indelible marks 
are the legs, arms, thighs, and breast. Everything leads to the con- 
clusion that tattooing, which is forbidden by the missionaries under 
the severest penalties, was, and is doubtless still, the symbol of each 
individual's functions and the emblazonment of the armorial bearings 
of families, for its designs are always varied. 

The Tahitians of former days constructed canoes ornamented 
with very carefully executed emblematic carvings, but since iron tools 
have taken the place of their imperfect implements, they do not give 
signs of the same pains in adorning their workmanship. Thei r 
ancient weapons are also greatly neglected since they have acquired 
firearms. Heretofore, they had long spears with pointed ends, slings 
formed from the husk of the cocoa-nut, basalt axes of perfect shape, 
and files made out of the rasp-like skin of a skate. 

They have a passionate love for dancing. The instrument they 
use for beating the measure is a drum, the cylinder of which consists 


of a trunk of a tree scooped very thin. The dog-skins which con- 
stitute the drum-head are stretched by ribbons of bark. The}- blow 
with the nose into a little reed flute having three holes at its open end, 
and one only at that which is furnished with a diaphragm, and produce 
deep, monotonous tones from it. 

The Tahitians are hospitable, and display great civility in guiding 
travellers in the middle of the woods, and in their mountains. 
Christianity has modified their habits a little. They attend the 
Protestant churches because they are obliged to do so, but they 
have little religion. Among themselves property is sacred ; that of 
strangers is, however, eagerly coveted. 

We cannot dwell here upon the sanguinary human sacrifices 
which their priests formerly commanded the natives of this island 
to offer up, nor upon their coarse mythology. The English mis- 
sionaries have long since caused these fiendish customs to 

Pomotouans. — The Pomotouans, who inhabit the low, flat islands 
known to geographers and mariners by the name of the Dangerous 
Archipelago, are constituted, in a physical point of view, like the 
Tahitians, to whom they bear a close resemblance, but they do not 
possess the benevolent character nor the affectionate manners of the 
latter. Their look is fierce, and the play of the features savage. 
They cover their bodies and faces with tattooing, the figures of which 
consist of lozenges and numerous circles, and their nakedness seems 
quite to disappear beneath the mass of these designs. As the islands 
they inhabit are poor in alimentary productions, they only think of 
repelling by force any navigators who attempt to enter into commu- 
nication with them. Deriving, as they do, their daily sustenance 
from the sea, they are daring sailors and skilful fishermen. They 
form, from a very hard wood, javelins that are sometimes fifteen feet 
long, and ornament them with carvings executed with much taste ; 
their paddles are also engraved in very graceful patterns, as well as 
their axes, which are cut with coral. The women wear on their 
throats pieces of mother-of-pearl, which are shaped round and notched 
at the edges, making brilliant and elegant necklaces. Spirituous 
liquors are frantically sought after by the natives. 

Marquesans. — The aborigines of the Marquesas are closely allied 
to those of the Society Islands, having similar features and a colour 
which presents like varieties. Cook affirmed that they excelled 
perhaps all the other races in the nobleness and elegance of their 


forms, and the regularity of their lineaments. The men are tattooed 
from head to foot, and appear very brown, but the women, who are 
only lightly marked, the children, and the young people, who are not 
so at all, have skins as white as many Europeans. The men are in 
general tall, and wear the beard long and arranged in different ways. 
Their garments are identical with those of the Tahitians, and made 
from stuffs of the same materials. 

Sandwichians. — The colour of this people is that of Sienna clay, 
slightly mixed with yellow. Their hair would be magnificent if they 
allowed it to grow, for it is as black and shining as jet. Their 
manners are pleasing. They usually shave the sides of the head, 
allowing a tuft to grow on the top, which extends down to the nape 
of the neck in the form of a mane. Some, however, preserve their 
hair entire, and let it float in very gracefully twisted locks about their 
shoulders. Their eyes are lively and full of expression ; their nose 
slightly flat and often aquiline ; their mouth and lips moderately 
large. They have splendid teeth, and it is consequently a great pity 
when they extract a few on the death of a friend or benefactor. 
Their chests are broad, but their arms show little muscle, while the 
thighs and legs are sinewy enough, and their feet and hands ex- 
cessively small. They all tattoo their bodies or one of their limbs 
with designs representing birds, fans, chequer-work, and circles of 
different diameters. The same superstition that deprives them of 
their teeth at the death of a relation or of a friend also imposes upon 
them the obligation of cauterising every part of their bodies with a 
red-hot iron. 

The women are not so well-made as the men, and their stature is 
small rather than tall, but their ample shoulders, and the smallness 
of their hands and feet, are generally admired. They have a great 
love for coronets of green leaves. Princesses and ladies of high rank 
have reserved to themselves the exclusive right of wearing flowers of 
vacci passed through a reed. Hardly any of them use more than one 
earring, but they have a passion for necklaces, and make them of 
flowers and fruits. 

These details are derived from Jacques Arago, who published, 
under the title " Voyage autour du Monde," an account of the long 
and remarkable journey which he made in 1817, and the three 
following years, on board the French corvettes, L Uranie and La 
Physicie/ine, commanded by Freycinet. 

In a letter dated from Owhyhee, as was also that from which the 
preceding information has been taken, the same traveller gives us the 


following sketch of the " palace " of the sovereign of the Sandwich 
Islands, as well as of its occupants. 

It was a miserable thatch hut, from twelve to fifteen feet in 
breadth, and about five-and-twenty or thirty feet long, with no 
means of entrance but a low, narrow door. A kw mats were spread 
within, on which some half-naked colossi — generals and ministers — 
were lying. Two chairs were visible, destined on ceremonial days 
for a huge, greasy, dirty, heavy, haughty man — the king. The 
queen, but half dressed, was a prey to the itch, and other disgusting 
maladies. This tasteful and imposing interior was protected by 
walls of cocoa leaves and a seaweed roof; feeble obstacles to the 
wind and rain. 

M. de la Salle, in his account of the voyage of the Bonite (1836 
and 1837), states that the natives of the Sandwich Islands generally 
possess good constitutions ; that their slender and well-formed 
figures are usually above middle height, but far from equalling that 
of the chiefs and their wives, who seem, from their tall stature and 
excessive corpulence, to have a different origin from the common 
people. These exalted personages appear, in fact, to be descended 
from a race of conquerors, who, having subjugated the country, 
established there the feudal system by which it is still oppressed. 
The same author adds that the Sandwichians have mild, patient 
dispositions, are dexterous and intelligent, and capable of bearing 
fatigue with ease. 

Such is the state of misery in which the lower classes live, that 
the unfortunate wretches have scarcely what will keep them from 
dying of starvation. This distress is not the result of idleness alone; 
the ever-increasing exactions of the chiefs harass and discourage the 

The voyagers in the Bonite, when drawing near the Sandwich 
Islands, could think of nothing but the pictures of them which 
Captain Cook left us — of those wild, energetic, kind, simple men ; 
those warriors in mantles of feathers ; those women full of grace 
and voluptuousness ; of whom the famous explorer gave the most 
alluring descriptions. They were first pleased by the neat and 
elegant shapes of the canoes, as well as by the expertness of the 
swimmers. They beheld the islanders as naked as in the days of 
Cook, without any other attire than the traditional maro ; but 
these men did not now come, by way of salute, to crush their noses 
against those of their visitors ; they were profuse of hand-shaking all 
round, in the English fashion, and affected the airs of gentlemen. 



Bananas, potatoes, and other fresh provisions, had been brought on 
board by them ; but when, as in olden times, they were offered 
necklaces, bracelets, and earrings, the savages no longer showed 
the genuine admiration and fierce eagerness which were looked for 

Fig. 178.— Native of the Sandwich Islands. 

from them. After a disdainful glance thrown at the beads, they 
asked for clothes and iron. These men had ceased to be the artless 
islanders of the time of Captain Cook ! 

One of the officers of the Bo/iite, M. Vaillant, was invited to 
come on shore by a district chief, named Kapis-Lani, who happened 
*o be a woman. Her toilet did not in the least resemble that of the 
natives ; consisting of a white muslin robe, confined at the waist by 


a long blue riband, a silk kerchief rolled round her neck, and a 
head dress of hair fastened by two horn combs. 

The former customs of the inhabitants of the Sandwich Islands 
have been completely modified, from every point of view, by the 
English missionaries, who, in order to gain their object, have availed 
themselves of the weapon heretofore so powerful in the hands of 
priests and of kings — " taboo." 

Formerly, when a ship arrived, a multitude of women used to 
come to take it by assault, either in canoes or swimming, contending 
among themselves, ptr fas aut nefas, for the bounties of the strangers. 
The missionaries declared the sea " tabooed " for the softer sex. 

In order to restrain the laxity of morals, wives were proclaimed 
" tabooed " for everyone except their husbands, and unmarried girls 
" tabooed " for all. It was necessary to proscribe the passion for 
strong drinks, and consequently brandy, wine, and other liquors 
were struck with the same interdict. 

We should add that these reformers did not limit themselves to 
the moral authority of " taboo," but supported it by the stick and 
hard labour on the roads. 

By such means they have succeeded in altering the external and 
public behaviour of the natives, but not in uprooting vice among them. 
Fig. 178 shows the head of a native of the Sandwich Islands. 

We shall borrow a few features from the picture which M. 
"Vaillant has sketched of his walk in a village of Hawaii. 

Scarcely had he arrived, when he heard himself called from the 
interior of a large cabin, in which were assembled about thirty 
persons, who invited him to enter. 

The dwelling was built of straw, and along its walls calabashes, 
cocoa-nuts, and a few fishing utensils, were to be seen hanging in 

A single apartment usually answered all purposes, but it was 
separated into two parts. Some mats spread upon the ground at one 
side indicated where the occupants slept ; the ground opposite was 
bare, and in the latter division the hearth was placed. 

The officer seated himself on the matting in the same way as 
his hosts, who surrounded him and overpowered him with questions. 
Men and women, moreover, without giving a thought to decency or 
the civilisation introduced by the English missionaries, put them- 
selves perfectly at their ease, and were content with the very simple 
attire of their forefathers ; the mayo formed the whole extravagance 
of their toilette. 


The most apparent result of the efforts of the missionaries is that 
the natives of the Sandwich Islands are, for the most part, able to 
read and write. These perfectly naked savages possess a prayer- 
book, a book of arithmetic, and a Bible. 

Any little presents which people liked to offer them were 
accepted by the women with gratitude ; after a few coquettish 
advances, in case a person pressed them closely, they uttered slowly 
and distinctly the word " taboo." 

When out of doors their costume consisted of a piece of cloth, 
which they draped around them not ungracefully ; but they did not 
appear very pretty to the eyes of the voyagers in the Bonite. 

The governor of Hawaii, Kona-Keni, was a man of goodly pre- 
sence and pleasing face. His height was almost gigantic, and his 
corpulence enormous ; so much so that he could scarcely support 
himself upon his legs. His wife received M. Vaillant. She reclined 
on a heap of mats forming a bed, raised a foot above the ground, 
and was covered from head to foot in a loose gown of blue brocaded 
silk. Her proportions also were immense. Laid heavily on the 
piled-up mats, her prodigious mass reminded him of a seal basking 
in the sun. Around the bed of the lady paramount were ranged, 
squatted on mats, the numerous dames forming the court of Kona, 
who were clad in loose robes of cotton stuff with coloured flowers. 
Their head-dresses consisted of hair only, in the American style. 
Two of them were provided with fly-flappers, which they waved in- 
cessantly round Kona's head. The governor wore a straw hat, a vest 
and shirt of printed calico, grey trousers, and had his neck bare. 

Micronesian Family. 

The Micronesian family inhabits the small islands lying to the north- 
west of Oceania — that is to say, the archipelagos of the Marianne 
(or Ladrone) Islands, as well as of the Pelew, Caroline, Tarawan, or 
Kingomill, and Mulgrave groups, &c. According to Dumont d'Urville 
these tribes differ from those dwelling in the east by having a darker 
skin, thinner face, less widely-opened eyes, more slender forms, and 
altogether distinct dialects, which vary from one group to another. 
Their manners are gentle. The use of the custom of the " taboo " is 
not so common among them as among the Polynesians proper. 

We shall avail ourselves of some interesting details which Lesson 
has given of the Caroline Islands, mentioning, in the first place, what 
he has told us concerning the Gilbert Group. 


A solitary canoe, containing three men, ventured to approach his 
corvette, and it was only after prolonged hesitation that these in- 
dividuals made up their minds to go on board. They had lank and 
miserable limbs ; a dark colour, and broad, coarse features ; their 
hair was cut close by means of a shell, and neither beard nor mous- 
tache was apparent. The only covering they wore was a little round 
cap of plaited dry leaves of the cocoa-tree, and a roughly-made mat, 
with a hole in the middle, for the protection of the shoulders and 
breast. Their stomachs were bound round with twists of a rope 
formed from the husk of cocoa-nuts. 

Lesson and his companions were the first Europeans whom the 
natives of the island of Oualan had seen. They made a ring round 
the voyagers, touched them with their hands, and overwhelmed them 
with questions. This race is generally of low stature. The men 
have high and narrow foreheads, thick eyebrows, small oblique eyes, 
broad noses, large mouths, white teeth, and bright red gums. Their 
black, unfrizzled hair is long, and their beard far from abundant. 
They possess rounded and well-formed limbs, and a hard, light 
bronze-coloured skin. They are spiritless and effeminate. 

The women and young girls have agreeable countenances, their 
black eyes being full of fire, and their mouths furnished with superb 
teeth ; but their figures are badly formed, and they have hips of im- 
moderate size. They go about in almost complete nudity. Both 
sexes have a habit of making a large hole in the right ear, for the 
purpose of placing in it everything that people give them, and some- 
times articles very unfit for earrings, such as bottles. Girls usually 
fill it with bouquets of pancratium, a plant of the amaryllis family, and 
often detach a few of these sweet-smelling flowers, and try to put them 
into a traveller's ears, while smiling graciously. The men also wear 
chaplets of brilliant flowers or arum stalks. 

These aborigines do not make use of any kind of garments as a 
protection against the frequent rains of their climate, but they shield 
their heads from the sun with a broad arum leaf. 

The chiefs seem to try not to expose themselves so much to the 
influences of the heat, and are whiter and better made than the other 
islanders. The patterns of their tattooing are their sole mark of dis- 
tinction; they fasten feathers, however, in the knot which confines their 
hair, and whenever persons give them nails they stick them around 
their forehead, arranging them regularly like a diadem. The women 
appeared chaste — nay more, the men were anxious to keep them out 
of the strangers' sight, a feeling all the more remarkable because quite 
at variance with the usual habits of the South Sea Islanders. 


Oualan was governed at that time by one chief only, whom the 
people encompassed with extraordinary reverence, never pronouncing 
his name without veneration. 

The prerogatives of the chiefs appear to rest upon religious ideas. 
They differ in general from the people by an erect carriage, a more 
imposing and solemn manner, as well as by the better executed 
tattooing which indicates their rank. A great many chiefs rule in the 
districts of the island, and appear to hold absolute rights over property, 
and, it may be, over persons. 

As regards industry, the only manufactures for which the natives 
of Oualan are remarkable are cloth and canoes. They draw threads 
from the leaves or the stems of the wild banana-tree (Musa textilis), 
which they know how to dye in red, yellow, or black, and with 
which they make stuffs that are not greatly inferior to European 

They build their boats with hatchets formed ot stone or shell, 
and, notwithstanding the imperfection of these implements, give to 
their work a finish of finical nicety. The body of the canoe is 
hollowed from a single tree, sometimes a very big one. They polish 
the wood with trachyte, or by means of large rasps made from the 
skin of the sea-devil. These little vessels are propelled by oars, with- 
out either sails or masts. 

Lesson, in alluding to the people of the Mac Askill Islands, who 
bear the closest analogy to the inhabitants of Oualan, both in physical 
characteristics and the state of their industry, remarks on the taste 
which some savages display for flowers as an adornment of the person. 
There were young females in these islands who wore on their heads 
crowns of Ixora, the corollas of which are a brilliant crimson ; a few 
had passed through the holes in their ears leaves of flowers exhaling 
the fragrant odour of violets, and white blossoms were twined in the 
hair of others. These ornaments, adds the learned traveller, possessed 
a charm more easy to feel than to express. It may be mentioned 
that Dr. Latham regards the Micronesian Archipelago as that part of 
the Polynesian area that was first peopled. 

Before concluding the description of the Polynesians, it may be 
as well to remind the reader that the accounts of these tribes, given 
by the early explorers, do not present us with a very truthful picture 
of their condition at the present day. It is well always to keep in 
mind the fact that the Polynesians are now for the most part half- 
civilised ;■ indeed, in many instances, as for example that of the 
Sandwich Islanders, they are living under a settled form of govern- 
ment which they have copied from some European model. The 


king is a " limited monarch," and is vested in the present reigning 
family, to whose descendants the succession is strictly confined. 
Provision however has been made for the settlement of the crown on 
the nominee of the legislature in the event of the present royal family 
becoming extinct. The late King Kamehameha actually founded an 
order of knighthood — " the Order of Kamehameha." The officers 
of state are for the most part Europeans, yet native Sandwich 
Islanders sit in the legislative assembly, and even attain high dis- 
tinction as debators and administrators. It would seem, however, 
that as civilisation advances amongst these islanders, the native 
population tends to die out. In "The Races of Mankind"* Dr. 
Robert Brown says the census of the Sandwich Islands, taken in 
1869, "showed a decrease of 9,000 during the preceding five years, 
out of a population of about 60,000." It is also stated that since the 
introduction of civilisation the birth-rate has decreased, as if civilisa- 
tion had lessened their prolificacy. " Morality," says Dr. Robert 
Brown, " especially in reference to the seventh commandment, is 
proverbially low, yet hardly lower than in former times, when both 
polyandry and polygamy prevailed." Drunkenness and diseases 
introduced by European settlers have done much to impair the 
vitality of the Polynesian race, and lead to their gradual extinction. 

* "The Races of Mankind," by Robert Brown, M.A., Ph.D., &c, vol. ii 
F . 83. 


This race is sometimes designated as the American, because, in the 
fifteenth century, it formed in itself alone almost the whole population 
of the two Americas. But Europeans, and especially the English of 
the United States, constitute, at present, the greatest part of the 
inhabitants of America. They have, to a certain extent, monopolised 
the name of "Americans ;" so much so that people generally call the 
nations of the Red Race Indians, a title which was given to them by 
the Spaniards, in the time of Christopher Columbus, in consequence 
of that strange mistake of the great Genoese navigator, who discovered 
the New World without knowing it, that is to say, while imagining 
that he had simply found a new passage by which to reach the 
" Great Indies," in Asia. 

The denomination of Red Race is, besides, a defective one, inso- 
much that several tribes ranked in this group have no shade of red 
in their colour. This division is, in fine, rather imperfect from an 
ethnological point of view, but it possesses the advantage of fixing 
geographically the habitat of the nations included in it. 

The American Indians approach closely to the Yellow Race 
belonging to Asia, in their hair, which is generally black, rough, and 
coarse, in the scarceness of their beard, and in their complexion, 
which varies from yellow to a red copper colour. Among one portion 
of them the very prominent nose and large open eyes recall to mind 
the White Race. Their forehead is extremely retreating, but no 
other race have the back part of the head more developed, or broader 
eye-sockets. Though usually hospitable and generous, they are cruel 
and implacable in their resentments, and make war for the most 
frivolous causes. Two of these nations, the primitive Mexicans and 
Peruvians, had formerly founded wide empires, and had attained a 
somewhat advanced civilisation, though lower than that of Euro- 
peans of the same epoch. But these monarchies having been swept 
away by their Spanish conquerors, progress was checked. The 
Indians who escaped the destruction of their race, and submitted to 
the victors, are now no better than husbandmen or artisans, while as 


for those that remained independent, they wander in the woods and 
the prairies, and are the last representatives of man in the savage or 
semi-savage state. They live in the forests and savannahs, on the 
produce of their hunting and fishing ; their wives are kept by them 
in a state of the greatest abjectness, and are loaded with the heaviest 
burdens ; while certain tribes still continue to offer human sacrifices 
to their idols. 

A fact which deserves notice is, that the Indians who were already 
settled, and who were husbandmen when the Spaniards arrived, 
speedily submitted to the strangers, but never has it been found 
possible to tame those who have shown themselves, from the fifteenth 
century to this day, rebels to foreign influence, and who have pre- 
ferred to become masters of the forest solitudes rather than accept 
the yoke and customs of the Europeans. Moreover, the number and 
population of the wild tribes of the two Americas diminish every year, 
especially in the United States' territories, a result attributable to 
their internecine wars, the ravages of the small-pox, the oppression of 
the white settlers, and, above all, to the fatal passion of these savage 
nations for brandy. 

Anthropologists have taken great trouble to discover the real 
origin of the Indians of America, and to establish their affinity with 
the other human families, but, up to the present, their studies have led 
to no satisfactory result. The Indians cannot be accurately brought 
into connection with either the White, Yellow, or Brown Race ; nor, 
on the other hand, can the mingling of these three groups be ex- 
plained, nor the American Indian be recognised as a determinate 
original type. 

The great differences, both in the shape of the skull and the 
colour of the skin, which are known to exist among the Indian tribes, 
proclaim numerous crossings. There is good reason to think that 
America was first peopled from Asia, the Western American tribes 
being very like the Asiatics of the north-east, even, it is said, 
in language and traditions and weapons. In winter, even yet, 
natives can cross from one side of Behring's Straits to the other, over 
the ice ; and many authorities think that the natives of Alaska are 
recent immigrants from Asia. That it is not impossible for America 
to have been colonised by Mongols is shown by the fact that 
canoes and junks are occasionally driven from the opposite coast of 
Asia and Japan on American shores. Not only are the Mongolian 
characteristics most marked in the tribes on the Pacific coast 
gradually getting fainter towards the eastern, or Atlantic shore, 
but, just as the traditions of the tribes in the east point to a western 


origin, so do the traditions of the Pacific coast tribes point to their 
also having a western origin On the other hand, some circumstances 
prove that, in very remote times, some Europeans made their way 
into America by the north, and that they found there one or many 
native races, whom they partially overcame, and with whom they are 
mingled to the present day. The degree of civilisation that had been 
reached by the Mexicans and Peruvians of old, when Columbus 
landed in the New World ; the American tradition, which holds that 
the founders of their empires were foreigners ; the existence on the 
Northern continent of ruins announcing a state of things at least as 
far advanced as that o'" the Nahnath and the Quichuas (the former 
Mexicans and Peruvians)-— such are the facts which establish that a 
blending formerly took place between the primitive Indians and 
some alien race. 

The shape of the bony peculiar to the Indians of the north-east, 
has equally led to the supposition that they reckon some FAiropeans 
among their ancestors, an idea which appears all the more admissible, 
because in the tenth century the ancient Scandinavians undoubtedly 
had relations with America. 

Consequently, the original race which has peopled the Western 
Hemisphere is almost impossible to be traced. Probably the popu- 
lation which existed in the New World before the arrival of the 
Europeans was made up of several types, different from those that 
are extant at present in the other regions of the globe, types having 
a great tendency to modify themselves, and which were obliterated 
whenever they came in contact with the races of Europe. But to 
re-ascend back to this primordial population would now be im- 

In commenting on the tribes of the Red Race, we shall separate 
the Indians who inhabit North America from those dwelling in the 
southern continent, for certain characteristics mark these two groups; 
in other words, we shall distinguish in the Red Race two divisions — 
the southern branch and the northern branch. 




The nations of the southern branch of the Red Race have affinity to 
those of the Yellow Race. Their complexion, which is often yellowish 
or olive, is never so red as that of the northern Indians \ their head 
is usually of less length, and their nose not so prominent, while they 
frequently have oblique eyes. 

We intend to divide this branch into three families, named re- 
spectively the Andian, PamJ>ean, and Guarani. 

Andian Family. 

This family contains three distinct peoples: — firstly, the Quichuas; 
secondly, the Antis Indians; and thirdly, the Araucanians. 

The characteristics which the tribes belonging to this group 
possess in common are an olive-brown complexion, small stature, 
low, retiring forehead, and horizontal eyes, which are not drawn down 
at the outer angle. They inhabit the western parts of Bolivia, Peru, 
and the State of Quito. These countries were completely subjugated 
by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, and the natives converted 
to Christianity. 

We shall notice in the first division the Quichuas or ancient 
Yncas, the Aymaras, the Atacatnas, and the Changos. 

Quichuas or Yncas. — The Quichuas were the principal people of 
the ancient empire of the Yncas, and they still constitute almost half 
the free Indian population of South America. In the fifteenth 
century the Yncas were the dominant race among the nations of 
Peru, speaking a language of their own, called Quichu. 

The former Yncas, those who lived before the Spanish invasion, 
were possessed of a certain degree of civilisation. Their great empire 
was founded by a demi-godlike being they called Manco Ccapac, 
about 400 years before Pizarro's invasion of Peru. Some say Manco 



Ccapac was a son of the Asiatic conqueror, Genghis Khan, and that 
he came to Peru about the year 1280. About the same time Monte- 
zuma is thought to have come from Assam, and founded a somewhat 
similar empire in Mexico. The Yncas were, to say the least, semi- 
civilised. For example, they had calculated exactly the length of the 
solar year, had made rather considerable progress in the art of 

Fig. 179. — Huascar, Thirteenth Emperor of the Yncas. 

sculpture, preserved memorials of their history by means of hiero- 
glyphics, and enjoyed a well-organised government and a code of good 
laws. Orators, poets, and musicians were to be found among them, 
and their figurative, melodious language denoted prolonged culture. 
Their religion was impressed to the highest degree with a devotional 
character. They recognised a god, the supreme arbiter and creator 
of all things. This divinity was the sun, and superb temples were 
raised by them to its honour. Their religion and their manners breathed 
great sweetness. Mr. Clements Markham, one of the latest authorities 
on the subject, is of opinion that the Empire of the Yncas was made 


ud of several aboriginal tribes, viz., Yncas, Canas, Quichuas, Chau- 
cas, Huancas, and Rucanas, of which, however, the Quichuas were 
by far the most numerous. Now the Quichuas constitute the bulk of 
the aboriginal population of Peru. The fierce Spanish conquerors 
encountered this mild, inoffensive race, and never rested until they 
had annihilated with fire and sword these unsophisticated, peaceable 
men, who were of far more worth than their cruel invaders. 

Figs. 179 and 180 represent types of Yncas, drawn from the 
genealogical tree of the Imperial family, which was published in the 
"Tour du Monde," in 1863. 

According to Alcide d'Orbigny, the naturalist, who has given a 
perfect description of this race, the Quichuas are not copper-coloured, 
but of a mixed shade, between brown and olive ; their average height 
is not more than five feet two inches, that of the females being still 
lower. They have broad, square shoulders, and an excessively full 
chest, very prominent, and very long. Their hands and feet are small. 
The cranium and features of this people are strongly characteristic, 
constituting a perfectly distinct type, which bears no resemblance to 
any but the Mexican. The head is oblong from front to back, and a 
little compressed at the sides; the forehead slightly rounded, low, 
and somewhat retreating ; yet the skull is often capacious, and de- 
notes a rather large development of the brain. The face is generally 
broad ; the nose always prominent, somewhat long, and so extremely 
aquiline as to seem as if the end were bent over the upper lip, and 
pierced by wide, very open nostrils. The size of the mouth is large 
rather than moderate, and the lips protrude, although they are not 
thick. The teeth are invariably handsome, and remain good during 
old age. Without being receding, the chin is a little short ; indeed, 
it is sometimes slightly projecting. The eyes are of moderate size, 
and frequently even small, always horizontal, and never either drawn 
down or up at their outer angle. The eyebrows are greatly arched, 
narrow, and thin. The colour of the hair is always a fine black, and 
it is coarse, thick, long, and extremely smooth and straight, and 
comes down very low at each side of the forehead. The beard is 
limited to a few straight and scattered hairs, which appear very late, 
across the upper lip, at the sides of the mouth, and on the point 
of the chin. The countenance of these men is regular, serious, 
thoughtful, and even sad, and it might be said that they wish to 
conceal their thoughts beneath the still, set look of their features. 
A pretty face is seldom seen among the women. 

An ancient vase has been found on which is a painting of an 
Ynca, who is in every way so entirely like those of the present day, 



as to prove that during four or five centuries the lineaments of these 
people have not undergone any perceptible alteration. 

The Aymaras bear a close resemblance, so far as physical cha- 
racteristics are concerned, to the Quichuas, from whom, however, 
they are completely separated by language. 

They formed a numerous nation, spread over a wide expanse of 
country, and appear to have been civilised in very remote times. 

■ ' 


Fig. 180. — Coya Cahuana, Empress of the Vncas. 

We may consider the Aymaras as the descendants of that ancient 
race which, in far-off ages, inhabited the lofty plains now covered by 
the singular monuments of Tugnanaco, the oldest city of South 
America. This race peopled the borders of Lake Titicaca. 

The Aymaras resemble the Quichuas in the most remarkable 
feature of their organisation, namely, the length and breadth of the 
chest, which, by allowing the lungs to attain a great development, 
renders these tribes particularly suited for living on high mountains. 
In the shape of the head and the intellectual faculties, as well as in 
manners, customs, and industry, both people may be compared ; but 
the architecture of the monuments and tombs of the former race 
diverges widely from that of the Yncas. 



Two nations, inferior in numbers to those of which we have just 
spoken, may be mentioned here. They are the Atacamas, occupying 
the western declivities of the Peruvian Andes ; and the Changos, 
dwelling on the slopes next the Pacific. Both one and the other 
are like the Yncas in physical characteristics, but the colour of 
the skin of the Changos is of a slightly darker hue, being a blackish 

Kig. 181. — Type of Head of an Amis Indian. 

A ntis. — The Antis Indians comprise many tribes — namely, the 
Yuracares, Mocetenes, Tancanas, Maropas, and Apolistas, races 
which inhabit the Bolivian Andes. Their complexion is lighter 
than that of the Yncas, they have not such bulky bodies, and their 
features are more effeminate. 

The account which M. Paul Marcoy has given in the " Tour du 
Monde " of his travels across South America, from the shores of the 
Pacific to those of the Atlantic, is accompanied by several sketches, 
representing Antis Indians, and some wandering hordes which 
belong to the same group ; and we have reproduced a few of these 



drawings in our pages, the first two (Figs. 181 and 182) being types 
of the heads of these people. We also derive from the same source 
the following details as to this race : — 

The Antis is of medium stature and well-proportioned, with 
rounded limbs. He paints his cheeks, and the parts round his eyes, 
with a red dye, extracted from the rocou plant, and also colours 
those parts of his body exposed to the air, with the black pigment 

Fig. -82.— Type of Head of an Amtis Indian. 

from the gempa apple. His covering consists of a long, sack-shaped 
frock, woven by the women, as is also the wallet, in the shape of a 
hand bag, carried by him across his shoulder, and containing his 
toilet articles, namely : a comb, made with the thorns of the Chonta 
palrn ; some rocou in paste ; half a gempa apple ; a bit of looking- 
glass framed in wood ; a ball of thread ; a scrap Of wax ; pincers, 
formed of two mussel-shells, for extracting hairs ; a snuff-box made 
from a snail's shell, and containing very finely ground tobacco, 
gathered green ; an apparatus for grating the snuff, made of the ends 
of reeds, or two arm bones of a monkey, soldered together with 


black wax at an acute angle ; sometimes a knife, scissors, fish-hooks, 
and needles of European manufacture. 

Both sexes wear their hair hanging down like a horse's tail, and 
cut straight across just over the eyes. The only trinket they carry is 
a piece of silver money flattened between two stones, which they 
pierce with a hole, and hang from the cartilage of their nostrils. For 
ornaments they have necklaces of beads and berries, skins, and 
beaks of birds of brilliant plumage, tapir's claws, and even vanilla 
husks, strung upon a thread. 

The Amis almost always build their dwellings on the banks of a 
watercourse, isolated and half hidden by a screen of vegetation. 
The huts are low and dirty, and pervaded with a smell like that of wild 
beasts, for the air can scarcely circulate in them. In the fine season 
of the year open sheds take the place of closed up huts (Fig. 183). 

The weapons used by the Antis are clubs, and bows and arrows. 
Fishermen capture their prey in the running streams with arrows, 
barbed at the ends, or having three prongs like a trident. Other 
darts, with palm-points or bamboo-heads, are employed by the huntei 
for birds and quadrupeds. 

The Antis occasionally poison the waters of the creeks and bays 
by means of the Menispermum cocculus. The fish become instanta- 
neously intoxicated ; they first struggle, then rise belly uppermost, 
and come floating on the surface, where they are easily taken with 
the hand (Fig. 184). 

The earthenware of this people is coarsely manufactured, and is 
painted and glazed. They have little or no social organisation, but 
live in families, or in separate couples, and have no law beyond their 
own caprice. They do not elect chiefs, except in time of war, and 
to lead them against an enemy. The girls are marriageable at twelve 
years of age, and accept any husband who seeks them, if he has 
previously made some present to their parents. They prepare their 
lord and master's food, weave his clothes, look after and gather in 
the crops of rice, manioc, maize, and other cereals; carry his baggage 
on a journey, follow him to battle, and pick up the arrows which he 
has discharged. They also accompany him in the chase, or when 
fishing paddle his canoe, and bring back to their dwelling the booty 
gained from an enemy, and the game or fish which has been killed ; 
and yet, notwithstanding this severe work and continual bondage, 
the women are always cheerful. 

They use a large earthen vessel to cook the fish caught in the 
nearest stream, or the game killed in the adjoining forest. 

When one of this nation dies, his relatives and friends assemble 



-'■V - 

Fig. 183. — Summer Shed of the Antis. 

in his abode, seize the corpse (which is wrapped in the loose 
sack-like frock usually worn) by the head and feet, and throw it 
into the river. They then wreck the dwelling, break the deceased's 
bow, arrows, and pottery, scatter the ashes of his hearth, devastate 
his crops, cut down to the ground the trees which he has planted, 


and finally set fire to his hut. The place is thenceforth reputed 
impure, and is shunned by all passers-by ; vegetation very soon 
/e-asserts its sway, and the dead is for ever effaced from the memory 
of the living. 

These people, who thus treat their dead so badly, profess an 
equal disdain for the aged, for whom they reserve the refuse of their 
food, their worn out rags, and the worst place at the hearth. 

Their religion is a jumble of theogonies, in which, however, are 
recognisable a notion of the existence of a Supreme God, the idea of 
the two principles of good and evil, and finally, a belief in reward or 
punishment on leaving this life. 

The manners of these tribes are, as may be seen, a somewhat 
singular medley ; free will is the ruling law, and, as it were, the 
wisdom of their race, which lives unfettered in the bosom of nature. 

The Antis Indians have a soft, smooth language, which they 
speak with extreme volubility in a low, gentle tone, that never varies. 
Fig. 185 represents a Peruvian interpreter. 

Arauca7iians. — These tribes spread themselves over the western 
slopes of the Andes, from 30 degrees south latitude to the extremity 
of Tierra del Fuego, and also occupy the upper valleys and plains 
situate to the east of the Cordilleras. They call themselves the 
Alapuche', or " people of the country." From the name of their 
head-quarters, Las Manzanos, they are sometimes styled the Man- 

The Araucanians consist of two nations — namely, the people 
who properly bear that name, indomitable warriors (to this day the 
Patagonians call them chenna, or the warriors), whose heroism is 
celebrated in the history of the Spanish conquest of Peru, and the 
PL/ierays, who inhabit the most southern link of the American moun- 
tain chain, and whose degraded condition would make many doubt 
whether they ought to be ranked as a branch of the Araucanians, 
who are the boldest and most promising aboriginal race in South 

According to M. A. d'Orbigny, both these races present a great 
similitude as regards their physical characteristics, which consist of a 
head that is large in proportion to the body, a round face, prominent 
cheek-bones, a broad mouth, thick lips, a short, flat nose, wide nostrils, 
a narrow, retiring forehead, horizontal eyes, and a thin beard. 

Fig. 186 (p. 475) is a representation, after Prichard, of one of those 
Araucanian Indians, who may be considered as forming the least 
barbarous of the independent native tribes of South America. 

Fig 84.— Antis Indians Fishing. 



These people do not, in fact, lead the nomadic existence of 
Indians. Being protected by thick forests from the attacks and 


— ■ C_ 


IHJ- £,£ 

Fig. 185. — Peruvian Interpreter. 

invasions of the Americans, they build tolerably substantial houses with 
wood and iron, and their customs denote a rudimentary civilisation. 
A Perigord attorney rendered the Araucanian nation celebrated 


in Europe. He had succeeded in getting himself chosen as its king, 
and when chased away by the Peruvians came to relate his odyssey 
in France, returning afterwards to re-conquer his unstable throne. 
Ore'lie, the first of the name, has, according to rumour, recovered 
at present his lofty position among the Indians of Araucania. 

The Picherays inhabit the coast of Tierra del Fuego, and both 
shores of the Straits of Magellan. The life they lead, and the ice, 
covering all the interior of the hilly country they occupy, force them 
to remain exclusively on the borders of the sea. 

Their colour is olive, or tawny ; they are of low, stunted stature, 
with clumsy figures, and their legs are bowed, from continually sitting 
cross-legged, which gives them an unsteady gait. Their pleasant 
natural smile gives indication of an obliging disposition ; but their 
deceitful character, and their tendency not only to kill, but eat the 
crews of ships unfortunately wrecked on their coast, sorely belie their 
falsely-acquired reputation for kindliness. They are peculiarly filthy 
in habits, and their long mane-like locks are usually crawling with an 
insect said to be a species peculiar to this race. The Picheray 
Indian is about the lowest and most brute-like type of existing 

Being essentially nomadic, the Picherays do not form themselves 
into communities, but move about in small numbers, by groups of 
two or three families, living by hunting and fishing, and changing 
their resting-place as soon as they have exhausted the animals and 
shell-fish of the neighbourhood. Dwelling in a region which is split 
up into a multitude of islands, they have become navigators, and 
continually traverse every shore of Tierra del Fuego, as well as of 
the countries situate to the east of the strait. They build large 
boats, twelve to fifteen feet long, and three feet broad, from the 
bark of trees, with no other implements than shells, or hatchets made 
of flint. 

Their huts (Fig. 187, p. 477) are covered over with earth or seal- 
skins ; and some fine morning the whole family will abandon them 
and take to their canoes, with their numerous dogs. The women ply 
their oars, while the men hold themselves in readiness to pierce any 
fish they perceive, with a dart pointed by a sharpened stone. When 
in this way they arrive at another island, the women, having placed 
their little vessel in safety, start in search of shell-fish, and the men 
go hunting with the sling or the bow. A short stay is followed by 
a fresh departure. 

These wretched people are thus incessantly exposed to the 



dangers of the sea, and the inclemency of the seasons, and yet they 
are, it may be said, without clothing. The men's shoulders are 
barely covered with a scrap of sealskin, whilst the whole apparel 
of the women consists in a little apron of the same material. 

Notwithstanding this rude existence, the Picherays display some 


Fig. 186. — Type of Head of Araucanian. 

coquetry. They load their necks, arms, and legs with gewgaws and 
shells, and paint their bodies, and oftener their faces, with different 
designs in red, white, and black. The men occasionally ornament 
their heads with bunches of feathers. All wear a kind of boot made 
of sealskin. 

Like all other tribes who subsist by hunting, the Picherays have 
among themselves frequent quarrels, and even petty wars, that last 
only a short time, but are continually renewed. 


They share their food with their faithful companions, the dogs ; it 
consists of cooked or raw shell-fish, birds, fish, and seals, and they 
eat the fat of the latter raw. They do not, like the inhabitants of the 
North Pole, pass the most rigorous period of the winter underground, 
but pursue their labours in the open air, protecting themselves as 
best they can against the cold which prevails in Tierra del Fuego, 
which, though named the " Land of Fire," by reason of its proximity 
to the South Pole, is, during the greater part of the year, a region 
of ice. The Picherays have hardly any form of government, and 
Mr. Darwin denies that they have any form of religion. 

The women are subjected to the roughest labours. They row, 
fish, build the cabins, and plunge into the sea, even during the most 
intense cold, in their search for the shell-fish attached to the rocks. 

The language of the Picherays resembles that of the Patagonians 
and the Pehuelches in sound, and that of the Araucanians in form. 

Pampean Family. 

The rather numerous tribes of South America composing this 
family are frequently of tall stature, with arched and prominent fore- 
heads, overhanging horizontal eyes, which are sometimes contracted 
at the outer angle. They inhabit the immense plains, or Pampas, 
situated at the foot of the eastern slope of the Andes. They rear 
great numbers of horses, and, consequently, the" men, like the tribes 
who roam over the steppes of Asia, are nearly always mounted. 

The peoples comprised in this family are : the Patagonians, 
properly so-called ; the Pehuelches, or the tribes of the Pampas to the 
south of the La Plata river; the Chafruas, in the vicinity of Uruguay; 
the Tobas, Lenguas, and Machicuys, who occupy the greater part of 
Chacoj the Moxos, the Chiquiios, and the Mataguayos ; and finally, 
the famous Abipoous — the centaurs of the New World. We can only 
speak of some of these groups. 

Patagonians. — The Patagonians are erroneously divided into a 
great number of various tribes. This, says Captain Musters, in his "At 
Home with the Patagonians," is due to the custom they have of 
different war parties uniting for a time under a particular head man, 
and calling themselves, when met with, by his name. The only real 
division of them is into Northern and Southern Pehuelches, the name 
given them by the Auracanians. They call themselves Tsonecas. 
They speak the same language in the Northern and Southern tribes, 
with a slight variation in accent. The Southern tribes are taller 



than the Northern, and are better hunters. " The Northern tribes,'' 
says Musters, " range over the districts between the Cordilleras and 
the sea ; from the Rio Grande, on the north, to the Chupat, oc- 
casionally descending as far as the Santa Cruz river. The Southern 
tribes occupy the country south of the Santa Cruz, and migrate as 
far as Puenta Arena." Both tribes intermarry. Another tribe, north 

Fig. 187.— Picheray Huts. 

of the Rio Grande, speaking a different language, has sometimes 
been mistaken for Patagonians. They are the Pehuelches. 

The Patagonians are the nomads of the New World. They 
furnish the horsemen who scour its vast arid tracts, living under tents 
of skins, or who hide in its forests, in huts covered with bark and 
thatch. Haughty and unconquered warriors, they despise agriculture 
and the arts of civilisation, and have always resisted the Spanish arms. 

These savages have darker skins than most of those in South 
America. Their complexion is an olive-brown ; and among the men 


composing them we find the tallest stature as well as the most athletic 
and robust frames. The tribes dwelling farthest south are the 
tallest, and the height of the others diminishes as the Chaco region 
is approached. 

As has been stated in the Introduction to this work, the stature 
of this people has been heretofore greatly exaggerated. M. Alcide 
d'Orbigny, who resided for seven months among many different Pata- 
gonian tribes, measured several individuals in each. He assures us 
ihat the tallest of all was only five feet eleven inches in height, and 
that the average is not above five feet four. 

M. Victor de Rochas, in the account he has given of his voyage 
to Magellan's Straits, has proved in a similar manner that the stature 
of the Patagonians is by no means extraordinary, and the most 
recent explorers, Captain Musters and Dr. R. Cunningham, say 
they have seen individuals measuring five feet four inches. Their 
average height is not over five feet ten inches. M. de Rochas 
found them possessed of a brown complexion j coarse, straight, 
black hair; scanty beard ; serious countenances — those of the men 
being manly and haughty, and the women's mild and good — and 
regular, but coarse features. The hands and feet of the females 
were small. 

Broad, robust bodies, stout limbs, and vigorous constitutions, 
characterise all the tribes in question — the women as well as the 
men. The Patagonians proper have large heads, and wide flat faces, 
with prominent cheek-bones ; their feet are smaller than those of the 
European, and their instep higher. Their strength of arm is very 
remarkable, as is also their power of enduring starvation. Their 
teeth are remarkably white. This is said to be due to their fondness 
for chewing the gum of the incense bush. Fig. 1 88 is a type of head 
of Patagonian. 

• Among the nations of Chaco, which we shall speak of further on, 
the eyes are small, horizontal, and sometimes slightly contracted at 
the outer corner ; the nose is short, flat, and broad, with open 
nostrils ; the mouth big, the chin short, and the lips thick and 
prominent ; they have arched eyebrows, scanty beard, long, straight, 
black hair, and gloomy countenances, frequently of ferocious aspect. 

Though the languages of these races are essentially distinct, they 
have a certain analogy between themselves ; all are harsh, guttural, 
and difficult of pronunciation. 

The occupations of the Patagonians are the chase, tending their 
domestic animals, horsemanship, and the use of the lance, the sling, 
and the lasso. Their dwellings consist of hide tents, carried by 



these savages from place to place in their migrations. Their cos- 
tume is composed of a mantle of guanco-skin fur, bound round the 
middle by a strap, which, however, can be loosened, so that the upper 
part of the garment may be thrown off, and the arms left free. 
Their coarse hair is bound by a strip of guanco-skin, of which 
material, or of the skin of the puma, their boots are made. They 


tig. 188. — Type of Head of Patagonian. 

have in winter large over-shoes, which leave big footprints in the 
snow, and led to the Spaniards originally calling them Patagones, or 
" big feet." Paint is worn on face and body, but they are extremely 
cleanly in their habits and in their houses, though, in spite of all 
their efforts, they cannot keep themselves wholly free from vermin. 
Before the use of firearms amongst them, it seems defensive armour 
was worn by them. Occasionally yet one meets with suits of hide or 
chain-mail ; but war in any form is rare. They do not, like most 


Indians, care for military glory, and they have no desire to occupy 
new territory. Men and women are passionately fond of smoking 
tobacco, which they mix with the yerbtr, or Paraguayan tea. They 
are a kindly, intelligent, and by no means immoral people, when not 
under the influence of rum, which they drink rather freely when they 
can get it in the settlements. Gambling is their chief amusement. 
They are very formal and fond of ceremony in dealing with each 
other, and manifest great respect for their own laws and customs 
regulating the division of spoil, whether that of the chase or that 
captured in war. They are very democratic in their political orga- 
nisation, and obey no great chief, save when, for temporary purposes, 
they may elect a head man to take command of a war or hunting 
party. They are arrant thieves when they come to the settlements, 
but honest among themselves. Marriage amongst them is not that 
primitive form known as marriage by capture or force. Presents on 
both sides are exchanged, and the bride's consent has to be got 
before she can be married. In case of divorce the woman's 
dowry is returned to her. The birth of a child is an occasion for 
much festivity. From its birth the ch'ld has a certain amount of 
property in horses or harness settled on it, which can never be 
alienated by its parents. Polygamy is not common, though it is not 
illegal. When a member of a tribe dies, his horses, and harness, and 
weapons are burned; the body, shrouded in guanco-skin, is buried 
sitting with its face to the east, and a cairn of stones raised over the 
grave. The Patagonians believe in a Supreme God, or Good Spirit, 
along with a number of lesser demons or spirits, and have no idols, 
or regular set religious festivals. They believe in evil spirits, who 
are ever lurking round them to produce disease and suffering, and 
have medicine men to propitiate these. At their marriages mares 
are usually sacrificed, and if dogs touch any of the meat it is thought 
a dire mishap. " The head, back-bone, tail, heart, or liver are taken 
to the top of a neighbouring hill, as an offering to the Gualichu, or 
evil spirit" (Musters). In Fig. 189 there is a representation of the 
scene that generally characterises a Patagonian horse sacrifice. 

Tobas, Lenguas, and Machicuys. — These three tribes, which must, 
as we have said, be included in the Pampean Family, are termed, 
collectively, the Indians of the Grand Chaco, or Great Desert. It 
will not be uninteresting, in order to give an example of the cus- 
toms of the wild South American races, to quote here some pages in 
which an account of his visit to the Grand Ghaco nations is related 
by Dr. Demersay in his "Travels in Paraguay :" — 


Fig. 189. — A Patagoman Horse Sacrifice. 


" Reduced at the present day to very small numbers, and, indeed, 
almost extinct, the remnant of the Lengua nation," says Dr. Demer- 
say, " lives to the north of the river Pilcomayo, in union and amalga- 
mated with the Emmages and Machicuys, within a short distance 
of the Quartel. Their actual enemies are the Tobas, who are allied 
to the Pitiligas, Chunipis, and Aguilots, and who constitute a 
numerous horde on the other side of the Pilcomayo. 

"The remnants of the Lenguas are more especially joined and 
mingled with the Machicuys ; in fact, they no longer form more than 
a dozen families, and the Mascoyian capital is theirs as well. 

" There are paves, or doctors, among the Lenguas, who ad- 
minister nothing to a sick person beyond water or fruit, and who 
practise suction with the mouth for wounds and sore places. They 
interlard this operation with juggleries and songs, accompanied by 
gourds (porongos), shaken in the invalid's ears. These porongos are 
filled with little stones, and make a deafening clatter. The payes 
are also sorcerers, and read the future as well as heal the sick. 

" Some girls, but the custom is not general, tattoo themselves in 
an indelible way at the age of puberty, an event which is always 
marked by rejoicing. This festival consists of a family gathering, 
during which the men intoxicate themselves with brandy, if they can 
obtain some by barter, or with a fermented liquor (c/iicka) extracted 
from the fruit of the algaroba. 

" The tattooing of the women consists of four narrow and parallel 
blue lines, which descend from the top of the forehead to the end of 
the nose — but are not continued on the upper lip — as well as of 
irregular rings traced on the cheeks and chin as far as the temples. 

" Both sexes pierce their ears when extremely young, and pass 
through them a bit of wood, the width of which they keep inces- 
santly increasing, so that towards forty years of age the holes are of 
enormous dimensions. I measured several of these orifices, and 
found their average length to be two inches and a half, whilst their 
diameter was somewhat less considerable. The pieces of wood are 
solid, irregularly rounded, and about an inch and three-quarters in 
thickness at their widest part. The Lenguas often replace them by 
a long fragment of the bark of a tree, rolled spirally, like a wire 

" The Lenguas comb their hair, which they cut at the top of the 
forehead, forming a lock, which is drawn backwards, passing over the 
left ear, until it falls into the mass collected and tied behind with a 
riband, or a woollen string. This body of hair, which is always 
black, straight, and generally very fine, and even silky, then falls 



between the shoulders. The women do not always dress their hair in 
this way ; I saw many who allowed it to hang in loose disorder. 
Moreover, though they may sometimes comb it, no one can say that 
these people take care of their hair; their extreme filthiness argues 
to the contrary, for nothing can possibly be seen dirtier than this 
nation, which in this respect closely resembles the others. 

" The weapons of the Lenguas consist of a bow and arrows, 
which they carry behind their backs, bound up in a hide ; they have 
also an axe, called by them achagy, borne in a similar manner. 
They carry in their hand a makana, or staff, made of hard, heavy 
wood ; and to these is also added a spear tipped with iron, and they 
sometimes have the bolas and the lasso. They are excellent horse- 
men, riding bare-backed with their wives and children, all on the same 
animal, and all, women and men, sitting in the same way. They 
use no bit, contenting themselves with a piece of stick ; they make 
reins from the fibres of the caraguata. 

" Their olive-brown colour — darker than that of the Tobas — 
their prominent cheek-bones, small eyes, broad flat faces, slightly 
depressed noses, wide mouths, and large lips, give to the counte- 
nance of these savages a peculiar look, which is not a little enhanced 
by a pair of ears that come down to the base of the neck, and with 
some individuals as far as the collar-bone. The Lenguas, like all 
Indians, become hideous as they grow old. 

" A few weeks had passed since my excursion in this direction, 
when, as I was returning to Assumption from a fresh journey into the 
interior of the country, I heard that the Quartel had been the object 
of a completely unforeseen attack on the part of the Chaco tribes ; 
and that after an encounter, in which two Indians had lost their 
lives, the troops had been able to recover the stolen cattle and to 
take some prisoners, who were immediately sent on to the capital, 
where they were confided to the keeping of the guard at the cavalry 
barrack, near the arsenal and port. A more favourable opportunity 
could not have offered for continuing and completing my ethnolo- 
gical studies, so the next day I hastened to the building. 

" On arriving there I found a dozen Indians loaded with irons, 
seated here and there in the centre of a narrow court. They were 
covered with dirty European garments, in tattered po/ic/ios, or draped 
in antique fashion with wretched blankets. Two boys, one eight 
and the other fifteen years old, were among the prisoners, and all 
seemed sad and dejected. They preserved a profound silence, 
which I had some trouble to make them break. 

"Side by side with the Lenguas, whom I had seen at the 

Fig. 190. — A Bolivian Chief. 


Quartel, there were some Tobas and Machicuys ; but although 
known to the first, my interpreter questioned them in vain as to the 
motive of their attack. 

"The Tobas are generally of tall and erect stature. I measured 
three ot them, and found their height to be respectively — 5 feet \o\ 
inches, 5 feet 8| inches, and 5 feet 6\ inches. Their muscular 
system is well developed, and their shapely limbs, like those of all 
the other nations of the Chaco, are terminated by hands and feet 
which would cause envy to any European. 

" They have an ordinary forehead, which is not retreating ; lively 
eyes, larger than those of the Lenguas, and narrow thin eyebrows. 
The iris is black, and they do not pluck out their eyelashes. Their 
long, regular nose is rounded at the end, where it becomes slightly 
enlarged ; and their mouth, which is a little turned up at the angles, 
is better proportioned and smaller than that of the Lenguas, and is 
furnished with fine teeth, which are preserved to a very advanced 
age. They are also without prominent cheek-bones, and their faces 
are not so broad as that of the other nation. 

" The Tobas seem to have renounced the use of the barbette, 
which, at the time of Azara they still wore, and none of them had 
any scar on the lower lip. Their ears were not pierced. They 
allow their hair to grow, letting it float freely without being tied ; a 
few, however, cut it straight across the forehead, a habit which is 
even practised by some of the women. 

" The colour of their skin is an olive brown, not so dark as that 
of the Lenguas, and contains no yellow tint ; but I confess to the 
great difficulty there is in expressing shades so varied in hue. 

" Nothing could draw the prisoners from their taciturnity ; their 
countenances remained impassive, cold, and serious, during all our 
questioning. A winning smile and interesting face are attributed by 
some travellers to the women while still young ; but their features 
deteriorate at an early age, and, like the men, they grow into repul- 
sive ugliness. Their breasts, which are of moderate size, and well 
formed at first, lengthen to such an extent as to enable them to 
suckle the children carried on their backs. 

" The Toba nation occupies, or, to speak more accurately, 
overruns, a considerable extent of the Chaco plains. We meet its 
members on the banks of the Pilcomayo, from its mouth to the first 
spurs of the Andes, where they come in contact with the Chiriguanos, 
with whom they are often at war. 

" Being usually nomadic, the Tobas occupy themselves in fishing 
and hunting ; their weapons consist of arrows, maka?ias, long spears 


with iron points, and the bolas. Some of their tribes, more settled 
in their habits, add the produce of agriculture to that of the chase, 
by cultivating maize, manioc, and potatoes. 

" The children of both sexes wear no covering ; men and women 
roll a piece of cloth round their loins, or envelop themselves in a 
cloak made from the skins of wild animals. Necklaces and bracelets 
of glass beads or small shells form the ornaments of the females, 
while in some tribes the men twine round their bodies long white 
rows of beads, composed of little fragments of shells rounded like 
buttons, and strung together at regular intervals." 

Machicuys. — Dr. Demersay does not share the opinion expressed 
by M. d'Orbigny that the Machicuys may be nothing more than a 
tribe of the Tobas, whose language they perhaps speak. According 
to the first-named traveller, the tongues of the two nations are 
different, and other distinctions separate them. 

"The Machicuys," says Dr. Demersay, "are more sedentary in 
their habits, are greater tillers of the soil, and are endowed with less 
fierce manners than the Lenguas ; but they resemble them in the 
extraordinary dimensions of the lobe of the ears, as well as in their 
weapons and method of fighting. Azara says that they differ in the 
shape of their barbette, which is said to resemble that of the 
Charruas. To reiterate an observation we have already made, we 
say that none of the Machicuys we have seen showed any marks of 
the opening intended for the reception of this savage ornament, 
which they are abandoning, after the example of the Brazilian 
Botucudos, whilst certain tribes of the ancient continent religiously 
preserve it. In the same way the Berrys, a black nation on the 
borders of the Saubat, a tributary on the right bank of the Nile, 
pierce their lower lip, in order to insert a piece of crystal more than 
an inch long. 

" In height, formation, and proportions, the Machicuys are 
similar to the Lenguas, and like them they have small eyes, broad 
faces, large mouths, flat noses, and wide nostrils. Their hair is 
allowed to hang loosely, and its thick curls partly cover their faces, 
and fall on their shoulders. 

" The language of these nations, like that of all the Indians of 
the Chaco, is strongly accentuated and full of sounds, that require 
an effort to be forced from the nose and throat ; it contains double 
consonants extremely difficult to pronounce." 

Moxos and Chiquitos. — The interior, and, to some extent, central 









regions of South America, lying north of the Chaco, have been 
called by the Spaniards the "Provinces of the Moxos and Chiquitos," 
from the names of the two principal families of Indian race living in 
these countries. 

The Moxos inhabit vast plains, subject to frequent inundations 
and overrun by immense streams, on which they are constantly 
obliged to navigate in their boats. They are the ichthyophagists of 
the river districts of the interior. 

The land of the Chiquitos is a succession of mountains incon- 
siderable in height, covered with forests and intersected by numerous 
small rivers. They are husbandmen, and have fixed abodes. 

The Chiquitos live in clans, each of which has its own little 
village. The men go about naked, but the women wear a flowing 
garment, which they like to ornament. These Indians are gifted with 
a happy disposition and amiable manners ; they are sociable, hos- 
pitable, inclined to gaiety, and passionately fond of dancing and music. 
They have become permanently converted to Christianity. Their 
physical characteristics include a large and spherical head, almost 
always circular, a round, full face, prominent cheek-bones, a low, 
arched forehead, a short nose, slightly flattened, and with narrow 
nostrils, small horizontal eyes, full of expression and vivacity, thin lips, 
fine teeth, a mediocre mouth, scanty beard, and long black, glossy hair, 
which does not whiten in extreme old age, but grows yellow. 

The manners of the Moxos are strongly analogous to those of 
the Chiquitos. Their colour is an olive-brown, and their stature of 
the average height. They have not very vigorous limbs ; their nose 
is short, and not very broad, their mouth of medium size, their lips 
and cheek-bones but little prominent ; their face is oval or round, 
and their countenances mild and rather merry. This race dwells on 
the confines of Bolivia, Peru, and Brazil. Fig. 190 (p. 485) contains 
a con ect representation of a Bolivian chief. 

Before the conquest these tribes were established on the banks 
of the rivers and lakes. They were fishers, hunters, and more 
especially agriculturists. The chase was a relaxation for them ; 
fishing a necessity ; husbandry afforded them provisions and drinks. 
Their customs, however, were barbarous. Superstition made a 
Moxos sacrifice his wife in case she miscarried, and his children if 
they happened to be twins. The mother rid herself of her offspring 
if it wearied her. Marriage could be dissolved at the will of the 
parties to it, and polygamy was frequent. These Indians were all, 
more or less, warriors; but tradition and \rritings have only preserved 
for us the memorials of one single nation, the members of which 


were cannibals, and devoured their prisoners. The counsels of the 
missionaries have modified the manners of this people, without 
removing all its savage usages. 

Both the Moxos and the Chiquitos have broad shoulders, ex- 
tremely full chests, and most robust bodies. 

Each of these two races includes a certain number of hordes, 
which we see no necessity for alluding to particularly here, for their 
half wild habits resemble those of the tribes we have just commented 
on ; and for similar reasons we shall pass over in silence the other 
races ranked in the Pampean family, and whose names have been 
enumerated in a preceding page. Fig. 191 shows a boat on the Rio 
Negro, and Fig. 192 represents an Examinador of Chili. 

Guarani Family. 

The Guarani Family is spread over an immense space, from the 
Rio de La Plata as far as the Caribbean Sea. Its principal charac- 
teristics consist of a yellowish complexion, a little tinged with red, a 
middle stature, a very heavy frame, a but slightly arched and promi- 
nent forehead, oblique eyes, turned up at the outer angle, a short, 
narrow nose, moderate-sized mouth, thin lips, cheek-bones without 
much prominence, a round, full face, effeminate features, and a 
pleasing countenance. 

D'Orbigny has established two divisions only in this family, 
namely, the Guaranis and the Botocudos. 

Guaranis. —At the period of the discovery of South America, all 
that portion of the continent lying to the east of the Paraguay, and 
of a line drawn from the sources of that river to the delta of the 
Orinoco, was inhabited by numberless indigenous nations belonging 
to two great families. One of these families was that of the Guaranis, 
diffused over the whole of Paraguay, and allied with the wild tribes 
of Brazil ; the other included the races occupying the more northern 
provinces, and extending to the Gulf of Mexico. The Indians apper- 
taining to both these families strongly resemble each other in features 
as well as complexion ; and d'Orbigny attributes to them the same 
physical type, one marked by a yellowish colour, medium height, 
foreheads that do not recede, and eyes frequently oblique, and 
always raised at the outer angle. 

The entirely exceptional aptitude which the Guarani nation has 
evinced for entering on the path of social improvement renders it 
one of the most interesting in South America. The Southern 



Fig. J92. — E.xaminador of Chili. 

Guaranis, or natives of Paraguay, include at the same time the 
tribes who have submitted to the sway of the missions, in the 
establishments which the Jesuits have formed in the country, and 
others who still roam in freedom throughout the forests of that 
province. These are called the Payaguas ; and though they offered 
fierce resistance to conquest, they now number only about 200 souls. 


Besides the Guaranis properly so called, who are all Christians, and 
inhabit thirty-two rather extensive villages situated on the borders of 
the Parana, the Paraguay, and the Uruguay rivers, there exists a 
certain number of wild hordes belonging to the same race, who 
remain hidden in the depths of the woods. These tribes bear 
names, derived, in most instances, from those of the rivers or 
mountains in whose vicinity they dwell. Fig. 193 represents a 
Paraguayan messenger — an illustration that speaks for itself. 

M. Demersay, who has visited the Jesuit establishments in Para- 
guay, also traversed the forests inhabited by the wild races of which 
we are speaking, and the results of his observations were published 
by him in the "Tour du Monde " in 1865. We shall avail ourselves 
here of those parts ot his narrative which refer to the savage nations 
of Paraguay. 

" The history of the American races," says M. Demersay, " might 
be comprised in a few pages. Some have accepted the semi-servi- 
tude which the conquerors imposed on them ; the others, more 
rebellious, preferred to struggle, and have been destroyed ; those 
who still struggle will also perish. The nations which chose subjec- 
tion rather than death have, by mingling their blood in strong 
proportions with that of the Europeans, only disappeared as a race in 
order to enter as an integral, and sometimes dominant element, into 
the American nationalities. The great family of the Guaranis forms 
the most striking example of this intimate fusion offered to the 
notice of the ethnologist. 

"But in its midst, side by side with the unsubdued hordes of the 
Grand Chaco, so remarkable for their fine proportions, there exists yet 
another tribe, small in numbers, whose ranks grow thinner every day, 
and which, on the eve of its disappearance, has bequeathed intact to 
the present generation, along with its complete independence, its 
creeds, its customs, and the glorious traditions of its ancestors. 

"At the time of their discovery, the Paynguas, as this valiant 
race is called, were divided into two tribes, the Gadigues and the 
Magac/is, who lived on the banks and numerous islands of the Rio 
Paraguay, towards 21 and 25 S. latitude. Their dwelling-places 
were by no means fixed. Masters of the river, and jealous of its 
control, they started from Lake Xarayes, and made distant excur- 
sions on the Parana, as far as Corrientes and Santa Fe on one side, 
and to Salto Lhico on the other. 

" A rather rational etymology which has been proposed for the 
name of these Indians, is that of the two Guarany words, pat and 
agnaa, which signify ' tied to the oar,' a meaning quite in unison 

Fig. 193. — A Paraguayan Messenger. 


with their habits. In the term ' Paraguay,' applied as the denomi- 
nation of the river, before it became the name of the province, some 
have wished to perceive a corruption of ' Payagua;' a likely enough 
derivation, and one which seems to us highly admissible. 

" Whatever there may be in this supposition, the value of which 
we shall not discuss here, this unconquered and crafty nation was, 
during two centuries, the most redoubtable adversary of the 
Spaniards. The writers on the conquest, the works of Azara, the 
' Historical Essay ' of Funes, and numerous documents preserved in 
the archives of Assumption, contain a recital of their daring enter- 

"... What their numbers were in the first half of the six- 
teenth century it is impossible to say with certainty ; but the old 
narratives, which do not seem on this point to deserve the reproach 
of exaggeration, more than once, and, to all appearance, accurately 
estimate them as no fewer than several thousand combatants. In 
Azara's time the entire tribe scarcely reckoned a thousand souls, and 
at the present day it cannot count two hundred 

"Their stature is remarkable, and unquestionably surpasses that 
of most nations of the globe. The measurements of eight individuals, 
taken at random, would justify the application of this epithet to the 
Payaguas, as they gave me an average of 5 feet 9 inches. The 
women's height is no less striking. That of four females over twenty 
was — the first and second, 5 feet ; the third, 5 feet 2 inches ; and 
the fourth, 5 feet 3| inches ; or an average of 5 feet 1^ inches. 
Many conclusions may be drawn from this double series of measure- 
ments. On comparing the average stature of the Payaguas with 
that of mankind in general, which physiologists agree in fixing at 
about 5 feet 6 inches, it will be seen that the difference in favour of 
the former is no less than three inches. And further, if we place in 
comparison the measurements taken by accurate travellers of the 
races which pass for the tallest on the globe — of the Patagonians, 
for instance — we find that their average height, as stated by M. 
d'Orbigny, is 5 feet 7 inches. Consequently the Payaguas actually 
surpass by two inches the height of a race which has, from time 
immemorial, been regarded as fabulously tall. 

" The Payaguas are invariably lanky, none but the women ever 
showing signs of corpulence. Their shoulders are broad, and the 
muscles of their chests, arms, and backs display a development, pro- 
duced by constant use of the oar, for they live in their canoes ; but, as 
a species of compensation, the predominance of the proportion of the 
upper limbs causes the lower extremities to appear slight and meagre. 


" Their skin, smooth and soft to the touch, like that of the natives 
of the New Continent, is of an olive-brown shade, which it would be 
difficult to define more accurately. It seems somewhat lighter than 
that of the Guaranis, and does not exhibit the same yellowish or 
Mongolian tints. 

" The Payaguas carry their massive heads erect, and have an 
abundant supply of long, straight, or slightly curly hair, which they 
cut across the foreheads, and never comb, allowing it to grow and 
fall about them in disorder. The young warriors alone partly gather 
it at the back of the crown, where it is tied by a little red string, or by 
a strap cut from a monkey skin. A similar custom obtains among 
the Guatos of Cuyaba, who, we may say incidentally, have more 
resemblance to this nation than to the Guaranis, though a learned 
classification has placed them side by side with the latter. Their 
small, keen eyes, a little contracted, but not turned up at the outer 
angle, have an expression of cunning and shrewdness ; and the lines 
of die long, slightly-rounded nose, recall the Caucasian conformation 
to the mind. Their cheek-bones are but little prominent, their lower 
lip protrudes beyond the upper, thus imparting to their grave and 
impressive countenances an expression of scornful pride, well in 
keeping with the character of this unsubdued race. 

" The women when young are well-proportioned, without being 
slight, but they fatten early, their features become deformed, and 
their 'figures grow squat and dumpy. To atone for this, however, 
their hands and feet always retain a remarkable smallness, although 
they walk barefooted and take no care whatever of their persons. I 
have also observed this delicate formation, a distinction which 
European ladies covet so much, among the tribes of the Chaco, who 
are, with the Payaguas, the finest in America. Their hair is allowed 
to float about the shoulders, and is never confined. 

" A young girl on emerging from childhood undergoes tattooing. 
By means of a thorn and the fruit of the gempa, a bluish streak, 
about half an inch wide, is drawn perpendicularly across the fore- 
head and down the nose, as far as the upper lip ; and when she 
marries this stripe is prolonged over the under lip to below the chin. 
Its shades vary from violet to a slate-coloured blue, and its marks 
are indelible. Some women add other lines to this, as well as designs 
traced with the flaming tint of the urucn. This latter fashion, how- 
ever, though general half a century ago, and which Azara describes 
minutely, has become more and more uncommon. 

" The Payaguas go about naked in their tents (to/dos), but out of 
doors they wear a small cotton garment, encircling them from the pit 



of the stomach to just below the knee. This piece of cloth, which 
they lap round their bodies in the style of the chiripa of the Creoles, 
is one of the few productions of their ingenuity Its manufacture 
devolves upon the women, and they make it with no other help than 

that of their fingers, without using either shuttle or loom. Some 
others content themselves with a short shirt, devoid of collar or 
sleeves, rather like the tipoy of the Guarani. Nevertheless, the use 
of clothing seems to become every day more familiar to all of them ; 
and amongst those I saw roaming through the streets of Assumption 
not one was satisfied, as in former times, with covering his limbs with 
paintings representing vests and breeches, 


" Other ancient customs have also disappeared, such as that which 
the men had of wearing, as the case might be, either the barbette, or 
a little silver rod analogous to the tembeta of the wild Guaranis or 
Cayaguas. Others are only resumed at rare intervals or at certain 
epochs, on which solemn occasions long tufts of feathers fixed on the 
top of the head are seen to reappear, and all manner of fanciful 
patterns tattooed in bright colours on face, arm, and breast ; as well 
as necklaces of beads and shells, and, lastly, bracelets ol the claws of 
capivaras rolled round wrist and ankle. But the tradition of this 
elaborate ornamentation has been religiously preserved by the pave or 
medicine-man of the tribe. 

"The Payaguas live on the left bank of the Rio Paraguay. They 
never take up their abode on the opposite side, where the Indians of 
Chaco, with whom they are always at war, would not be slow to 
attack them. Their principal hut (tolderid) is erected on the river's 
edge, and consists of a large oblong cabin from twelve to fifteen feet 
high, and made with bamboos laid on forked poles, and covered 
over with unplaited cane mats. Jaguar or capivaras' skins are spread 
on the ground for beds, and weapons and fishing and household 
utensils hang on the posts sustaining the frail roofing of the dwelling, 
or lie pell-mell, with earthen vessels, in a corner. 

" The very limited occupation of this people constitutes, 

nevertheless, their sole resource, for they are perfectly ignorant of 
husbandry, and cultivate neither maize, potatoes, nor tobacco. They 
are fishermen, spend their lives on the water, and become early in 
life very expert sailors. Sometimes they are to be seen in the stern 
of a canoe, letting it float with the current while watching their lines ; 
at another, standing upright in a row, they bend to their oars in good 
time, and make the little craft fly along with the swiftness of an 
arrow. Their boats are from five to a little over six feet in length, 
and between two and a half to three feet wide ; they are hollowed 
from the trunk of a Umbo, and terminate in a long tapering point at 
each end. 

" Their paddles are sharpened like lances, and form in their 
hands very formidable weapons, to which must be added bows and 
arrows, as well as the makana. They are cruel in warfare, and grant 
no quarter except to women and children. Their method of fighting 
shows no peculiarity. They attack the Indians of the Chaco by 
falling upon them unawares, and endeavouring to surprise them, but 
they take good care not to move far from the rivers, for those tribes 
of famous horsemen would soon overcome them in the open country. 

"This nation, as the reader has doubtless surmised, lives in a 



state of absolute liberty and complete independence of the govern- 
ment of the Paraguayan Republic, which imposes neither tax nor 
statute labour upon it ; but, on the contrary, pays the Payaguas for 
any services that are exacted from them, whether as messengers on 

Fig. 195. — Indian Woman of Brazil 

the river, or as guides in the expeditions directed against the wild 
hordes that wander along the right bank. 

" Being desirous to become acquainted with, and to be 

able to sketch at my ease, in the midst of all the savage luxury of his 
garb, the individual who was intrusted with these functions, I con- 
trived to get him to come to my house arrayed in the emblems of his 
high dignity, and accompanied by some other Indians. The promise 


of a certain quantity of his beloved liquor, coupled with the prospect 
of an evening's drunkenness, speedily got the better of his reluctance. 

" On the day named the paye came to see me. He was an old 
man, somewhat bent with years, but with nothing repulsive in his 
countenance, notwithstanding the disfiguration of the features, which 
is always premature and so remarkable among the natives. His hair 
was still black and confined in a fillet bordered with beadwork, over 
which was a tuft of feathers, while nandu plumes waved behind his 
head ; a necklace of bivalve shells was on his neck, and from it 
hung, as a trophy, a whistle made from the arm-bone of an enemy. 
He was quite naked beneath his sleeveless and collarless vest, which 
consisted of two jaguar-skins, and wore strings of capivaras' claws 
round his ankles. Finally, his right hand contained an elongated 
gourd, and he held in his left a long tube of hard wood, which I had 
some difficulty in recognising as a pipe. 

"The curtain rises. The sorcerer gave the pipe to his companies, 
whose duty consisted in lighting it, and, taking it again, inhaled 
several puffs, which he blew noisily into the calabash through the 
orifice bored in it ; then, without removing it from his lips, he began 
shouting, sometimes slowly, and sometimes rapidly, uttering al- 
ternately the syllables ' ta, ta,' and ' to, to, to,' with extraordinary, 
inexpressible, reiterations of voice and piercing yells. He gave way 
at the same time to violent contortions, and executed a measured 
series of leaps, now on one foot, and now on both joined together. 
This performance did not last any length of time, and on a pretext of 
fatigue he was not long without coming to a standstill. A bumper 
was indispensable in order to set him on his legs again, and the 
monotonous chant immediately recommenced. 

" My drawings being finished, I at last broke up the sitting to the 
general satisfaction of my guests, and dismissed them, having first 
purchased his pipe and whistle from the paye. The former article 
was made of hard and heavy wood, and covered with regular tracings 
engraved on the surface with a good deal of skill. It was about a 
foot and a half long, ornamented with gilt nails, and pierced by a 
tube, which was widened at one end and terminated at the other by a 
mouthpiece. This pipe is also to be found among other neighbour- 
ing nations, as well as among the Tobas and Matacos on the banks 
of the Pilcomayo. It gives an idea of these enormous cigars, made 
from a roll of palm or tobacco leaves, which played so important a 
part in Brazil, in the ceremonies of the Tupinambas, and among the 
Caraibs of the Antilles, on all occasions when the question of peace 
or war had to be decided, when the shades of ancestors were to 



be conjured up, &c, and which die first navigators mistook for 

The Western Guaranis include the tribes known by the names of 
Guarayis, Chiriguanos, and Cirionos, the first of which have been 
converted by the Jesuits. Between the province of the Chiquitos 
and that of the Moxos there are still some hordes of wild Guaray ; s. 


Fig 196. — Native of Manaos, Brazil. 

The uncivilised Chiriguanos are barbarians, very formidable to their 
neighbours. The natives of 160 villages of the Andes, comprised 
between the great Chaco river and that of Mapayo, in the province 
of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, speak the Guarani language in all its 
purity. The barbarous Cirionos, among whom a dialect of that 
tongue is in use, dwell to the north of Santa Cruz. 

The Eastern Guaranis of Brazil include the Brazilian aborigines. 
The general language of the country does not seem to differ more 
from Guarani than Portuguese does from Spanish. The Carjis, 



Tatneyi, Tapinaqnis, Timmimnes \ Tabayaris, Tupiiiambis, Apontis, 
Tapigoas, and several other tribes occupy the maritime districts 
situated to the south of the mouth of the Amazon, speaking the Tupi 
tongue with little or no alteration. Figs. 194, 195, 196, 197 are 
Brazilian types representing respectively a Brazilian negro, Indian 
women of Brazil, native of Manaos, Brazil, and Brazilian negresses. 




Fig. 197. — Brazilian Negresses. 

During their voyage to Brazil, of which an account was published 
in the "Tour du Monde," in 1868, M. and Madame Agassiz visited 
many Indian tribes, and examined their habitations in the midst of 
the woods. We extract a few pages from their description. 

'• Wc arrive at the sitio" writes Madame Agassiz, " and disembark. 
These dwellings are generally located on the banks of a lake or river, 
within a stone's throw of the shore, in order that fishing and bathing 
may be better within reach. But this one was more retired, being 



placed at the extremity of a pretty by-path winding beneath the trees, 
and on the summit of a little hill, the slopes of which at the other side 
plunged into a broad and deep ravine, through which flowed a rivulet. 

Fig. 198 — Brazilian Dwelling. 

The ground beyond rose undulating in uneven lines, on which an 
eye accustomed to the uniformly flat country of .the upper Amazon 
cannpt rest without pleasure. Wait for the time of the rains, and the 
brook, swollen by the increase of the river, will almost bathe the foot 
of the house, which, from the top of the little eminence, at present 
commands the valley and the embanked bed of the tiny stream. 


Great, consequently, is the difference between the appearance of the 
same places in the dry and the wet seasons. The residence consists 
of several buildings, the most remarkable of which is a long open 
hall in which the brancas (whites) of Manaos and of the neighbour- 
hood dance when they come, as is not infrequent, to spend the night 
at the sitio, in high festivity. 

" I learned these particulars from the old Indian lady who did me 
the honours of the house. A low wall, from three to four feet in 
height, skirted this shed. At its sides and along the whole length 
were placed raised wooden seats, and both ends were closed from 
floor to roof by thick blinds made of glittering palm-leaves, as fine as 
they were handsome, and of a pretty straw-colour. In a corner we 
found an immense embroidery loom (Penelope's was doubtless like 
it), which was occupied at the moment by a hammock of palm-fibre, 
an unfinished work of the sen/iora dona, or mistress of the house, 
who allowed me to see the way in which she used the machine. 
She squatted herself on a little low bench in front of the frame, and 
showed me that the two rows of cross threads were separated by a 
thick piece of polished wood in the shape of a flat rule. The shuttle 
is thrown between these two threads, and the woof is drawn close by 
a sharp blow of the thick rule. I was then led to admire some 
hammocks, of various colours and textures, which were being ar- 
ranged for the accommodation of the visitors, and whilst the men set 
off to bathe in the brook, I went through the rest of the lodge with 
our hostess and her daughter, a very pretty Indian. The direction 
of everything devolves on the elder of the two ladies ; the master is 
absent, as he holds a captain's commission in the army operating 
against Paraguay. 

" On the same carefully-kept piece of ground where the hall I 
have described is situated, there are several casinhas, or small build- 
ings, more or less close to each other, which are covered with thatch, 
and merely consist of a single apartment (Fig. 198)- Then comes a 
larger cottage, with earthen walls and bare floor, containing two or 
three rooms, and with a wooden verandah in front. This is the 
private abode of the senhora. A little lower down the hill is the 
manioc sifting house, with all its apparatus. No place could be 
better kept than the courtyard of this sitio, where two or three 
negresses have just been set to work with brooms of thin branches 
in their hands. 

"The manioc and cocoa plantation surrounds these buildings, 
with a few coffee-trees peeping out here and there. There is a 
difficulty in judging of the extent of these farms, as they are irregular. 

Fig. 199. — Negroes of Bahia, 

OUR AG AS. 509 

and comprise a certain variety of plants ; manioc, cocoa, coffee, and 
even cotton being cultivated together in confusion. But this part of 
the estate, like all the rest of the establishment, seemed larger and 
better cared for than those usually seen. As we were departing, our 
Indian hostess brought me a nice basket filled with eggs and abacatys, 
or alligator's pears, according to the local name. We returned home 
just in time for the ten o'clock meal, which draws everyone togethei, 
both idlers and workers. The sportsmen had returned from the 
forest, laden with tucanas, parrots, paroquets, and a great variety 
of other birds, while the fishermen brought fresh treasures for 
M. Agassiz. 

" We left the dinner-table, and while taking coffee under the 
trees, the president proposed an excursion on the lake at sunset. 
. . . . The little craft glided between the glowing sunset and 
the glitter of the deep sheet of water, seeming to borrow its hues 
from each. It rapidly drew near, and was soon quite close, when 
a burst of joyous shouts broke forth, and was merrily responded to 
by us. Then side by side the two boats descended the stream 
together, the guitar passing from one to the other, as Brazilian 
songs alternated with Indian airs. Nothing could possibly be 
imagined bearing the national impress more strongly marked, more 
deeply imbued with tropical tints, more characteristic, in fine, than 
this scene on the lake. When we arrived at the landing-place the 
rosy and gold-tinged mists had become transformed into a mass of 
white, or ashen-grey vapour, the . last rays of the setting sun were 
fled, and the moon was shining at its full. In ascending the gentle 
slope of the hill, some one suggested a dance on the grass, and the 
young Indian girls formed a quadrille. Although civilisation had 
mingled its usages with their native customs, there were yet many 
original traits in their movements, and this conventional dance was 
deprived of much of its artificial character. At length we returned 
to the house, where dancing and singing recommenced, whilst 
groups seated on the ground here and there laughed and chatted, 
all — men and women — smoking with the same gusto. The use of 
tobacco, almost universal among females of the lower class, is not 
altogether confined to them. More than one senhora delights to 
puff her cigarette as she rocks in her hammock during the warm 
hours of the day." Fig. 199 represents some negroes of Bahia, 
and Fig. 200 some natives of French Guiana, who closely resemble 
the Brazilian negroes we have just mentioned. 

The Ouragas are affiliated to the Brazilio-Guarani race, with a few 


other tribes very closely allied to them. They form one of the 
nations most widely-spread over the northern parts of South America. 
They were formerly in possession of the banks and islands of the 
Amazon river, for a distance of five hundred miles from the mouth 
of the Rio Nabo. 

The Caribbee race has a close affinity to the Guarani. The 
Indians who have given their name to this group — one of the most 
numerous and extensively-scattered of the southern continent — are 
those celebrated Caribs, who in the sixteenth century occupied all 
the islands from Porto Rico to Trinidad, and the whole of the 
Atlantic coast comprised between the mouth of the Orinoco and 
that of the Amazon — that is to say, as far as the Brazilian frontier. 

The Tamanacs belong to the same family, and live on the right 
bank of the Orinoco, but their numbers are at the present day 
greatly reduced. The same remark applies to the Arawacs, or 
Araocas, to the Guaranns, who are said to build their houses upon 
trees, to the Guayquerias, Cumanogots, Phariagots, C hay mas, &c. 
Humboldt has written of the last named : — 

" The expression of countenance of the Chaymas, without being 
harsh and fierce, has in it something sedate and gloomy. The fore- 
head is small, and but little prominent ; the eyes are black, sunken, 
and lengthy, being neither so obliquely set nor so small as those of 
the Mongolian race, yet the corners perceptibly slant upwards 
towards the temples. The eyebrows are black or dark brown, thin, 
and not much arched ; the lids fringed with very long eyelashes ; 
and their habit of drooping them, as if heavy with languor, softens 
the women's looks, and makes the eye thus veiled appear smaller 
than it really is." 

The Botocudos (Fig. 201, p. 513), who dwell round the Rio Doce, 
in Brazil, have been cannibals, and are still to the present day the 
most savage of all Americans. They wear collars of human teeth as 
ornaments. Perpetually wandering, and completely naked, they 
take a pleasure in adding to their natural ugliness, and impart a 
more repulsive appearance to their countenances, by a habit they 
have of slitting their under lips and ears, in order to introduce 
barbettes into the openings thus made. 

In his "Travels in Brazil," Mr. Biard saw some Botocudos. 
One, who seemed to him to be the chief, carried, like his com- 
panions, in an opening in the lower lip, a barbette, consisting of a bit 
of wood somewhat larger than a five-shilling piece. He made use of 
this projection as a little table, cutting up on it, with the traveller's 

Fig. 200. —Natives of French Guiana. 



knife, a morsel of smoked meat, which had then only to be slipped 
into his mouth. This method of utilising the lip as a table struck 
M. Biard as thoroughly original, though a somewhat similar use, says 
Dr. Robert Brown, is made of it by the women of the Hydah tribe, or 
natives of the Queen Charlotte Islands.* The comrades of this 
Botocudos had also large pieces of wood in the lobes of their ears. 

Pig. 201. — Botocudob. 

# u 

Races of Mankind," vol i., p. 99, et seq. 





The members of the North American Branch present more decided 
differences among themselves than those in the southern division, so 
far as race is concerned, but their characteristics are merged one in 
the other. Nevertheless, the populations inhabiting respectively the 
south, the north-east, and the north-west, can be considered as 
forming so many distinct families, which we shall pass in review in 

Southern- Family. 

The southern family of the Northern Branch still preserves 
much resemblance to the families of the Southern Branch which we 
have just been considering. The complexion of its members is 
rather fair, the forehead depressed, and the figure tolerably well 

This group embraces a great number of tribes speaking different 
languages, peculiar to the central part of the northern continent. 
The principal among these nations are the Aztecs, or primitive 
Mexicans, and the Moya and Lenca Indians. 

Aztecs. — When the Spaniards landed in Mexico, they found there 
a people whose customs were far removed from those of savage life. 
They were very expert in the practice of different useful and orna- 
mental arts, and their knowledge was rather extensive, but thorough 
cruelty could always be laid to their charge. 

The Aztecs were intelligent and hard-working cultivators. They 
knew how to work mines, prepare metals, and set precious stones as 
ornaments. Superb monuments had been erected by them, and 
they possessed a written language which preserved the memorials of 
their history. Those who dwelt in the region of the present Mexico 
were advanced in the sciences ; they were profoundly imbued with 
the sentiment of religion ; and their sacred ceremonies were full of 



pomp, but accompanied by expiatory sacrifices revolting in their 
barbarism. They carried their annals back to very remote antiquity. 
These annals were traced in historical paintings, the traditional 
explanation of which was imparted by the natives to some of their 
conquerors, as well as to a few Spanish and Italian ecclesiastics. 

Fig. 202. — Indian of the Mexican Coast. 
{Showing obliquely-set Mongoloid eyes.) 

The principal events recorded in these archives relate to the 
migrations of three different nations, who, leaving the distant regions 
af the north-west, arrived successively in Anahuac. They were the 
Toltecs, Chichimecas, and Nahuatlacas, divided into seven distinct 
tribes, one of which was that of the Aztecs, or Mexicans. The 
country whence the first of these people came was called Huehuetla- 
pallan, and they commenced their exodus in the year 544 of our 



era. Pestilence decimated them in 105 1, and they then wandered 
southwards, but a few remained at Tula. The Chichimecas, a 
barbarous race, arrived in Mexico in the year 1070, and the incur- 
sion of the Nahuatlacas, who spoke the same language as the 
Toltecs, took place very soon afterwards. The Aztecs, or Mexicans, 
separated themselves from the other nations, and in 1325 they 
founded Mexico. In a word, the former inhabitants of Mexico were 

Fig. 203. — Indian of the Mexican Coast. 

immigrants from a country situated towards the north, on the central 
plateau of Anahuac, and their successive migrations had continued 
during several centuries, long prior to the discovery of America by 
the Europeans. 

The ancient portraits of the Aztecs, and the faces of some 
of their divinities, are remarkable for the depression of the fore- 
head, from which results the smallness of the facial angle — a pecu- 
liarity which appears to have belonged to the handsome type of the 

The aboriginal Mexicans of our tim« are of good stature, and 



well-proportioned in all their limbs. They have narrow foreheads, 
black eyes, white, well-set, regular teeth, thick, coarse, and -glossy 
black hair, thin beards, and are in general without any hairs on their 
legs, thighs, or arms. Their skin is olive-coloured, and many fine 
young women may be seen among them with extremely light com- 
plexions. Their senses are very acute, more especially that of sight, 
which they enjoy unimpaired to the most advanced age. 

Fig. 204. — Indian of the Mexican Coast. 

The native Indians forming part of the Mexican population are 
characterised by a broad face and flat nose, and obliquely-set eyes, 
recalling somewhat the lineaments of the Mongolian cast of coun- 
tenance. They may be judged of from Figs. 202, 203, 204, and 
205, which represent aborigines of the interior and coast of Mexico. 

M. Roude, who has published the narrative of his travels in 
the state of Chihuahua, brought back accurate drawings illustrative 
of the usages and customs of the population of the Mexican capital. 



The ladies envelop themselves very gracefully in their rebosso, 
with which they cover the head, partly hiding the face, and only 
allowing their eyes to be seen. Among the wealthy this rebosso is 
generally of black or white silk, embroidered with designs in bright 

Fig. 205. — Mexican / Woman. 
(Showing obliquely-set Mongoloid eyes.) 

and gaudy colours. Women of the lower classes wear a rebosso 
of blue wool, dotted with little white squares. Their petticoat is 
short, and its lower part embroidered with worsted work. The 
favourite colour for this latter garment among common people is 
glaring red. 

The men's costume (Fig. 206) is richer and more varied than 



that of the women ; on Sundays it is laced with silver. White 
trousers are indispensable, and they are covered by another pair 
made of leather, open along the sides from the waist downwards, and 
ornamented with a row of silver buttons. A China crape sash is 
wound round the waist, and the vest is of deer-skin or velvet, with 
silver embroidery. The sombrero has a very broad brim, is made of 
straw or felt, and decorated with a thick twisted bank of black velvet, 

Fig. 206. — Mexican Picador. 

or of silver gilt lace. The sarape is spangled with striking colours 
and with varied patterns, and the men possess a special talent for 
draping themselves gracefully in it. 

The place, above all others, where the popular life of the 
inhabitants of Mexico should be studied, is in the markets (Fig. 207). 
There may you see Indians, Creoles, and foreigners, beggars in rags 
and rich citizens, black frock coats, embroidered deer-skin jackets, 
threadbare uniforms, soldiers, muleteers, porters, monks of all shades, 


shod and shoeless Carmelites, all elbowing each other fraternally. 
There the swashbuckling picador throws the broadening shadow of 
his fantastic headgear on the wall of the neighbouring church ; there 
dealers in hats, poultry, or v/ooden trays, offer their wares to buyers ; 
there pretty fruit and flower-girls, tidy servant-maids of some decent 
house, or winsome Chinas, with sparkling eyes, pass to and fro 
• 1 raped in their rebossos. They bear on the upturned palms of ihe 
left hand, on a level with the shoulder, and in the most artistic 
manner, a basket full of green plants, or the graceful red earthenware 
cantaro painted and glazed, and filled with water. 

Through this noisy crowd the water-carrier (aguador), clothed in 
leather, treads his way with short steps, bearing on his back an 
enormous red earthen jar, fastened by means of two handles and 
a broad strap to his forehead, which is protected by a little cap of 
leather ; another band passing across the top of the crown, supports a 
second, and much smaller pitcher, hanging before him at his knees. 

If a person wishes to become acquainted with Mexico, it is among 
the lower orders that he must study the country. The people are 
good ; eager for knowledge, notwithstanding the want of instruction, 
and full of energy in spite of their long bondage. He need be on 
His guard against the higher classes only, a small minority'spoiled by 
the priests, whose influence is all-powerful. The ignorance of the 
monks, who swarm in this land, is doubled by an intolerable vanity 
that inspires them with antipathy to all progress. 

The people of Mexico are very simple in their habits. Broth 
{pilchero) and the national dish, fri/o/es (beans), form the ordinary fare 
of the middle class, to which a stew of spiced duck is sometimes 
added. They allay their thirst with pure water, contained in an 
immense glass, which holds from one to two quarts. This flagon is 
placed in the centre of the table, and is the only one that appears on 
the board, from which decanters and bottles, and very often knives 
and forks, are banished. Each, in turn, steeps his lips in this cup, 
returning it to its place or passing it to his neighbour. Besides, 
Mexicans in general do not drink except at the end of the meal. In 
the evening the circle is swelled by a few friends ; guitars are taken 
down from the wall, and some simple ballads are sung to mournful 
airs, or they dance to the same measure. Figs. 208, 209, represent 
respectively a Mexican hatter and a Mexican hawker. 

The Aztecs, or primitive Mexicans, like their predecessors, the 
Toltecs, were, as we have said, strangers in Anahuac. Before their 
arrival this plateau had been inhabited by different races, some of 




Fig. 207. — The Roldau Bridge Market, Mexico. 


which had acquired a certain degree of civilisation, whilst others were 
utterly barbarous. The Aztecs spread themselves extensively in 
Central America. 

The Olmecas are mentioned among the most ancient tribes, and 
they are supposed to have peopled the West India Islands and 
South America. This nation shared the soil of Mexico with the 
Xica/aucas, Coras, Tepanecas, Tarascas, Mixtecas, Tzapotecas, and 
the Ol/iomis. This last-named and the Totonacs were two barbarous 
races occupying the country near Lake Tezcuco, previously to the 
coming of the Chichimecas. Whilst all the other known languages 
of America are polysyllabic, that of the Othomis is monosyllabic. 

Farther to the north, and beyond the northern frontiers of the 
Mexican Empire, dwelt the Huaxtecas. The Tarascas inhabited the 
wide and fertile regions of Mechoacan, to the north of Mexico, and 
were always independent of that kingdom. Their sonorous and 
harmonious tongue differed from all the others. In civilisation and 
the arts they advanced side by side with the Mexicans, who were 
never able to subdue them ; but their king submitted without re- 
sistance to the rule of the Spaniards. 

Moyas and Lencas. — These are tribes which still live in a wild 
state in the forests situated between the Isthmus of Panama and that 
of Thuantepec, but an inquiry into their manners and customs would 
offer no features of interest. The life of savage nations exhibits an 
uniformity which greatly abridges our task 

North-eastern Family. 

In the fifteenth century the North-eastern family occupied that 
immense expanse of North America which is comprised between the 
Atlantic Ocean and the Rocky Mountains, but all its nations are now 
reduced to a few far from numerous tribes, confined to the west of 

The distinguishing qualities of the red race are strongly marked 
among these groups. A complexion of a light cinnamon-colour, a 
lengthened head, a long and aquiline nose, horizontal eyes, a depressed 
forehead, a robust constitution, and a tall stature constitute their 
principal physical characteristics, to which must be added senses 
sharpened to an extraordinary degree. They have a habit of 
painting their bodies, and especially their faces, red. Their dis- 
position is proud and independent, and they support pain with stoical 



Almost all these Indian tribes have already disappeared in 
consequence of the furious war waged upon them by the Europeans. 
Those that lived in olden times on the declivities of the mountains 
facing the Atlantic are very nearly extinct. Among such are the 

? ; a 

Fig 208.— Mexican Hatter. 

Fig. 209.— Mexican Hawker. 

Hurons, Iroquois, Algonquins, and the Natchez, rendered famous 
by Chateaubriand, and the Mohicans, whom Cooper has immortalised. 
We cannot speak detailedly here of these different nations, but 
in order to give an idea of them we shall open Chateaubriand's 
" Voyage en Ame'rique," and, having quoted a few lines from it, we 
shall make the reader acquainted with the pith of the observations 
made in our own day in these same countries by contemporary 


Speaking of the Muscogulges and the Simnioles, Chateaubriand 
writes in the following terms : — 

"The Simnioles and the Muscogulges are rather tall in stature; 
and, by an extraordinary contrast, their wives are the smallest race 
of women known in America. They seldom exceed four feet two or 
three inches in height. Their hands and feet resemble those of a 
European girl nine or ten years old. But Nature has compensated 
them for this kind of injustice. Their figure is elegant and graceful ; 
their eyes are black, extremely long, and full of languor and 
modesty. They lower their eyelids with a sort of voluptuous 
bashfulness. If a person did not see them when they speak, he would 
believe himself listening to children uttering only half-formed words." 

The great writer passed along the borders of the lake to which 
its name has been given by the Iroquois colony of the Onondagas, 
and visited the "Sachem " of that people. 

"He was," says Chateaubriand, "an old Iroquois in the strictest 
sense of the word. His person preserved the memory of his former 
customs and bygone times of the desert : large, pinked ears, pearl 
hanging from the nose, face streaked with various colours, little tuft 
of hair on the top of the head, blue tunic, cloak of skins, leathern 
belt, with its scalping-knife and tomahawk, tattooed arm, mocassins 
on his feet, and a porcelain necklace in his hand." 

The following is the sketch of an Iroquois : — 

" He was of lofty stature, with broad chest, muscular legs, and 
sinewy arms. His large round eyes sparkled with independence ; 
his whole mien was that of a hero. Shining on his forehead might 
be seen high combinations of thought and exalted sentiments of soul. 
This fearless man was not in the least astonished at firearms when 
for the first time they were used against him ; he stood firm to the 
whistling of bullets and the roar of cannon as if he had been hearing 
both all his life, and appeared to heed them no more than he would 
a storm. As soon as he could procure himself a musket, he used it 
better than a European. He did not abandon for it his tomahawk, 
his knife, or his bow and arrows, but added to them the carbine, 
pistol, poniard, and axe, and seemed never to possess arms sufficient 
for his valour. Doubly arrayed in the murderous weapons of Europe 
and America, with his head decked with bunches of feathers, his 
ears pinked, his face smeared black, his arms dyed in blood, this 
noble champion of the New World became as formidable to behold 
as he was to contend against, on the shore which he defended foot 
by foot against the foreigner." 

With this terrible portrait Chateaubriand contrasts the blithe 




countenance of the Huron, who had nothing in common with the 
Iroquois but language : — 

" The gay, sprightly, and volatile Huron, of rash, dazzling valour, 
and tall, elegant figure, had the air of being born to be the ally of 
the French." 

We now come to travellers of our own day. Fig. 210 is a sketch 

tig 211. — Encampment of Sioux Indians. 

of the costumes of the Indians who bear the name of Creeks or 
Muskbges. They used to occupy a wide district in Mississippi and 
Alabama, but now are settled on lands near the Canadian river, 
adjoining the Cherokee "reservations" near Fort Gibson. They 
are semi-civilised, and devoted to agriculture. Most of them are 
nominally Christians. 

In his travels through the United States and Canada, M. H. 
Deville had an opportunity of visiting an establishment of Iroquois. 
These savages were remarkable for their reddish colour and coarse 


leatures. They wore round hats with broad brims, and robed them- 
selves in Spanish fashion in a piece of dark cloth. 

The manufacture of native coverings for the legs and feet forms 
the principal occupation of the women, and under the pretext of 
purchasing some of their handiwork, M. Deville entered several 
Iroquois dwellings. 

Divested of the thick mantle worn by them out of doors, the 
women had assumed a long, coloured smockfrock, with tight-fitting 
pantaloons that reached to the ankles, and their varnished shoes 
allowed coarse worsted stockings to be seen. Earrings and a gold 
necklace constituted their chief ornament. Their hair is drawn up 
to the top of the head, and tied there in a knot. To say that their 
features are agreeable would be untrue, but in early youth their 
figures are rather handsome. Work, order, and cleanliness reign 
in their household. Their brothers and husbands are woodcutters, 
steersmen, or conductors of rafts. 

The same traveller met with some Cbippeway Indians on the 
heights of Lake Pepin. Their stature was tall, but they had coarse 
features, and a skin of a very dark reddish colour. Half theii face 
was covered by a thick layer of vermilion, extending as far as their 
hair, which was plaited over the crown. They wore long leathern 
gaiters, tied at the sides by innumerable thongs, and over a sort of 
tattered blouse was thrown a large woollen blanket, which completely 
covered them. One individual, armed with a long steel blade 
shaped like a dagger, had stuck his pipe in his hair. 

In his "Voyage dans les Mauvaises Terres du Nebraska," M. de 
Girardin (of Maine-et-Loire) describes his journey across part of the 
Missouri basin occupied by some free and wild Indians. 

He brought back with him sketches and illustrations of those 
tribes, the principal among which are the Blackfeet, and the Dacotas, 
or Sioux, and was present at a grand council of the latter nation. 
The chiefs of the various clans, clad in their most brilliant costumes, 
harangued the warriors, whilst a score of young braves, without any 
other covering than a thick coat of vermilion or ochre, made their 
steeds curvet, and executed numberless fanciful manoeuvres. The 
horses were painted yellow, red, and white, and had their long tails 
decked with bright-coloured feathers. 

An immense tent, composed of five or six lodges of bison-skins, 
was erected in ihe centre of the camp. The chiefs and principal 
warriors formed a circle, in the midst of which the agent, the 
governor of Fort St. Pierre, and his interpreters were stationed. 
According to Indian custom, the grand chief lit the calumet of 


5 9 -9 

peace, a magnificent pipe of red stone, the stem of which was a yard 
long and adorned with feathers of every hue. After some impas- 
sioned orations, the council refused the travellers permission to pass 
over their territory in order to reach that of the Blackfeet. 

Fig. 2 1 1 represents the encampment of these Indians visited by 
M. de Girardin. Fig. 212 is a sketch of one of their horsemen, and 

1 X. t-l J l 1 it/W r Zst2-"t'** 

Fig. 212. — Sioux Warrior. 



, a likeness of a Sioux chief, all from the pencil of the 
same gentleman. 

M. de GiraiJin happened to go to another camp, that of an old 
chief of the same tribe. It consisted of five or six tents, conical in 
shape, and made of bison skins. Remarkable for their whiteness 
and cleanliness, these habitations were covered with odd painting. 1 -', 
which portrayed warriors smoking the calumet, horses, stags, and 
dogs. Numerous freshly-scalped locks were hanging at the end cf 
long poles. At the side of each tent a kind of tripod supported 
quivers, shields of ox-hide, and spears embellished with brilliant 


plumage. A few young warriors of strongly-marked features, with 
aquiline noses and herculean forms, but hideously daubed in black 
and white paint, were engaged in firing arrows at a ball which was 
rolled along the ground or thrown into the air. 

The chiefs made the travellers seat themselves on skins of bears 
and bisons, and conversed with the interpreter, whilst M. de 
Girardin remained exposed to the curiosity of the young folks, 
women and children. The girls ventured so far as to search his 
pockets, and extract from them his knife, pencils, and note-book. 
The most inquisitive, a fine girl with very soft eyes and magnificent 
teeth, perceiving he had a long beard, wished to assure herself that 
he was not shaggy all over like a bear, when the traveller took it 
into his head to put a little powder into the hand of the pretty 
inquisitor, and lit it by means of a glass lens, an incident which 
gave a tremendous fright to the assemblage. 

During a journey to the north-east of America, in 1867, M. L. 
Simonin had an opportunity of visiting a Sioux village, and we avail 
ourselves of a few of his descriptions. It consisted of about a hundred 
huts, made with poles and bison skins, or pieces of stitched cloth. 
The entrance to them was by a low narrow hole covered over with a 
beaver skin. A fire blazed in the centre of each hovel, and around 
it were pots and kettles for the repast. The smoke which escaped at 
the top rendered this abode intolerable. Beds, mattresses, cooking 
utensils, quarters of wild bison, some raw, others dried and smoked, 
were scattered here and there. Half-naked children, girls and boys, 
scampered about outside, as well as troops of dogs that constituted 
at once their protectors, their vigilant sentinels, and their food. 

M. Simonin went inside many of the huts, where warriors were 
silently playing cards, using leaden balls for stakes. Others, ac- 
companied by the noise of discordant singing and tambourines, were 
playing at a game resembling the Italian " mora," the score of which 
was marked with arrows stuck in the ground. Some tents, in which 
sorcery, or "great medicine," was being practised, were prohibited to 
the visitor. The women were sitting in a ring round some of the 
wigwams, doing needlework, ornamenting necklaces or mocassins 
with beads, or tracing patterns on bison skins. 

Some old matrons were preparing hides stretched on stakes, by 
rubbing them with freestone and steel chisels set in bone handles. 
The squaws of the Sioux, on whom, moreover, all domestic cares fall, 
are far from handsome. They are the slaves of the man who 
purchases them for a horse or the skin of a bison. The great Sioux 
nation numbers about thirty-five thousand individuals. 

Fig. 213. — A Sioux Chief. 

crows. 533 

The same gentleman from whom we have just been quoting, was 
enabled to make some observations among the Crows, a tribe of 
Prairie Indians who are neighbours of the Sioux. Their features are 
broadly marked, their stature gigantic, and their frames athletic, while, 
according to M. Simonin, their majestic countenances recall the 
types of the Roman Caesars as we see them delineated on antique 
medals. The Frontispiece to this volume represents a Crow Chief 
from the Rocky Mountains in gala dress. 

The traveller was admitted into the hut of the chiefs, where the 
" Sachems " were seated in a circle, and as he touched their hands 
successively, they uttered a guttural " a hou," a sound which serves 
as a salutation among the Red Skins. He smoked the calumet. 

These men had their cheeks tattooed in vermilion. They were 
scarcely covered ; one had a woollen blanket, the next a buffalo hide 
or the incomplete uniform of an officer, while the upper part of 
another's body was naked. Several wore collars or eardrops of shells 
or animals' teeth. Hanging from the neck of one was a silver medal 
bearing the effigy of a President of the United States, which he had 
received when he went on a mission to Washington in 1853 ; and a 
horse, rudely carved in the same metal, adorned the breast of another 
of their number. 

M. Simonin was afterwards present at a council of the Crow 
Indians, but we do not intend to give any report of this conference 
of savages, of which, however, the reader may form some idea by 
casting a glance at Fig. 214, p. 535. 

In dealing with the relations existing between the wild Indians of 
North America and the civilised inhabitants, that is to say, the 
Americans of the United States, M. Simonin enters into some 
interesting reflections which we believe we ought to reproduce. 

"A singular race," says M. Simonin, " is that of the Red Skins, 
among whom Nature has so lavishly apportioned the finest land 
existing on the globe, a rich, alluvial soil, deep, level, and well- 
watered ; still this race has not yet emerged from the primitive stage 
which must be everywhere traversed by humanity at the outset — the 
stage of hunters and nomads, the age of stone ! If the Whites had 
not brought them iron, the Indians would still use flint weapons, like 
man before the Deluge, who sheltered himself in caverns and was 
contemporary in Europe with the mammoth. Beyond the chase and 
war, the wild tribes of North America shun work ; women among 
them perform all labour. What a contrast to the toiling, busy popu- 
lation around them, whose respect for women is so profound ! This 
population hems them in, completely surrounds them at the present 


day, and all is over with the Red Skins if they do not consent to 
retire into the land reserved for them. 

"And even there will industry and the arts spring up? How 
poorly the Red race is gifted for music and singing is well known : 
the fine arts have remained in infancy among them ; and writing, 
unless it consists in rude pictorial images, is utterly unknown. They 
barely know how to trace a few patterns on skins, and although these 
designs are undoubtedly often happily grouped, and the colours 
blended with a certain harmony, that is all. Industry, apart from a 
coarse preparation of victuals and the tanning of hides and dressing 
of furs, is also entirely null. The Indian is less advanced than the 
African negro, who knows at least how to weave cloths and dye 
them. The Navajoes, alone, manufacture some coverings with wool. 

" The free Indians of the Prairies, scattered between the Missouri 
and the Rocky Mountains, may be reckoned at about a hundred 
thousand, while all the Indians of North America, from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, are estimated at four times that number. These cal- 
culations may possibly be slightly defective, statistics or any accurate 
census being quite wanting. The Red men themselves never give 
more than a notation of their tents or lodges, but the assemblage of 
individuals contained in each of these differs according to the tribe, 
and sometimes in the same tribe ; hence the impossibility of any 
exact computation. 

" In the north of the Prairies the great family of the Sioux, num- 
bering thirty-five thousand, is remarkable above all others. The 
Crows, Bigbellies, Blackfeet, &c, who occupy Idaho and Montana, 
form, when taken altogether, a smaller population than the Sioux — 
probably about twenty thousand. In the centre and south, the 
Pawnees (Fig. 215, p. 539), Arapahoes, Cheyennes (Fig. 216, p. 543), 
Yutes (Fig. 217, p. 547), Kayoways, Comanches, Apaches, &c, 
united, certainly exceed forty thousand in number. The territories 
of Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Texas, and New Mexico are those 
which these hordes overrun. The Pawnees are cantoned in Nebraska, 
in the neighbourhood of the Pacific Railway, and the Yutes in the 
' parks ' of Colorado. 

" These races possess many characteristics in common ; they are 
nomadic, that is to say, they occupy no fixed place, live by fishing, 
or above all by hunting, and follow the wild buffalo in its migrations 

" A thoroughly democratic re'gime and a sort of communism con- 
trol the relations of members of the same tribe with each other. The 
chiefs are nominated by election, and for a psriod, but are sometimes 








hereditary. The most courageous, he who has taken the greatest 
number of scalps in war, or has slain most bisons, the performer of 
some brilliant exploit, or a man of superior eloquence, all these have 
the right to be chosen chiefs. As long as he conducts himself well a 
chief retains his position ; if he incur the least blame his successor is 
appointed. Chiefs lead the tribes to battle, and are consulted on 
occasions of difficulty, as are also the old men. The braves are the 
lieutenants of the chiefs, and hold second command in war. There 
is no judge in the tribes, and each one administers justice for himself 
and applies the law at his own liking. 

" All these nations hunt and make war in the same manner, on 
horseback ; with spear, bow and arrows, in default of revolvers and 
muskets, and using a buckler as a defence against the enemy's blows. 
They scalp their dead foe, and deck themselves with his locks ; 
pillage and destroy his property, carry away his women and children 
captives, and frequently subject the vanquished, above all any white 
man falling into their hands, to horrible tortures before putting him 
to death. 

" The squaws, to whom the prisoner is abandoned, exhibit the 
most revolting cruelty towards him, tearing out the eyes, tongue, and 
nails of their victim ; burning him, chopping off a hand to-day, and a 
foot to-morrow. When the captive is well tortured, a coal fire is 
lighted on his stomach and a yelling dance performed round him. 
Almost all Red Skins commit these atrocities phlegmatically towards 
the Whites when engaged in a struggle with them. 

" Tribes often make war among themselves on the smallest 
pretext : for a herd of bisons they are pursuing, or a prairie where they 
wish to encamp alone. They have not indeed any place reserved, 
but they sometimes wish to keep one so, to the exclusion of every 
other occupant. Nor is it uncommon for the same tribe to split itself 
into two hostile clans. 

" The languages of all the tribes are distinct ; but perhaps a 
linguist would recognise among them some common roots, in the 
same way as in our own day they have been found to 'exist between 
European tongues and those of India. These languages all obey the 
same grammatical mechanism ; they are ' agglutinative/ or ' poly- 
synthetic,' and not ' analytic' or ' inflected,' that is to say, the words 
can be combined with each other to form a single word expressing a 
complete idea ; but relation, gender, number, &c, are not indicated 
by modifications of the substantive. I pass over the other character- 
istics which distinguish agglutinative from inflected languages. The 
dialects of the Red Skins have not, or seem not to have, any affinity 


in the different terms of their vocabulary, which is, besides, often very 

" In order to comprehend each other, the tribes have adopted by 
common accord a language of signs and gestures which approximates 
to that of the deaf and dumb. In this way all the Indians are 
capable of a mutual understanding, and a Yute, for instance, can 
converse without difficulty for several hours with an Arrapahoe, or 
the latter with a Sioux. 

" The Whites are not acquainted with the languages of the 
Prairie Indians, or know them very badly. Frequently there is but 
one interpreter for the same tongue, often a very poor one, merely 
understanding the idiom he has translated, not speaking it. Many, 
d fortiori, are not able to write the language which they interpret. 
Neither Dr. Mathews, John Richards, nor Pierre Chene could spell 
for me, in English characters, the names of the Crow chiefs. How 
would it be in the case of the Arrapahoes or Apaches, whose strongly 
guttural speech is only accentuated by the tips of the lips? 

" In all this it must be understood that I speak only of the tribes 
of the Prairies, and not of those who lived in olden times on the 
declivities of the mountains overlooking the Atlantic or skirting the 
Mississippi. The majority of the latter are, as is known, extinct, 
the Algonquins, Hurons, Iroquois, Natchez, and Mohicans, and 
France has contributed in a large measure to their disappearance. 

" The residue of these tribes, which I shall term Atlantic — 
Delawares, Cherokees, Seminoles, Osages, and Creeks — is now 
cantoned in the reserves, especially in the Indian territory, where 
little by little the Red Skins are losing their distinctive characteristics. 
Histories and authentic documents regarding all these races are 
extant, whilst only very little is known up to the present concerning 
those of the Prairies. The greater part of the legends and tradi- 
tions with which people endow them are only due to the invention 
of travellers. 

" It is towards a new territory analogous to the one just mentioned, 
and bordering upon it, that the Commissioners of the Union have 
recently pushed back the five great nations of the south ; while they 
intend to indicate a reserve of the same kind in the north of Dacota 
to the Crows and the Sioux, if they find them well-disposed to 
accept it. 

" And then, people may say, what will become of the Indians ? 
For this is the question which every one asks when he hears the Red 
Skins spoken of. If the Prairie tribes go into the reserves, the same 
will happen to them which has befallen those of the Atlantic borders : 

Fig. 215.— Pawnee Indians. 


little by little they will lose their customs, their wild habits ; they 
will yield insensibly to the sedentary and agricultural life, and, step 
by step — last phase, of which the first example remains to be seen 
— their country will pass from the rank of a territory to that of a 
state. Arrived at this final stage the Indian will be altogether 
blended with the White ; after a few generations he will not perhaps 
be more distinguishable from him than the Frank is discernible from 
the Gaul, or the Norman from the Saxon. 

" But if the Indian does not submit ; if he will not consent to 
be cantoned in the reserves? Then must ensue a death-struggle 
between two races differing in colour and customs, a merciless war 
of which, unfortunately, so many examples have already been seen 
on the same American soil. Where are now the Hurons, Iroquois, 
and Natchez, who amazed our ancestors ? The Algonquins, who 
had no limits to their territory, where and how many are they to-day ? 
All have gradually disappeared by disease or warfare. 

" The war which will break out this time will be short, and it 
will be final, for in it the Indian will finally sink. He has on his 
side neither science nor numbers. Undoubtedly, by his ambushes, 
by his flights, by his isolated and totally unforeseen attacks, he 
bewilders scientific warfare, and the most able strategists of the 
United States, with General Sherman at their head, have been beaten 
by the Indians, who have gained no small share of glory against the 
Whites. But the next war will be no longer one of regulars but of 
volunteers. The pioneers of the territories will arm themselves, and 
if the Red man demands tooth for tooth, eye for eye, the Whites will 
inflict upon him the inflexible penalty of retaliation, and the Indian 
will disappear for ever." 

In the narrative of his travels from the Mississippi to the coasts 
of the Pacific Ocean, made in 1853, M. Mollhausen has given 
various details concerning the remnants of the nearly extinct Atlantic 

The Choctaws, to the number of twenty-two thousand souls, are 
spread over the regions bordering on Arkansas on the east, the 
plains inhabited by the Chicksaws on the south, and those occupied 
by the Creeks on the west, while their neighbours to the north are 
the Cherokecs. ' 

The vast plains which adjoin the Choctaw territories are used 
for the pastimes of the Indians, and especially for their game of ball, 
or tennis. The Choctaws, Chicksaws, Creeks, and Cherokees aie 
passionately attached to this amusement. A challenge, borne by two 
able performers, usually gives rise to the festival, and having arranged 


the day for the contest, the players dispatch their heralds to all 
quarters. These emissaries are tattooed horsemen, accoutred in a 
fantastic style. Carrying a ceremonial racket, they repair from 
village to village and hut to hut, proclaiming throughout the entire 
tribe the names of the individuals who have proposed the match, and 
making known the day of the struggle and the place of meeting. As 
each of the actors is accompanied by his relatives, half the nation is 
often found assembled at the appointed locality on the eve of the 
solemn day, some to take part in the fray, and the others to bet upon 
the result. This game (Fig. 218, p. 549) is a tremendous tussle, 
a general scrimmage in which almost the whole tribe is engaged. 

Between the Canadian border and Arkansas, sprinkled with 
flourishing farms, is the fertile domain of the Creek Indians. It 
is not so long since the warriors there covered themselves with 
whimsical tattooing; but progress has penetrated into these savannas, 
and these same Indians to-day read a newspaper printed in their 

Like the Choctaws, the Creeks formerly inhabited Alabama and 
Mississippi, which they ceded for a pecuniary consideration to the 
American Government. Their numbers do not amount to more than 
twenty-two thousand. 

A similar estimate may be made of the C/ierokees, who have 
abandoned New Georgia for higher Arkansas. 

Further off are the Shawnees, a nation which is reduced to about 
fourteen hundred members, and yet was once one of the most 
powerful in North America. They were the first to oppose resistance 
to the encroachments of civilisation, and hunted from everywhere 
have strewn the bones of their warriors along their route. 

The Delawares, who have diminished to the insignificant total of 
eight hundred individuals, originally inhabited the eastern parts of 
the States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Their fate 
resembled that of the Shawnees ; being ever obliged to subdue new 
territories which they were afterwards compelled to yield to the 
government. Driven from the plains which contained the tombs of 
their forefathers, deceived and betrayed by the strangers, the Dela- 
ware Indians have repelled Christian missionaries. Placed at the 
extreme limits of civilisation, on lands to the west of the Missouri, 
which have been by the United States guaranteed in fee simple to 
them and their descendants for ever, on the very border of virgin 
nature, they devote themselves fearlessly to their adventurous pro- 
pensities. They go to hunt the grisly bear in California, the buffalo 

Fig. 216. — A Cheyenne Chief. 


on the plains of Nebraska, the elk at the sources of the Yellowstone, 
and the mustang in Texas, scalping a few crowns on their way. A 
Delaware only requires to see a piece of land once, in order to be 
able to recognise it after the lapse of years, no matter from what side 
he may approach it ; and wherever he sets his foot for the first time, 
a glance suffices him to discover the spot where water should be 
sought for. These Indians are admirable guides, and on their 
services, which cannot be too dearly paid for, the existence of a 
whole caravan often depends. 

Comanches.— The great and valiant nation of the Comanche 
Indians, which is divided into three tribes — the southern division 
being the Comanches proper — overruns in every direction the vast 
expanse of the Prairies. Outside those green savannas they would 
be unable to live. They probably have from 12,000 to 13,000 on 
their census roll. Those of the north and of the centre (the Tenna- 
was and the Yampasacos) are ever hunting the buffalo, and the flesh 
of that animal constitutes almost their sole sustenance. From the 
most tender childhood till advanced age they are in the saddle, and 
a whip and bridle render the Comanche the most expert, agile, and 
independent of men. They gallop in thousands over the Prairies, 
hanging to the sides of their steeds, and directing their arrows and 
spears with marvellous tkill at their mark. They plume themselves 
on being robbers, attack the establishments of the Whites, lead men, 
women, and children away prisoners, and carry off the cattle. 

Fig. 219 (p. 551) represents two Comanche Indians; Fig. 220 
.(P> 55 2 ) one °f tne i r encampments; and Fig. 221 (p. 553) a 
buffalo hunt among the same tribe. 

Apaches. — The Apache nation, numbering about 5,000 souls, is 
one of the most numerous of New Mexico, including many tribes, 
several of which are not even known by name. 

The Navajos are a different and a finer race than the preceding, 
whose hereditary enemies they are. They are a brave, stalwart race, 
skilled in the arts, and clever agriculturists ; yet they are born 
thieves and brigands, and used to keep the settlers in New Mexico 
in a constant state of terror. They are the only Indians of New 
Mexico who keep large flocks of sheep, and pursue a pastoral life. 
They know how to weave the wool of their flocks, of which they 
manufacture thick blankets fit to compete with the productions of 
the west, twisting bright colours into these rugs in a way that 


imnarts to them a very original appearance. Their deer-skin leggings 
are made with the utmost care, and have thick soles and a pointed 
end, shaped like a beak, a necessary precaution against the thorny 
cactus plants with which the soil bristles. Their headgear consists 
of a leathern cap in the form of a helmet, adorned by a bunch ot 
cock's, eagle's, or vulture's feathers. In addition to bows and arrows 
they carry long lances, which they handle very skilfully as they dash 
along on their fleet steeds. 

In the last rank of the Apache nation are to be placed the tribes 
of the Cosnincs and Yampas, thievish, savage, and suspicious hordes, 
with which it has been found impossible to establish any relations, 
and who are natives of the mountains of San Francisco. Cedar- 
berries, the fruit of a species of pine-tree, and the grass and root of a 
Mexican plant, constitute their means of subsistence, for they are 
wretched hunters. 

Within sight of the Rio Colorado M. Mollhausen encountered 
some Indians belonging to the three tribes of the Chimelnvcbs, Cutch- 
anas, and Pah-Utahs, who bear a resemblance to each other. Their 
complexion was dark in colour, their faces striped with a sooty 
pigment, and their black hair hung down their backs in locks which 
were confined with wet clay. They were of fine stature, and per- 
fectly naked, but for a waistband. They bounded forward like deer 
to meet the travellers, and their expression of countenance was frank, 
kind, and merry. Their women, on the contrary, were small, thick- 
set, and clumsy, but their large black eyes and pleasant manners gave 
them a certain charm. 

The travellers also fell in with the Mohave Indians (Fig. 222, 
p. 555), men of herculean forms, who were tattooed from the roots of 
the hair to the sole of the foot in blue, red, white, and yellow, and 
with eyes that glowed like coals under this layer of paint. Most of 
them wore vulture's, magpie's, or swan's feathers on the top of their 
heads, and carried large bows and spears in their hands. 

Mr. Catlin made numerous excursions among the Indian tribes 
of the plains of Columbia and Upper Missouri, and we shall quote 
presently his remarks concerning the Nay as and Fiat-Heads. 

Both these nations dwell to the west of the Rocky Mountains, 
occupying all the country situated round Lower Columbia and Van- 
couver Island. The latter tribe derives its name from the singular 
custom which exists among them of flattening their children's heads 
at their birth. 

The Flat-Heads (Fig. 223, p. 557) live in a region where very 
little in the way of food is to be found except fish, and their lives are 



Fii. 217. — A Vine Lhiet. 


soent in canoes. The artificial deformity which constitutes the national 
characteristic is to be found more especially among the women, 
with whom it is almost universal ; but it is only a question of fashion, 
and does not appear to have any perceptible effect on the func- 
tions of the organs, for persons whose heads have been compressed 
seem as intelligent as those who have not undergone this strange 

Mr. Catlin says : — 

"In the course of the year 1853 I found myself on board the 
Sally Anne, a little vessel flying the star-spangled flag, which having 
made a few trading cruises along the coast of Kamtschatka and 
Russian America, was on her way to land in British Columbia several 
passengers, who had been attracted thither by the reputation of the 
auriferous deposits newly discovered in that country. 

" On the third day from our entry into Queen Charlotte's Sound, 
the long and magnificent strait separating Vancouver Island from 
the continent, we got into the long-boat to go on shore, and arrived 
at the village of the Nayas (Fig. 224, p. 559). The Indians had been 
informed of our visit, and were all assembled in their huts ; the chief, 
a very dignified man, being seated in his wigwam, with lighted pipe, 
ready to receive us. We squatted ourselves on mats spread upon 
the ground, and whilst the pipe was being passed round — this is the 
first ceremony on such occasions — hundreds of native dogs, half 
wolves, which had followed in our track, completely invaded the 
approaches to the wigwam, barking and howling in the shrillest and 
most mournful manner. The sentinel, whom the chief had stationed 
at the door to prevent any one entering without permission, discharged 
an arrow at the leader of the band, piercing him to the heart, a pro- 
ceeding which calmed the rest of the pack, which was then dispersed 
with many blows of oars by the Indian women. We were not a little 
embarrassed at having no other way of expressing our thoughts than 
by signs, yet we seemed to understand each other perfectly, and we 
gathered that the chief had sent to a village at no great distance in 
search of an interpreter, who ought very soon to arrive. I recom- 
mended my companions not to breathe a word before his arrival as 
to our object in visiting the locality, and in the meantime did not 
myself lose an instant in endeavouring to rouse the interest of our 

" I motioned to Caesar to bring me the portfolio, and having 
seated myself beside the chief, opened it before him, while I gave an 
explanation of each portrait. He expressed no great surprise, and yet 
took an evident pleasure in examining them. I showed him several 






chiefs of the Amazons, as well as others of the Sioux, Osages, and 
Pawnees. The last likeness was a full-length one of Caesar, on seeing 

Fig. 219. — Comanche Indians 

Avhich he could not restrain himself from bursting into the most tre- 
mendous fits of laughter; and turning towards the subject of it, who 
was sitting opposite, signed to him to approach, gave him a grasp of 



the hand, and made him place himself beside him. These drawings 
excited great animation in the assemblage ; three or four under-chiefs 

Fig. 220. — A Comanche Camp. 

were anxious to see them, and the chief's wife and their young 
daughter came close to us for the same purpose. 

" One detail of their toilette attracted Caesar's attention : a man 

S * 



Fie. 222. — Mohave Indians. 


had a round slip of wood inserted in his under • lip, and the 
chief's daughter also carried a similar ornament. Like Caesar, , 
my companions were ignorant of this strange and incredible cus- 
tom, and contemplated the Indians thus adorned with the utmost 

" The chief's daughter wore a magnificent mantle of mountain- 
sheep's wool and wild-dog's hair, marvellously interwoven with 
handsome colours in the most intricate and curious patterns, and 
bordered all round with a fringe eighteen inches deep. The making 
of this robe had occupied three women during a year, and its value 
was that of five horses. The bowl of the pipe which the chief passed 
round was of hard clay, black as jet, and highly polished, and both it 
and the stem were embellished with sketches of men and animals 
carved in the most ingenious manner. I have seen several of these 
pipes, and have had many in my possession, with their eccentric 
designs representing the garments, canoes, oars, gaiters, and even the 
full-length likenesses of their owners. These designs of the Nayas 
are different from all those we saw among the other tribes of the 
continent. The same ornaments are found on their spoons, vases, 
and clubs ; on their earthenware, of which they make a great 
quantity ; and on everything else manufactured by them. Up to the 
present these figures are inexplicable hieroglyphics to us, but they 
possess great interest for archaeologists and etymologists. 

" I did not find in this Naya Chief the same superstitious dread 
which the Indians of the Amazon and of other parts in the south of 
America evinced when I asked them to have their portraits taken ; 
on the contrary he said of his own accord to me : 'If you think any 
of us worthy of the honour, or handsome enough to be painted, we 
are ready ! ' I thanked him ; Caesar went for my box of colours and 
my easel, and I began his likeness and that of his daughter, for he 
had told me how much he loved this child, adding that it was his 
rule to have her almost always with him, and that he thought I 
should do well to draw them together, both on the same canvas. I 
agreed to his request, telling him at the same time how much I 
appreciated such natural and noble feelings on his part. 

"... As we neared the village a great crowd came to meet 
us, and I noticed that the throng, especially the women, attached 
themselves to the steps of Cresar as he marched solemnly along, his 
tall figure drawn up to its full height, and with the portfolio on his 
back. So large were the numbers for so small a village that I asked 
the interpreter to explain what this signified. He told me that the 
news of our arrival and the attraction of the dance which was sure to 



Fig. 223.— Flat- Head Indians. 


take place in the evening had drawn and would still draw a vast con- 
course of Indians from the adjoining districts. At sunset we partook 
of a meal of venison in the chiefs wigwam, and afterwards set our- 
selves to smoke until night came on. Then, in the midst of dreadful 
yelling, barking, and singing, we saw about a dozen flaming torches 
approaching the hut in front of which the dance of masks now began. 
Grotesque is an imperfect word to convey an idea of the incredible 
eccentricities and buffoonery that took place before us, and Caesar 
was seized with such a fit of laughing as to be almost choked. Picture 
to yourself, fifteen or twenty individuals, ali full-grown men, masked 
or tricked out in the most extraordinary guise, while many spectators, 
placed in the first rank, were costumed in similar style. A great 
medicine man was the conductor of the revels and the most 
whimsical of all. He represented the ' King of the Bustards.' 
another was 'Monarch of the Divers,' a third, 'Doctor of the 
Rabbits;' and there were also the 'Brother to the Devil,' the 
'Thunder-Maker,' the 'White Rook,' the 'Night-travelling Bear,' 
ti e ' Soul of the Caribout,' and so on, until the names of every 
animal and of every bird were entirely exhausted. The dancers' 
masks, of which I procured several, are very ingeniously made. They 
are cleverly hollowed from a solid block of wood in such a way as to 
fit the face, and are held inside by a cross-strap which is taken 
between the teeth, thus enabling the voice to be counterfeited and 
disguised ; they are covered, moreover, with odd patterns in various 
colours. With the exception of that of the leader of the dance, all 
these masks had a round piece of wood in the upper lip, to recall the 
singular custom which exists in the country. Entertainments of this 
description are not confined to the Nayas, for I have witnessed 
similar recreations in many other tribes in North as well as South 

" They also slit the cartilages and lobes of their ears, lengthen 
them, and insert little billets as ornaments. Those in the lip are 
principally worn by the women, though some of the men have adopted 
this fashion, which becomes more and more in vogue among both 
sexes as the coast is ascended northwards. The same may be said 
of the masks, which are to be found as far as among the Aloutis. 
All the women have not the lip pierced, 5 „nd those who have 
do not carry the wooden ornament except on certain occasions, 
at settled periods, when they don full dress. They remove it 
when eating and sleeping or if they have to talk much, for there 
are plenty of words which cannot be pronounced with this incon- 
venient trinket 

A' A YAS. 


Fig. 224. — Naya Indians. 


" The lip is perforated at the earliest age, and the aperture thus 
formed, though almost imperceptible at first when the barbette is taken 
out, is kept open and grows larger daily." 

The same traveller had the pleasure of again meeting the Crows ; 
but, as we have already spoken of the Indians of this tribe, we shall 
content ourselves with reproducing here the very picturesque costume 
of one of their chiefs (Fig. 225). 

Mr. Catlin twice visited the Mandan Indians in the course of the 
summer of 1832. The solitary village in which they were collected, 
to the number of two or three thousand, was on the left bank of the 
Missouri, at a distance of about 1,400 miles from the city of St. Louis. 
The tribe has been for some years extinct, small-pox having com- 
pleted their destruction. Of medium stature, and comfortably ckv 1 
in skins, all wore leathern leggings and mocassins elegantly em- 
broidered with porcupine silk dyed in various colours. 

Each man had his tunic and his mantle, which he assumed or 
laid aside according to the temperature, and every woman her robe 
of deer or antelope skin. Many among them had very fair skin, and 
their hair, which was silvery-grey from childhood to old age, their 
light-blue eyes and oval faces, doubtless testified to an infusion of 
white blood. It is even affirmed by some writers that they are the 
descendants of the Welsh colonists, who 1,100 years ago sailed on 
that mythical voyage to America, with the equally shadowy Prince 
Madoc. Almost all the men adopted a curious fashion, peculiar to 
this tribe ; their hair, long enough to reach the calves of their legs, was 
divided into matted locks, flattened and separated by hardened bird- 
lime, or by red or yellow clay. 

North-Western Family. 

The Indian tribes composing the North- Western family of the 
North American Branch are less warlike and cruel than those of the 
east. Most of them take no scalps, but secure the heads of their 
fallen foes as trophies. Their stature is not so tall, their face broader, 
their eyes more sunken, and their complexion browner. We may, 
among others, cite in this group the Koloches (from 6o° to 50 N. lat.) ; 
the Western tribes of Vancouver Island, or A/its of Sproat;* the 
Cowiehan, connection of the eastern coasts of the same island and of 
the lower portion of Fraser River ; the Hydahs of Queen Charlotte 

♦"Scenes and Studies of Savage Life" (iSCS) ; and Brown's "Races of 
Mankind," Vol. I. 


5 6l 

Fig. 225. —A Crow Chief. 


Island;* the Chtuooks, mouth of the Columbia; the various trihts 
cf Oregon and Washington Territory and British Columbia ; and the 
various Digger tribes of California. 

A detailed description of the different American tribes would be 
devoid of interest — in fact, we should be only able to repeat, with but 
little alteration, what lias been said in previous pages concerning the 
manners, habits, customs, &c, of the last remaining savages who still 
people the interior of the North American forests. 

In connection with the aboriginal inhabitants of California, we 
must direct the reader's attention to the fact, that the Californians 
have a skin of such a deep reddish-brown that it seems black. This 
colour is certainly exceptional among the primitive inhabitants of 
America, but the characteristic is so pronounced in the present 
instance, that we could not avoid pointing it out, although it may be 
opposed to the classification which we have adopted, placing in 
the Red Race all members of the human family proper to America. 
It is more than likely that the Californian and Southern Oregon tribes 
are of comparatively recent Polynesian origin. 

*Dr. Rob. Brown, "Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society," 1869. 


The Black Race, as considered in the various peoples constituting 
its type, is distinguished by its short and woolly hair, compressed 
skull, flattened nose, prominent jaws, thick lips, bowed legs, and 
black or dark-brown skin. Its members are confined to the central 
and southern regions of Africa and the southern parts of Asia and 
Oceania. The blacks found in America are the descendants of 
African slaves transported into the New World by Europeans. 

The peoples belonging to the Black Race present great variations. 
Some have the type altogether peculiar to the race we have just 
characterised, while others show a tendency to approach the Yellow 
and the White Races. The inhabitants of Guinea and Congo are 
quite black, but the Kaffirs are only excessively brown, and resemble 
Abyssinians. The Hottentots and Bushmen are yellowish, like the 
Chinese, though at the same time possessing the features and phy- 
siognomy of the Negro. 

As striking varieties are, therefore, observable in the Black Race 
as in the White, and a rigorous classification of it is consequently 
very difficult to establish ; but as we coincide in that which has been 
suggested by M. d'Omalius d'Halloy, we shall separate the Black 
Race into two divisions, the Western and Eastern Branches. 




We shall notice three families in the Western Branch of the Black 
Race, those of the Kafhrs, Hottentots, and Negroes. These general 
groups comprise an immense number of tribes, many of them still 
unknown, constituting a population of over fifty-two millions. 

Kaffir Family. 

The Kaffirs (Fig. 226), who inhabit the south-east of Africa, 
form, so to speak, the stepping-stone or connecting link between the 
brown and the black nations. Their hair is woolly, but their com- 
plexion is not black, but blackish-red, and their nose is not so flat 
as that of a Negro. Possessing more aptitude for civilisation than 
the other black races, they are associated together in large commu- 
nities, each of which obeys a chief, and though half- wandering in 
their habits, occupy some very populous towns, of considerable 
extent, and resembling vast camps. Their wealth consists of cows, 
which may be said to be the national currency. Even a wife is valued 
in this currency, her price being usually eight cows. Their clothing 
is very scanty, being reduced in the men's case almost to a cloak 
(kaross) of skin, whilst the women are better covered in leathern 
garments. The European blanket is now, however, in general use. 

The Kaffirs have great herds of cattle, and devote themselves to 
agriculture. They cultivate maize, millet, beans, and water-melons ; 
make bread and beer, and manufacture earthenware ; are able to 
utilise metals, employ iron and copper, and know how to turn both into 
tools and ornaments. They have no notion of religion as a code of 
morals. Dr. Moffat, the celebrated African missionary, and father-in 
law of Dr. Livingstone, seems to think they do not believe in a God. 
That is a mistake, for they believe in Uhlungd, a Supreme Being, also 
in the efficacy of prayer, as well as in the immortality of the soul, 
though they do not seem to believe in a future state of reward or 



punishment, and pervert their religious sentiments by divers supersti- 
tions. All Kaffir tribes south of the Zambesi practise circumcision. 
The boquera, as it is called, is more a sanitary and political custom 
than a religious one. It is impossible to say where the Kaffirs 

Fig. 226. — A Kaffir. 

originally came from. Some think they must have wandered from 
North Africa or Asia. There is no good ground for supposing them 
to have been of Arabian descent. They seem to have mixed a good 
deal with the Aboriginal Negro stock they conquered and displaced, 
for many of them have strongly-marked Negro features. 

The various tribes of this great family possess physical charac- 
teristics in common which are not to be found in other African 


nations. Kaffirs are far taller and stronger than other Africans ; they 
have well-proportioned limbs, a reddish-black skin, black and woolly 
hair ; the elevated forehead and projecting nose of the European, with 
the thick lips of the Negro, and the high prominent cheek-bones of 
the Hottentot. Their language is sonorous, sweet, and harmonious, 
with a rumbling in its pronunciation. They are keen and subtle 
disputants, fond of hair-splitting and logic-chopping, but they are 
very bad arithmeticians; for instance, the Koussa tribe can hardly 
count beyond ten. Livingstone, however, asserts that the Bechuanas 
are superior in this respect, and says that their inability to count 
more than ten is all pretence. The Kaffirs practise unlimited poly- 
gamy — at least, the number of a Kaffir's wives is only limited by his 
means of buying and supporting them. Married women are slaves 
and drudges, and do all the hard work, and get all the ill-usage. In 
the Makolo tribe the position of married women is better. Marriage 
by force prevails amongst the Kambas. The first wife of a Kaffir is, 
however, by law joint proprietor of all the cows and property he may 
have at the date of marriage ; and he cannot, without her consent, 
dispose of any of that property. Hence he must get her consent 
before he can buy another wife ; and if she permits any of their 
cattle to be used for such a purpose, she is entitled to the services 
of the new wife as much as her husband is. The same rule applies 
to any wife in the harem who furnishes from her property cows to 
buy a new wife, only the first wife it seems has a right of vetoing 
any transaction of the kind if she pleases. 

We class with this family : 

i. The Southern Kaffirs, who include the Amakosas, Amathymbas, 
Amapendas, and other tribes. 

2. The Amazulas, or Zulus, noted for their honesty and intelli- 
gence, Vativas, and some other warlike wandering hordes, who have 
lately advanced southward into the interior. 

3. The inhabitants of Delagoa Bay, who bear a closer resem- 
blance to the Negroes. 

4. The Bechuanas, and all the numerous tribes situated towards 
the north and in the interior, speaking a language of their own, 
called Sichuana. An interesting offshoot of the Bechuanas is the 
Balakari tribe, inhabiting the Balakari desert, in which they live along 
with the Bushmen, and in nearly as degraded a condition. They 
were once powerful and rich, but by force have been despoiled of 
lands and wealth ; and by fre.^h immigrations of their own race have 
been forced out into the desert. Yet, though they have lived so long 
under the same physical conditions as the Bushmen, they have never 



become ethnologically assimilated to the latter. To this day they 
retain the Bechuana love for agriculture, and practice it in their 
wretched country as best they may, whereas the Bushmen are simply 
nomads, living by trapping and killing game, never rearing any 

Fig. 227. — Native of the Mozambique Coast. 

useful plant or animal, save perhaps some miserable dogs. (Living- 
stone, "Missionary Travels," p. 51, 1st edit.) The Balakari are 
most cruelly domineered over by stronger Bechuana tribes, to whom 
they sell raw hides, which the latter tan and sell. In physical 
development they are like the Australian aborigines. 

The Bechuana nations are the most advanced, but least amiable, 
of these four groups. The traveller Livingstone, who made a long 


stay in their country, has given excellent descriptions of them in his 
" Expedition to the Zambesi." They have made progress in arts 
and civilisation, inhabit large towns, have well-built houses, till the 
soil, and know how to preserve one year's crop until the next. 
They are, however, inveterate thieves, stealing from everybody — 
friend and foe, gentle and simple — everything they can lay their 
hands on ; and their thievish propensities are only excelled by their 
pompous mendacity. They are, unlike most Kaffirs, cruel to their 
aged relatives and to their wives. 

We must also affiliate to the Kaffirs the inhabitants of the 
Mozambique coast — that is to say, that portion of the east coast of 
Africa between the mouth of the Zambesi and Cape Delgado. Fig. 
227 represents a typical native of this district. 

Hottentot Family. 

The Hottentots, whom the Dutch colonists call Bosjesmans, or 
Bushmen, inhabit the southern extremity of the continent. Their 
skin is of a dark yellowish hue, and it is only in consequence of their 
features and conformation, which are those of Negroes, that the 
Hottentots are placed in the Black Race ; for if their colour is con- 
sidered, they should be ranked in the Yellow one. The width of 
their orbits, their obliquely-set eyes, and the large size of the occipital 
foramen in their skulls, make them present a very remarkable like- 
ness to the Northern Asiatics and Eskimos. 

Prior to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope by European 
navigators, the Hottentots formed a numerous people, whose little 
tribes lived happily and tranquilly under the patriarchal rule of their 
chiefs or elders. Composed of from three to four hundred indi- 
viduals only, these hordes roved about with their flocks, and assem- 
bled in villages, the houses of which being constructed of branches 
of trees and reed mats, were taken asunder on the signal of departure, 
and removed by oxen to the site of the new encampment selected by 
the chief. The wildest of them had for covering a cloak of sheep- 
skins sewn together, and their weapons were a bow and poisoned 
arrows. This people were active and intrepid hunters, and they 
found an opportunity of proving to the Europeans that they were 
brave in war. Their cruel invaders, the Dutch, exterminated the 
majority of these tribes, others were violently divested of their 
possessions, and hurled back into the forests or the deserts, where 
their wretched descendants still live. 

The Bushmen are the most degraded tribe of this race, and seem 


to be the lowest of mankind, as much by their physical characteristics 
as by the inferiority of their intelligence. Unlike the Hottentots, 
they have never been permanently modified by contact with Euro- 
pean civilisation. They are of small stature, yellowish complexion. 

Fig. 228. — Hottentot Venus. 

and repulsive countenance. Prominent foreheads, small sunken 
eyes, extremely flat noses, and thick projecting lips, form the distinc- 
tive features of their face. In consequence of their miserable state 
of existence, they become worn-out and decrepit early in life. They 
delight in personal adornment, and deck ears, arms, and legs with 
beads, and with iron, copper, or brass rings. The women colour 


the whole or part of their faces ; for all covering, they throw over 
their shoulders a kind ot sheep-skin mantle, which they call a kaross. 

We give here (Fig. 22S), as an accurate specimen of the Hottentot 
race, the portrait (from a cast in the French Museum of Natural 
History) of a woman of that country, who died at Paris in 1828, and 
who was known by the name of "The Hottentot Venus." The 
physical specialty which rendered her remarkable, and which con- 
sisted in a considerable development of the posterior muscles, was 
merely an individual anomaly, and does not permit of any general 
conclusion being drawn from it as a characteristic of the Hottentot 
race. The skeleton of this female is preserved entire in the Museum, 
where a cast of the whole body, coloured as in life, may also be seen. 

" The Bushman's dwelling is a low hut or a circular cavity. They 
formerly lived in a species of natural caves among the rocks, and 
a few individuals, even to the present day, occupy these same dens, 
which convey to us a perfect idea of man's habitations at the time of 
his first appearance on the globe. 

These wild beings have never been seen engaged in any other 
occupation than that of making or repairing their weapons and their 
barbed or poisoned arrows. In times of scarcity they eat herb- 
roots, ants' eggs, locusts, and snakes. Their language is a mixture of 
chattering, hissing, and nasal grunts. 

As regards physical type, the Hottentots are small, but well-pro- 
portioned, and erect without being muscular. They are -generally 
extremely ugly. Their nose is usually flat ; their eyes long and 
narrow, very wide apart from each other, and with the inner angle 
rounded as among the Chinese, whom the Hottentots resemble 
besides in some other respects. Their cheek-bones are high-set and 
very prominent, and form almost an equilateral triangle with their 
sharp-pointed chin. Their teeth are very white. The women some- 
times possess pleasing figures in early youth, but later on their breasts 
lengthen immoderately, their stomach becomes protuberant, and the 
hind part of their body is usually covered with an enormous mass 
of fat. 

Negro Family. 

The Negroes occupy the humid parts of intertropical Africa. 
Senegambia, Guinea, a portion of the western Soudan, the coast of 
Congo, along with the immense extent of country, as yet almost 
entirely unknown, which is comprised between Congo on the west 
and the coasts of Mozambique and Zanzibar on the east, are the 
dwelling-places of the Negroes, properly so called. 


Guinea and Congo are the classic homes of the Negro. There 
live the representatives of this race, with the most characteristic and 
repulsive features. The belief is, that, as the incursions of Asiatic 
and European populations into Africa were always effected by the 
Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea, the aboriginal blacks were thrust 
back more and more towards the west of the continent. The 
inhabitants of Guinea and Congo may thus be the descendants and 
contemporary representatives of the primitive black stock. 

Negroes are also to be found in the numerous islands of the 
Southern Ocean, and there are Negroes in the United States, and in 
the West Indies. From 1848, when slavery was declared abolished 
in the French possessions, the blacks have been free in those colonies, 
and the emancipation of the Negroes which has taken place since 
in the American and, to a limited extent in the Spanish territories, 
has relieved them from bondage in the New World. 

We proceed to study the Negroes, firstly as regards organisation, 
and then from the intellectual and moral standpoint. 

The physiognomy of the Negro is so strongly distinctive that it is 
impossible not to recognise it at the first glance, even if the individual 
should have a fair skin. His protruding lips, low forehead, projecting 
teeth, woolly and half-frizzled hair, thin beard, broad, flat nose, 
retreating chin, and round eyes, give him a peculiar look amongst 
all other human races. Several are bow-legged, almost all have 
but little calf, half-bent knees, the body stooped forward, and a tired 

The masticatory muscles are more powerful in the Negro than 
in the White, on account of the greater length of the jaw. Their 
occiput is flatter than that of the White, and the great occipital hole 
placed further back. Dr. Madden has noticed skeletons of Negroes 
in Upper Egypt, showing six lumbar vertebrae instead of five, a fact 
which explains the length of their loins and shambling gait. The 
hips are less prominent than in a white man. We may add that in 
this race the trunk is not so broad as in the other human families, 
the arms are slightly longer in proportion, and the legs rather 
perceptibly bent, with flat and high-placed calves. 

The bones of the skull and those of the body are thicker and 
harder than in the other races. 

The bony cavity of the pelvis is much narrower in the Negro 
than in the European, but is broader towards the os sacrum, which 
renders delivery easy to a Negress. Accurate measurements show 
the upper portion of the pelvis to be a fourth wider in the European 
than in the Negro. 


The thighs also differ in the Negro and the White, being very 
perceptibly flattened in the former. 

The foot participates in the general ugliness of the limb. Flat 
feet, which are sufficient to exempt from military service among the 
French, are not only no deformity in the Negro, but a normal 
characteristic. Instead of forming that curve which imparts elas- 
ticity to the whole frame, the under part of the Negro's foot is flat, 
thus rendering it less fitted to support the body on marches. So 
apparent is this malformation in the Black, that they say of him in 
America, " The sole of his foot makes a hole in the sand ; " and it is 
easy, in consequence, to distinguish by a mere look the footprint of 
a European from that of a Negro. The first only shows the marks 
of the toes and heel, while the other is the impress of the entire sole, 
from one end to the other. Besides, the foot of the Negro is large 
and narrow, with wide divisions between the toes, while the nails are 
rather sharp and pointed 

The complexion of the skin is one of the most apparent, though 
not most characteristic, attributes of the Negro race. The belief 
was long entertained that the colour of the Blacks resulted from the 
prolonged action of the sun on their bodies, but observation has 
shown that such is not the case, and that their extremely dark hue 
by no means depends either on the intensity or brilliancy of the solar 
rays. Light-coloured men are to be found in the central parts of 
Africa, in the Soudan and the Sahara, for instance, as well as among 
the Touaricks, whilst black tribes exist in countries subject to the 
most rigorous cold, such as Van Diemen's Land, and New Zealand. 
In another direction, too, quite close to the white Icelanders and 
Norwegians, people with very dark skins may be seen, like the Lap- 
landers ; and in California, a country of cold latitude, the aborigines 
are, as we have stated, almost black. 

The black colour resides in a carbonaceous substance, the pig- 
mentum nigrum (black pigment), which is deposited in a layer in the 
mucous tissue on the cuticle. It used to be held that the black skin 
of the Negro gave him a great advantage over white men in a hot 
climate, as it radiated heat better than a white skin did. This, how- 
ever, is an exploded fallacy. A recent writer on this subject says, 
" If the Negro derives advantage from his skin, it is not because of 
its colour, for it is now known, though the contrary was long believed, 
that two surfaces of the same material, the one black and the other 
white, radiate heat equally. When exposed naked to the sun, the 
Negro must feel the colour of his skin a disadvantage ; for black 
absorbs bright rays better than white does. The advantage of the 


Negro lies in the more vigorous excretory power of his skin, and its 
freer perspiration, which produces cooling."* 

Crossing with the White gradually diminishes the Negro's colour, 
and in proportion to the preponderance of black or white in its pro- 
genitors, the offspring presents various gradations of complexion. 
The child of a white man and a Negress, or of a Negro and a white 
woman, is called a mulatto, who is neither black nor white, but of a 
blackish-yellow hue, and who has short and frizzly black hair. The 
European and the mulatto produce the terceron. The terceron and the 
European produce the quadroon, who, as regards colour, is a mixture 
of three-quarters white with one-quarter black, or three-quarters black 
with one-quarter white. In the first case the complexion is fairer ; 
in the second, darker than that of a mulatto. The quadroon and the 
European produce the quinteron, who in slave countries, like the 
United States, used to rank as a white man or woman. 

Valmont de Bomaire adds, that in succeeding mixed generations 
(the union with the white man taking place in Europe, and that 
with the black man in Senegal), the complexion would grow lighter 
or darker, until at last a white or a black being was brought into the 
world. Such is the course of physical influences, and the causes of 
deterioration or relapse in the colour of the human species. Only 
four or five generations of mixed blood are required in order to 
render the Negro stock white, and no more are wanted to make the 
white black. The progeny of a black and a quadroon is termed 
saltatras in the colonies ; the word signifies " a leap backwards," or 
a return towards the black race. 

Crossings of the Negro with individuals of the Yellow or Red 
Races, with Asiatic Indians or American Red-skins, beget offspring 
of varied shades of colour, bearing different designations according to 
the countries. These men of colour are seen in many islands of 
Polynesia. Possessing neither the intelligence of whites nor the 
submissiveness of blacks, despised by the former and hated by the 
latter, they constitute an equivocal caste, with no settled position, and 
less disposed to labour than revolt. 

The colour of his skin takes away all charm from the Negro's 
countenance. What renders the European's face pleasing is that 
each of its features exhibits a particular shade. The cheeks, forehead, 

* Vide "Chambers' Information for the People," Vol. II.; Article, "Anthro- 
pology," p. 8. A general reference may be made to this article, as the briefest 
and most thoroughly modernised introduction to the principles of Anthropology 
the reader could consult. 


nose, and chin of the White have each a different tinge. On the 
contrary, all is black on an African visage, even the eyebrows, as 
inky as the rest, are merged in the general colour ; scarcely another 
shade is perceptible, except at the line where the lips join each 

The skin of Negroes is very porous, so much so that the pores 
show visibly ; but it is far from hard in all cases, being in some 
instances quite the reverse, smooth, satiny, and extremely soft to 
tne touch. 

The most unpleasant thing about a Negro's skin is the nauseous 
odour it emits when the individual is heated by perspiration or 
exercise. These emanations are as hard to endure as those which 
some animals exhale. 

A Negro's hair is quite peculiar. Whilst that of a White is cylin- 
drical, the Black man's is flat. It is also short and crisp, like the 
wool of a sheep, and, in contradistinction to the abundant supply of 
Europeans, the women among whom can even trail their locks on the 
ground, it only attains the length of a few inches. The beard, also, 
is very scanty. 

The eye of the Negro differs also from that of the White ; the iris 
is so dark as almost to be confounded with the black of the pupil. 
In the European, the colour of the iris is so strongly marked as to 
render at once perceptible whether the person has black, blue, or grey 
eyes. There is nothing similar the case of the Negro, where all parts 
of the eye are blended in the same hue. Add to this that the white 
of the eye is always suffused with yellow in the Negro, and you will 
understand how this organ, which contributes so powerfully to give 
life to the countenance of the White, is invariably dull and expres- 
sionless in the Black Race. 

Nature adapts the Negro to the torrid countries he inhabits. His 
constitution is in general lymphatic and lethargic. His slow, sluggish 
gait and invincible laziness provoke Europeans, who cannot under- 
stand so much indolence. The relaxation of the limbs of the Negro 
betrays itself by his inertia and drowsiness, as well as by the flabby 
flesh ot the women, 

Negroes are much less subject than Europeans to the influence of 
stimulants. The strongest spirit, rum, pepper, the most irritant spices, 
only feebly rouse their inert palate. 

Before speaking of the brain and understanding of the Negro, we 
should make some remarks on the facial angle observed in this race. 
We have said that a relatively exact judgment may be formed from 
the size of this angle as to the value of a race of mankind, from the 


intellectual point of view.* The more obtuse the angle, the greater 
indication does it afford of noble and lofty sentiments ; the smaller 
it is the nearer the head approaches to that of animals. A promi- 
nent forehead is the sign of a developed intellect, whilst protruding 
jaws reveal brute instincts. Consequently, the facial angle increases 
or diminishes according as the forehead or the jaws project forward. 
The facial angle of Europeans is about 76J degrees, sometimes reach- 
ing 81. An angle of 90 degrees, that is to say, a right angle, is found in 
the ancient statues of Greece. But, by reason of his retreating forehead 
and prominent jaws, the Negro only exhibits a facial angle of from 
6ii to 63 degrees, approaching that of the monkey, which in those 
of the species to which the ourang-outang and gorilla belong, is of 
45 degrees. 

This proportionate weakness of intelligence, revealed to us by the 
smallness of the facial angle in the Negro, is confirmed by an exami- 
nation of his brain. The labours of anatomists of our own day have 
established that not only is it the bulk of the brain which usually 
corresponds relatively with intellectual activity, but that the genuine 
indication revealing the superiority of mind in man consists in the 
number and depth of the furrows or convolutions of the brain. Now, 
the outlines and windings of the cerebral mass in the European are so 
numerous and deep that they can scarcely be measured, whilst the 
complications in the head of the black are, as-regards the same qualities, 
very much less. The brain of a Negro is also perceptibly smaller 
than that of a White. It is the front part especially, that is to say, the 
cerebral lobes, which is so much larger in the European, and hence 
the fine arch of the forehead peculiar to the White or Caucasian race. 

The intellectual inferiority of the Negro is readable in his coun- 
tenance, devoid of expression and mobility. The black man is a 
child, and like a child he is impressionable, fickle, easily affected by 
good treatment, and capable of self-devotion, but capable also of 
hatred in some cases, as well as of working out his revenge. The 
people of the Black Race living in a free condition in the interior 
of Africa, demonstrate by their habits and the state of their mind 
that they can hardly get beyond the level of tribe life ; and on the 
other hand such difficulty is experienced in many colonies, in endea- 
vouring to induce the Negroes (so indispensable has the guardianship 
of Europeans become to them) to maintain among themselves the 
benefits of civilisation, that the inferiority of their intelligence, com- 
pared with that of the rest of mankind, is a fact not to be disputed. 

* See Introduction, p. 26. 


Several instances might doubtless be adduced of Negroes who 
have surpassed Europeans by their capacity of mind. Generals 
Toussaint L'Ouverture, Christofle, and Dessalines were no ordinary 
men, and Blumenbach has preserved to us the names of many illus- 
trious blacks, among whom he mentions Jacob Captain, whose ser- 
mons, and theological writings in Latin and Dutch, are truly 
remarkable. It is not from individual cases, however, but from the 
whole that a judgment must be arrived at as to the intelligence of 
a race. 

The Negro tribes would be excessively numerous if their children 
lived, but negligence and laziness cause a notable proportion of their 
offspring to perish. The continual wars, too, in which they indulge 
against each other, equally impede the spread of their species, and 
notwithstanding the fertility of the soil in a great part of Africa, the 
improvidence and carelessness of the natives bring on real famines 
which decimate their numbers. 

Another cause of depopulation, that happily becomes less im- 
portant every day, is the trade which the blacks themselves are most 
eager to keep up. They sell their children for a packet of beads or 
for a few flasks of " fire-water. ' : 

Thought grows sad as it carries itself back to the time, not yet 
very remote, when Negro traffic and slavery, which to-day form the 
exception, were the universal rule along the whole coast of Western 
Africa. Negroes then were torn ruthlessly from their country and 
transported to other climes to be reduced to bondage, or in other 
words to sacrifice life and strength for their master, and in serving 
him, to exhaust themselves by toil without gaining as much pity as is 
extended to beasts of burden. With our animals, in fact, repose 
succeeds fatigue, and food restores vigour ; whilst, in slave states 
subject to Europeans, dread of punishment, the lash, and the most 
shocking usage, subdued the Negro to forced labour. 

This horrible traffic excited universal indignation for half a 
century, until, stirred up by the labours of Fox, Wilberforce, Clarkson, 
Fowell Buxton, Brougham, and other leaders of liberal thought, the 
British Government abolished slavery in its possessions in 1807. 
With the exception of Spain, most European States followed the 
example of Britain, and decreed its abolition soon afterwards in their 
colonies or dependencies. France, by laws passed between the 
years 1814 and 1848, definitively emancipated the slaves in all her 
possessions, and since i860 or so, almost the whole of America lias 
followed this example. Cruisers are now kept permanently on the 
coasts of Africa by England, which renders the slave trade, if not 



impossible, at least difficult and dangerous for the grasping, barbarous 
men who are not afraid to devote themselves to it still. 

This commerce, against which European nations have effected so 
much, nevertheless reckons as their partisans the Negroes themselves. 

Fig. 229. — A Negro Village. 

The tribes are, in fact, incessantly waging war on each other in order 
to take prisoners and sell them to the traders who pay prohibited 
visits to their shores. Even now, convoys of captives, chained 
together by means of forked sticks, are too often to be seen tra- 
versing the forests on their way to a slave-ship moored in some 
unfrequented creek. 


Since the almost general abolition ot slavery, many Negro tribes 
have been remarked to live in better accord among themselves. 
Fathers have some little love for their children, as they no longer 
entertain the hope of selling them for a bottle of rum or a glass 
necklace ! 

This bondage of the Negroes is not, we may add, a social institu- 
tion of recent date. The Romans possessed black slaves, and had 
been preceded by the Egyptians in a custom which, at a period yet 
more remote, prevailed among the Assyrians and Babylonians. Three 
thousand years ago the Arabians and Turks carried off Negroes. 
They ascended the Nile in large vessels, collecting, as they went, the 
blacks that were delivered up to them in Nubia and Abyssinia, and 
returning to Lower Egypt with this cargo of human cattle, sold it for 

A cruelty which occasionally approaches ferocity is the sad attri- 
bute of some African tribes. Molien said of the inhabitants of Fouta- 
Toro, that those Negroes had derived nothing from civilisation but 
its vices, and the same reproach is applicable to some of the modern 
tribes. The natives of Dahomey, a Negro kingdom extending along 
the shores of the Gulf of Guinea, distinguish themselves among all 
other blacks by their callous and revolting inhumanity. To kill and 
slay is to them a pleasure, which anyone who can indulge in it rarely 
denies himself, and the post of executioner is sought for by the richest 
and most powerful in the land as affording an opportunity for the 
most coveted enjoyments. To form an idea of a similar excess of 
savagery and depravity, the shocking account should be read in the 
" Tour du Monde," narrated from personal experience by Dr. Repin, 
who passed through Dahomey in 1856. We cannot attempt to 
reproduce here the picture of such cold-blooded barbarity. 

The Negroes impose heavy labours on their women. Among 
them the wife is merely a helper in toil, an additional but unpaid 
servant. Making flour and bread, tilling the ground, and discharging 
other fatiguing occupations, are the Negress's lot in her own country ; 
and it has been said, perhaps rightly, that the former slavery v/as 
possibly a benefit to her, as she at any rate changed tyrants. The 
Negress grinds the corn by placing it in a hollow stone and ciushing 
it with a round flint, the flour falling through a hole in the stone, and 
being received in a mat laid on the floor. 

The religious notions possessed by the Negroes are very dim; 
they doubtless believe in a Supreme God, in a creator ; but addict 
themselves in excess to the practice of fetishism. Their fetishes 
are a kind of secondary divinities, subordinate to the great God, 





or master of nature. Each person chooses for fetish whatever ne 
likes — fire, a tree, a serpent, a jackal, water, a hog, down to a 
piece of wood shaped by the hand of man. The worship of the 
serpent is in much favour among the inhabitants of Dahomey. They 
construct tents and dwellings for these reptiles, rear them in great 
numbers, and allow them to rove about wherever they please. Im- 
mediate death would follow any attempt to kill or pursue the fetish 

Belief in the power of chance or destiny predominates among 
these rude men. They feel that events do not depend on their own 
will, but upon some hidden influence which directs everything, and 
which it is necessary to render favourable to them. Hence the 
magicians and soothsayers, whose duty it is to avert evil fate or 
hurtful destinies ; and hence also the incalculable quantity of fetishes. 
Each Negro has his own, to which he offers sacrifice so long as he 
obtains something from it, and which he abandons the moment he 
recognises its uselessness. This is a lamentable effect of the natural 
degradation of these races. 

The sad defects of the Negro in his savage state should not cause 
his aptitudes to be forgotten. When he has been snatched from 
tribe life, or freed from the chains that weighed him down, the black 
manifests qualities which deserve to be brought into relief. 

Let us remark firstly, that the Negroes, or the mulattoes, resulting 
from their union with the whites, are often gifted with an extraordinary 
memory, which gives them a great facility for acquiring languages. 
They are not slow to appropriate the language of the people amidst 
whom they are placed. They speak English in North America, 
Spanish in the Central and Southern parts of the New World, and 
Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope. They can even change their 
tongue with their masters. If a Dutch Negro enters the service of 
an Englishman, he will abandon his former idiom for that of the 
latter, and will forget his old mode of speech. Nay, more, their 
memory sometimes retains widely diverse languages at the same time. 
Travellers have met Negro traders in the centre of Africa, having con- 
nections with different nations, who expressed themselves in several 
tongues, and understood both Arabic and Koptic as well as Turkish. 

The towns inhabited by the Negroes resemble European cities, 
sometimes so much as to be mistaken for them ; there is only a 
difference of degree in their civilisation and knowledge when com- 
pared with those of Europe. Towns, properly so called, in the 
interior of Africa are, however, very much scattered, but travellers 
bring to light fresh information concerning the country every day, 


and the future will perhaps reveal to us particulars about the civilisa- 
tion of Central Africa, of which we have as yet hardly a suspicion. 

Negroes are not bad accountants ; they calculate mentally with 
great rapidity. 

The industrial arts are pursued with some success by many black 
tribes. Iron can be extracted from its ores easily enough to admit 
of the trades of founders and blacksmiths being carried on in every 
Negro village (Fig. 229, p. 577), and some excellent handicraftsmen 
in both these callings are to be found in Senegambia and several 
of the interior regions. 

Fermented drinks, such as beer, sorgho wine, &c, are also 
manufactured with considerable skill. 

Negroes possess the talent of imitation to a very remarkable ex- 
tent. They seize hold of and are able faithfully to mimic a person's 
particular characteristics or behaviour if they show any ludicrous 
peculiarities. Negro humour is also generally gay and pleasant. 
They like to laugh at their masters and overseers, the children of the 
house, &c, and delight in making themselves merry at their expense. 

Yet this imitative faculty, inherent to blacks, does not go so far 
as to endow them with any artistic talents. Drawing, painting, and 
sculpture are unknown to Negroes, and it is impossible to infuse into 
them the smallest capacity for such subjects, either by lesson or 
advice. Their temples and dwellings are, in fact, only decorated 
with shapeless scratches. Africans of the present day are utterly 
unskilled in drawing and sculpture. 

Negroes, if thus obtuse to the plastic arts, are, on the contrary, 
very easily affected by music and poetry. They sing odd and ex- 
pressive recitatives at their festivals and sports, and in some Negro 
kingdoms a caste of singers is even to be met with, which is alleged 
to be hereditary, and whose members are also at the same time the 
chroniclers of the tribe. 

Musical instruments are rather plentiful among the Africans. In 
addition to the drum, which holds so prominent a place in the music 
of the Arabs, they use flutes, triangles, bells, and even stringed 
instruments, with from eight to seventeen strings, the latter being 
supplied from the tail of the elephant. They also possess instru- 
ments, fashioned from the rind of cucumbers, forming a sort of rude 
harp. The Madigoes, who live on the banks of the Senegal, about 
the middle of its course, have a species of clarionet, from four to five 
yards long. 

" The Negroes," says Livingstone, in his " Expedition to the 
Zambesi," "have had their minstrels; they have them still; but 


tradition does not preserve their effusions. One of these, apparently 
a genuine poet, attached himself to our party for several days, and, 
whenever we halted, sang our praises to the villagers in smooth and 
harmonious numbers. His chant was a sort of blank verse, and each 
line consisted of five syllables. The song was short when it first 
began, but each day he picked up more information about us, and 
added to the poem, until our praises grew into an ode of respectable 
length. When distance from home compelled him to return, he ex- 
pressed his regret at leaving us, and was, of course, paid for his useful 
and pleasant flatteries. Another, though less gifted son of Apollo, 
belonged to our own party. Every evening, while the others were cook- 
ing, talking, or sleeping, he rehearsed his songs, which contained a 
history of everything he had noticed among the white men, and on 
the journey. In composing, extempore, any new piece, he was never 
at a loss ; for, if the right word did not come, he didn't hesitate, but 
eked out the measure with a peculiar musical sound, meaning nothing 
at all. He accompanied his recitations on the sausa, an instrument 
held in the fingers, whilst its nine iron keys are pressed with the 
thumbs. Persons of a musical turn, too poor to buy a sausa, may be 
seen playing vigorously on a substitute made of a number of thick 
sorgho-stalks sewn together, and with keys of split bamboo. This 
makeshift emits but little sound, but seems to charm the player 
himself. When the sausa is played with a calabash as a sounding 
board, it produces a greater volume of sound. Pieces of shell and 
tin are added to make a jingling accompaniment, and the calabash is 
profusely ornamented." 

The music of the Negroes is not confined, it may be remarked, 
to simple melody. They are not satisfied with merely playing the 
notes sung by the voice, but have some principles of harmony. 
They perform accompaniments in fourths, sixths, and octaves, the 
other musical intervals being less familiar to them, except when 
sometimes employed to express irony or censure. The advanced 
state of music amidst the Negro tribes is all the more noticeable 
from the fact that among ancient European races, among the ancient 
Greeks, at the most brilliant epoch of their history, for instance, no 
idea whatever prevailed of harmony in music. 

The faculties of the blacks can, consequently, in certain respects, 
become developed, and it is established that Negroes who live for 
several generations in the towns of the colonies, and who are in 
perpetual contact with Europeans, improve by the connection, and 
gain an augmentation of their intellectual capacities. 

Fig. 230 (p. 579) represents a fishing scene on the upper Senegal. 


To sum up, then, the Negro family possesses less intelligence 
than some others of the human race ; but this fact affords no 
justification of the hateful persecutions to which these unfortunate 
people have been the victims in every age. At the present day, 
thanks to progress and civilisation, slavery is abolished in most parts 
of the globe, and its last remnants will not be slow to disappear. 
And thus will be swept away, to the honour of humanity, a barbarous 
custom, the unhappy inheritance of former times, repudiated by the 
modem spirit of charity and brotherhood ; and with it will vanish the 
intamous traffic which is called the slave-trade. 

No little time will, however, be needed in order to confer social 
equality on the enfranchised Negro. We cannot well express the 
scorn with which the liberated blacks are treated in North and South 
America. They are hardly looked on as human beings ; and notwith- 
standing the abolition of slavery, are invariably kept aloof from the 
white population. Centuries will be required to efface among 
Americans this rooted prejudice. 

The general assuagement of manners and customs will, ultimately, 
it must be hoped, entirely obliterate these distinctions, so cruel and 
unjust to the unhappy people whom a fatal destiny has condemned 
to a state of perpetual martyrdom, without their having done any- 
thing to deserve it, beyond coming into the world beneath an 
African sky. 

Central African Negroid Tribes. 

It may be doubted whether the term Negro is strictly expressive 
of ethnological fact. Almost all races in Africa have Negro-like 
subdivisions. For instance, the Sennam Negro is, by descent, man- 
ners, language, blood, most closely allied to the Nubians and 
Abyssinians, yet he lives in a humid climate at a low sea-level, and 
presents physical characteristics like those of the typical Negro of 
the West Coast of Atrica. Great numbers of Negro-like tribes exist in 
Central Africa, about the great lake basin of the Nile, yet they are not 
true Negroes, and they seem to shade away gradually into the South 
African races already described. Of these Central African tribes we 
may mention the Manganja nation, who live along the banks of a 
northern tributary of the Zambesi, called the Shire, whose hospitality 
is so graphically described by Dr. Livingstone, and who are so 
celebrated for their genius for musical improvisation. They have a 
j tvernment very like the Swiss Confederation. Each canton, or 
" Rundo," however, is independent of its neighbours, and they have 
no common chief or head. A woman may be chief of a " Rundo.'' 



They brew a vile kind of beer or wine out of crushed maize, 
called " pombe wine," which travellers say looks like " fermented 
mud." They also brew a better kind of wine out of plantains. 

Fig. 231. — A Zambesi Negress. 

As the liquor does not " keep " long, whenever a " brew " is made it 
is drunk off as rapidly as possible ; hence these tribes are not 
remarkable for the virtues of temperance. They pay particular 
attention to the dressing of their hair, training it over two bits of 
hide in the shape of horns, fixed at each side of the head. The 


women wear the "pelele," or ung of ivory or bamboo, which is 
twenty-two inches in diameter, and is fixed in the upper lip. It is 
this that makes the women of the tribe speak differently from the 
men (see Fig. 231). Owing to their filthy habits they are very much 
afflicted with skin diseases. 

The Wanyamuezi, or Weeze nation, are the greatest drinkers ot 
the " pombe wine ;" and are amongst the liveliest and most festive 
of all the Central African tribes. They are remarkably hardy 
travellers. The Bolando nation are clever cattle-breeders. They 
are so punctilious in matters of etiquette, that they will not eat food 
cooked by strangers ; or, indeed, eat in the presence of strangers 
(Livingstone). One sept of this tribe carry their antipathy to canni- 
balism so far, that they will not eat the flesh of domesticated animals, 
though they use that of wild animals. The Weeze nation is also 
remarkable for punctilious forms of etiquette. They are traders in 
cattle, rather than breeders. Their women are much more contented, 
and far more devoted to their husbands than in most other tribes ; 
and are, like the men, fond of dress and finery of that sort. They 
are a sociable people, and have in their villages a club-house — as it 
would be called in civilised countries — where they meet, and gossip, 
and amuse themselves with gambling, &c. The Wagondo nation 
lives under a despotism of the crudest and most sensual type. They 
are a people of sycophants, subject to be tortured and bullied to the 
utmost extent by their king, to whom no one dare speak unless 
addressed by his Majesty, on pain of instant execution. Violations 
of certain stringent sumptuary laws — wearing foreign articles of ap- 
parel, beads and brass wire ornaments excepted, appearing before 
the king without being properly dressed, are all capital offences. 
The favourite method of torture is to bore holes in the victim with a 
red hot iron, though in cases of dismemberment the body of the 
prisoner must not be hacked with knives, but cut slowly to pieces by 
the leaves of a certain coarse grass. The office of executioner is 
considered one of high honour amongst this slavish and down-trodden 
race. The Banyai nation live on the south bank of the Zambesi. 
They are a race of hunters, and live under a sort of elective mon- 
archy. They elect their chiefs, however, always out of the same 
family ; but do not elect as a man's successor his direct descendant, 
but a nephew or some other relative. The Obbos live in lat. 4 55', 
and long. 31 46' east. Sir S. Baker mentions some revoltingly filthy 
habits in connection with this tribe. They go about entirely naked, 
it being only an exceptionally modest woman who even dons a waist- 
fringe of leather or beads. They, however, pay great attention to 

PIGMIES. 5 87 

their hair-dressing. When a man's relative dies, for instance, his 
heir cuts off his hair, and adds it to his own ; so that their wigs 
sometimes attain a huge size. They paint their bodies with zebra- 
like stripes of red and yellow. The Kytches of the White Nile are a 
race so degraded, that Sir S. Baker describes them as a race of living 
skeletons. The Shir tribe on the White Nile are so much attached 
to their property, that they cannot stir from home without taking all 
their valuables with them. Their chief food is the seeds of the white 
lotus (Nymphcea Lotus). The Bornu nation is Mahometan, and semi- 
civilised. They live on the western shores of Lake Tchad, and have 
twelve or thirteen large cities in their territory. They are ruled 
nominally by a sultan, though the real executive power is in the 
hands of the commander-in-chief of the army. In this tribe it is 
thought etiquette for a man to put on all his clothes at once when 
he goes out, in order to show how rich he is. There are at least 
two cannibal nations in Central Africa, probably there are more, but 
there are at least two. The Niam-Niam tribes it is known eat the 
bodies of dead enemies. This tribe has recently attracted a great 
deal of notice on account of the discovery made at the court of their 
king (Munza) of a certain race of dwarfs, whom some suppose to corre- 
spond with the fabled pigmies of the ancient writers. King Munza 
had a dwarf of this kind for his court jester ; also an army of dwarfs, 
who, when met by Dr. Schweihfurth returning from some expedition, 
confronted him with demonstrations of hostility. The doctor thought 
at first they were a crowd of impudent boys. He found they were 
called Akkas ; and though they disappeared the day after he saw 
them, he seems to think they exist as a race further up the country. 
He managed to get one of them with him as far as Khartoum, where 
he died from too good feeding. The skull of this diminutive speci- 
men of humanity is said to be strangely like that of a chimpanzee. 
The average height of these pigmies is about 4 or 4J feet. Dr. 
Schweinfurth thinks they correspond with the Bushmen, and repre- 
sent the last relics of the aboriginal race of Africa. The Babookis, 
a tribe who live near the Niam-Niams, are also a cannibal race ; and 
another tribe, the Makkarikas, who live about 200 miles west from 
Gondokoro, not only accompany the slave-traders raids to gratify 
their hideous appetite, but seriously interrupt the business of their 
allies by not only stopping to feed on the slain, but by also murder- 
ing the children captured, and eating them. The Unyoros are 
described by Sir. S. Baker as a tribe sufficiently civilised and 
ingenious as to understand the manufacture of earthenware ; a great 
step in advance, when it is considered that so many of these Central 


African savages are contented to use vessels fashioned out of gourds, 
which grow wild and ready to their hand. 

Many other tribes might be mentioned, but space prevents us 
from saying more than that they are not only in a state of 
extreme savagedom, but, in spite of the considerable fertility of the 
regions they inhabit, seem incapable of making any advance towards 
a higher civilisation. How much their degraded condition may be 
due to the demoralisation of the slave-trade, or how much to inherent 
incapacity for improvement, it is hard to say. 

West African Negroes. — That portion of the West African coast 
from the Assinie river to the Volta is the "Gold Coast." As far 
inland as the Prah it is under British rule, and inhabited by a great 
many kindred tribes, all speaking the same language — e.g., Wassaws, 
Denkeras, Assin, Akien, Aquapem, Aquamo, Adaryme, Krobo, &c. 
The two great West African nations are the Fantis on the west, and 
the Ashantis on the east side of the Prah. These nations are of the 
same race, and speak the same language, but they are bitter enemies. 
The Fantis have the command of the seaboard, and the Ashantis 
cannot get their produce sold without submitting to the extortionate 
imposts of their enemies. The Fantis are British subjects. They 
are perhaps the most cowardly of all African -races, though association 
with European traders has sharpened' their wits a little. They are 
skilful canoe-men, well-made, muscular, and of a chocolate-brown 
colour. The women are excessively ugly, but much superior, mentally, 
to the men. In the late war they did most of the transport work. 
The dress is a waist-cloth, with another round the shoulders which is 
taken off in passing a superior. The women wear a simple petticoat, 
and if married a bit of cloth to cover the bosom. The Fantis are 
divided into four kingdoms, the chief king being Quassie Attah. In 
the last war they never were able to bring over 30,000 men into the 
field against the Ashantis. The "ordeal" is their means of testing 
the guilt of an alleged criminal. The accused swallows some poison- 
ous decoction, and if the stomach rejects it he is held guiltless. The 
Fantis have one good quality : they provide for their infirm parents. 
They have got little good from the introduction of Christianity ; 
indeed to this day they are for the most part a race of fetish 

The Ashantis are a fine warlike race, who, till the British troops 
crushed their power in 1874, formed the most powerful empire in 
West Africa. The Ashanti nation shows great intelligence in the 
conduct of its government, and its leaders manifested great skill in 


military tactics. Human sacrifices of the most disgusting nature are 
common amongst them, and when our troops entered their capital, 
Coomassie, they found the air laden with the stench that came from 
the bodies of the victims offered up. Whenever a great man amongst 
them dies, several slaves are offered up as a sacrifice. Bowdich, 
whose account of Ashanti is an exceedingly good one, on his first 
visit to Coomassie, saw a slave being sacrificed. " His hands were 
pinioned behind him, a knife was passed through his cheeks, to 
which his lips were noosed like the figure of eight ; one ear was 
cut off and carried before him, and the other hung to his head by 
a small bit of skin ; there were several gashes in his bark, and a 
knife was thrust under each shoulder-blade. He was led, by a cord 
passed through his nose, by men disfigured with immense caps of 
shaggy black skins, and drums beat before him." 

Neither our soldiers nor newspaper correspondents saw much of 
the country during the war. The power of the Ashanti king is com- 
pletely shattered, and the nation seems lapsing into semi anarchy at 

The Dahomans are another powerful nation, inhabiting the tract 
of country between lat. 6° — 8° 50' N, and long. o° 30' — 3 E. It is a 
vast plain rising from the sea very gradually into the Kong Moun- 
tains. The natives are a tall, muscular, intelligent race ; singularly 
honest as compared with other African races. They are skilful agri- 
culturists. A few are Mahometan, the bulk of them, however, are 
fetish worshippers. The king is an absolute despot, and, as in 
Ashanti, murder, or rather wholesale butchery, is one of his favourite 
amusements, one of the most popular of state ceremonials. Human 
sacrifices of 2,000 at a time are offered up, indeed when the late king 
died, his son, the present king, butchered 7,000 of his subjects by 
way of mourning for his parent in a becoming manner. A curious 
thing is that the best part of the army, about one-half of it, is com- 
posed of women, or " Amazons " who are devoted to celibacy, and 
who are said to be far better soldiers than the men. The population 
will be from two to three hundred thousand. 




The Eastern Blacks, who have also been called Meiantsians and 
Oceanian Negroes, inhabit the western part of Oceania and the south- 
east of Asia. Their complexion is very brown, sometimes increasing 
in darkness until it reaches intense black. Their hair is frizzled, 
crisp, flaky, and occasionally woolly. Their features are disagreeable, 
their figures of little regularity, and their extremities often lank. They 
live in tribes or small divisions, without forming themselves into 

We shall divide them into two groups, one, the Fapuan Family. 
composed of peoples among whom the characteristics indicated above 
are the most developed ; the other, the Andaman Family, made up 
of tribes which more resemble the Brown Race, and probably result 
from a mixture of it with the Black one. 

Papuan Family. 

The Papuan Family seems to dwell only in small islands or on 
the coasts of larger ones. Two groups of peoples are observable in 
it, one, resembling the Malays, consists of the Papuans, who inhabit 
the New Guinea Archipelago, and another who occupy the Fiji 
Islands, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and the Solomon range. 
We proceed to say a few words as to the manners and customs 
of these different sections of the Black Race. 

Papuan*. — A remarkable feature presented by the Papuans, is 
the enormous bulk of their half-woolly hair. Their skin is dark 
brown, their hair black, and their beard, which is scanty, is, as well 
as thur eyebrows and eyes, of the same colour. Their arms, breasts, 
and legs are more or less covered with coarse black woolly hair. 
Though they have rather flat noses, thick lips, and broad cheek- 
bones, their countenance is by no means unpleasant. The women 
are more ugly than the men, their withered figures, hanging breasts. 



and masculine features render them disagreeable to the sight, and 
even the young girls have a far from attractive look. 

Fig. 232. — Thakombau, late King of the Fiji Islands. 

Lesson considered the Papuans fierce, inhqspitable, crafty men, 
but the inhabitants of Havre de Doresy and generally of the northern 
part of this Oceanic region, as far as the Cape of Good Hope, 


seemed to him of great mildness, and more disposed to fly fronj 
Europeans than to hurt them. He thinks, nevertheless, that the 
Negroes in the south of New Guinea, pushed back into that part of 
the island, and whom no intermixture has altered, have preserved 
their savage habits and rude independence. By good treatment and 
plenty of presents people may succeed in making way with them, 
and may be able to lull their uneasiness and establish friendly 
relations. They have a wonderful taste for art, especially for 
carving in wood, though they are deficient in affection and moral 

Vitians. — The first accurate information about the Viti or Fiji 
Islands is due to Dumont d'Urville. Mr. Macdonald, an as- 
sistant-surgeon on board the English ship Herald, has published 
an account of his visit to Fiji, and from it we extract the following 

Thakombau (Fig. 232), the late king, was a man of powerful and 
almost gigantic stature, with well-formed limbs of fine proportions. 
His appearance, which was further removed from the Negro type than 
that of other individuals of lower rank, sprung from the same stock, 
was agreeable and intelligent. His hair was carefully turned up, 
dressed in accordance with the stylish fashion of the country, and 
covered with a sort of brown gauze. His neck and broad chest were 
both uncovered, and his naked skin might be seen, of a clear black 
colour. Near him was his favourite wife, a rather large woman with 
smiling features, as well as his son and heir, a fine child of from 
eight to nine years old. His majesty was also surrounded, at a 
respectful distance, by a crowd of courtiers, humbly cringing on their 
knees. The Fiji Islands have now been ceded (1874) to the British 
Government, and Thakombau is pensioned off. 

In the course of his peregrinations, Mr. Macdonald was present 
at a repast, consisting of pork, yams, and taro,* served in wooden 
dishes by women. Fresh-water shell-fish of the perch kind com- 
pleted the banquet. The broth was very savoury, but the meat 
insipid. During the conversation which followed, the traveller became 
convinced that gossip is a natural gift of the Fijians. Figs. 233 and 
234 represent types of these people. 

The Fijians are fond of assembling to hear the local news, or to 
narrate old legends. Respect for their chiefs is always preserved 
unalterable among this people, who are, however, turbulent in their 

* The native substitute for bread. 



behaviour, depraved in their instincts, and familiar with murder, 
robbery, and lying. The homage paid to their chiefs makes itself 

Fig- 2 33- — Native of Fiji. 

manifest both by^ word and action ; men lower their weapons, take 
the worst sides of the paths, and bow humbly as one of the privileged 
order passes by. One of the oddest forms taken by this obsequious- 
ness is a custom, in accordance with which every inferior who sees 


his chief trip and fall allows himself to stumble in his turn, in order 
to attract towards himself the ridicule which such an accident might 
have the effect of drawing upon his superior. 

The different classes or castes into which the Fijian population is 
divided are as follows : — i, sovereigns of several islands ; 2, chiefs of 
single islands, or of districts ; 3, village chiefs, and those of fisheries ; 
4, eminent warriors, but born in an inferior station, master carpenters, 
and heads of turtle-fisheries ; 5, the common people ; and 6, slaves 
taken in war. 

The horrible custom of eating human flesh still exists in Fiji ; 
the missionaries have succeeded in bringing about its disappearance 
in some parts of the island, but it remains in the interior districts, 
concealing itself, however, and no longer glorying in the number of 
victims devoured ! Cannibalism does not owe its existence among 
the Fijians, as in most savage tribes, to a feeling of revenge pushed 
to the utmost limits ; it arises there from a special craving for human 
flesh. But as this dish is not sufficiently abundant to satisfy all 
appetites, the chiefs reserve it exclusively to themselves, and only 
I »\ extraordinary favour do they give up a morsel of the esteemed 
delicacy to their inferiors. 

The engraving (Fig. 235, p. 597) is taken from a sketch made 
by the missionary, Thomas Williams, of a sort of temple used on 
occasions of cannibalism in Fiji. The four persons squatted in 
front of the edifice are victims awaiting their doom, and whose 
bodies will afterwards serve for the feast of these man-eaters. 

Mr. Macdonald discovered that the custom of immolating widows 
is still in full vigour in one of the districts of the island. 

Dancing is the popular diversion of the Fiji islands. The chant 
by which it is usually regulated is of monotonous rhythm, its words 
recalling either some actual circumstance or historical event. The 
dancers' movements are slow at first, growing gradually animated, 
and being accompanied by gestures of the hands and inflections of 
the body. There is always a chief to direct the performers. A 
buffoon is sometimes brought into the ring whose grotesque contortions 
bring applause from the spectators. 

Two bands, one of musicians, the other of dancers, take part in 
the regular dances of the solemnities at Fiji (Fig. 236, p. 599) ; the first 
usually numbers twenty, and the other from 150 to 200, individuals. 
These latter are covered with their richest ornaments, carry clubs or 
spears, and execute a series of varied evolutions, marching, halting, 
and running. As the entertainment draws towards its close their 
motions increase in rapidity, their actions acquire more liveliness and 



vehemence, while their feet are stamped heavily on the ground, until 
at last the dancers, quite out of breath, ejaculate a final " Wa-oo ! " 
and the antics cease. 

Fig. 234. — Native of Fiji. 

New Caledonians. — The inhabitants of New Caledonia belong to 
the branch of Oceanian Negroes. This island, hidden in the Equinoc- 
tial Ocean, is a French possession, and was the spot to which the 
Communist insurgents and incendiaries arrested in Paris, in June, 
187 1, after the "seven days' battle," who were sentenced to 
transportation by the courts-martial, were sent, and from which 
some of them managed to get " clean away." We are indebted to 

596 the human race. 

MM. Victor de Rochas and J. Gamier for some valuable details con- 
cerning the population of the colony. 

The aborigines of New Caledonia have a sooty-black skin ; woolly, 
crisp hair and abundant beard, both black ; a broad, Bat nose, deeply 
sunk between the orbits ; the white of the eye bloodshot ; large, 
turned-out lips ; prominent jaws ; a wide mouth ; very even and 
perfectly white teeth ; slightly projecting cheek-bones ; a high, narrow, 
and convex forehead; and the head flattened between the temples. 
Their average stature is at least as tall as that of the French, their 
limbs are well-proportioned, and their development of both chest and 
muscles is generally considerable. 

The men are not very ugly, many even showing a certain regularity 
of feature ; and some tribes on the east coast are better favoured than 
the rest in this respect. Figs. 237 (p. 601) and 238 (p. 603) convey 
a fair idea of the male population. 

The ugliness of the women is proverbial. With their shaven heads 
and the lobes of their ears horribly perforated or pinked, they present 
a revolting appearance, even when young in years. The rude toil 
and bad treatment to which they are subjected bring upon them 
premature old age. They suckle their children for a long period, 
for three years on the average, and sometimes for five or six. 

Like all savages, the New Caledonians possess an exquisitely 
keen sense of sight and hearing. They are active and capable of 
exerting considerable strength for a short effort, but have no lasting 
power. Their inability to support fatigue for any length of time 
doubtless arises from the nature of their nourishment. They swallow 
really nothing beyond sugary and feculent vegetable food, seldom 
eating meat, the true source of the sustainment and recuperation of 
strength. Their island supplies the New Caledonians with no 
quadrupeds which they can capture for sustenance, and they possess 
no weapons suitable for killing birds. 

The quantity of eatables these people can gorge at a single meal 
is wonderful ; quite three times as much as a European would be 
equal to. 

Cannibalism prevailed amongst them to a most disgusting extent ; 
even their priests are said to have stirred up wars that they might 
supply themselves with large numbers of human hands, which are 
thought by them special dainties, and cut off the bodies of slain 
enemies for the especial benefit of the priesthood. Cooking human 
flesh in New Caledonia has attained the complexity of a fine art, and 
it is said that when the French traveller, D'Entrecasteaux, visited 
New Caledonia, the natives flocked round his men, and felt their 



Fig. 235. — A Temple of Cannibalism 

calves and arms as butchers do fat cattle, their mouths watering all 
the time, as they pictured to themselves what fine eating their white 
visitors would be. 

The village of Hienghene is one of the most considerable in the 


island. Its dwellings are shaped like beehives, and are crowned with 
a rude statue surmounted by a quantity of shell-fish, or sometimes by 
skulls of enemies slain in war. 

These cabins have a single opening, very low and narrow. In the 
evening they are filled with smoke in order to banish the mosquitoes ; 
the narrow aperture is then shut and the occupants lay themselves 
down to sleep on mats, whilst the smoke, by reason of its lightness, 
remains floating over their heads ; but to sit upright without being 
half smothered by it is impossible. 

It is a general defect of the New Caledonians that they have too 
thin legs in comparison with their bodies, and calves placed higher 
than in Europeans. 

Whether from habit, or in consequence of anatomical formation, 
these people assume positions at every moment which would fatigue 
us terribly. They sit down on their heels for whole days, and when 
they climb up into a cocoa-tree, or rest themselves by the way, place 
themselves without any effort in postures that are really surprising. 

The singular fancy which some of these tribes have for eating clay 
has been already noticed, and M. Gamier convinced himself of the 
reality of the fact. The earth in question is a silicate of magnesia, 
greenish in colour. It is ground by the teeth into a soft, fine dust, 
by no means disagreeable in taste. The habit of eating this clay is, 
however, far from general ; women only, in certain cases of illness, 
take a few pinches of it. 

M. Gamier had an opportunity of being present at the pilou-pilo u , 
a dancing festival, which takes place on the occasion of the yam 
harvest. On a piece of high but level ground, overlooking a vast 
plain, were seated the chiefs and old men ; the crowd were assembled 
below, and in front of them was piled a huge heap of yams. 
Thirty or forty youngsters, selected from the handsomest of the tribe, 
advanced, and each took a load, and then ascended the plateau in a 
body, all dashing at full speed to lay their burdens at the feet of the 
chiefs. Then, still running, they returned to the great mass of 
yams to carry away a fresh cargo, and so on until the whole pile 
disappeared. They were pursued during this wild race by the yelling 
crowd, bounding around them with brandished weapons. Every 
European would have been interested in this strange spectacle ; but 
a painter or a sculptor would have never grown weary of admiring the 
forms of the young performers ; finer artistic models have seldom 
" posed " in any studio. 

This fete was interrupted by a mock fight, during which the 
warriors, either in complete nudity or with gaudy cloths tied round 

Fig- 237.— -Young Native of New Caledonia. 


their waists, whirled their weapons about as they kept bounding, 
yelling, and taunting their adversaries. The old withered men, whose 
hands could throw neither stone nor javelin, animated the courage of 
the young people, and showered insults on their opponents. 

A scene of cannibalism, at which M. Gamier was present, is too 
dramatic to be passed over. 

Near a large fire sat a dozen men, in whom the traveller recog- 
nised the chiefs he had seen in the morning, and pieces of smoking 
meat, surrounded with yams and taros, were laid on broad banana 
leaves before them. The bodies of some unfortunate wretches, killed 
during the day, supplied the materials for this ghastly banquet, and 
the hole in which their limbs had just been cooked was still there. 
A savage joy was pictured on the faces of these demons. Both hands 
grasped their horrid food. An old chief with a long white beard did 
not seem to enjoy so formidable an appetite as his comrades. 
Leaving aside the thigh-bone and the thick layer of fiesh accompany- 
ing it, which had been served him, he contented himself with nibbling 
a head. He had already removed all the meaty parts, the nose and 
cheeks, but the eyes remained. The old epicure took a bit of pointed 
stick and thrust it into both pupils, then shook the horrid skull until 
bit by bit he brought out the brain ; but as this process was not quick 
enough, he put the back of the head into the flames, and the rest of 
the cerebral substance dropped out without difficulty ! . . . . 

Andaman Family. 

We comprise in the Andaman Family those Fastern blacks who 
possess the characteristics of the Negro race strongly marked. The 
Andaman islanders are pure Papuans, whose isolated position has 
kept them from intermixture with other races. They belong to the 
very lowest type of savages. These nations are as yet but little known. 
The inhabitants of New Guinea, the aborigines of the Andaman Isles, 
in the Bay of Bengal, the blacks of the Malacca peninsula, those 
dwelling in some of the mountains of Indo-Ghina, the natives of 
Tasmania, and, finally, the indigenous population of Australia, are 
included in this group. 

Among all these people the facial angle does not exceed 60 
degrees ; the mouth is very large, the nose broad and flat, the arms 
short, the legs lanky, and the complexion the colour of soot. The 
women are positively hideous. 

The tribes which form these groups are, in general, numerous, 
and subject to the arbitrary power of a chief. Language is extremely 

Fig. 238.— Native of New Caledonia 


limited among them ; they possess neither government, laws, nor 
regularly established ceremonies, and some do not even know how 
to construct places of abode. 

In order to convey to the reader an idea of the people composing 
the Andaman Family, we shall give a glance at the inhabitants of the 
Andaman Islands, and also at those of Australia. 

Andamans. — The dwellings of the Andamans are of the most 
rudimentary kind, being hardly superior to the dens of wild beasts. 
Four posts covered with a roof of palm-leaves constitute these lairs, 
which are open to every wind, and " ornamented " with hogs' bones, 
turtle shells, and large dried fish tied in bunches. 

As for the inhabitants themselves, they are of an ebon black. 
They seldom exceed five feet in stature ; their heads are broad and 
buried between their'shoulders ; and their hair is woolly, like that of 
' the African blacks. The abdomen is protuberant in a great many 
cases, and the lower limbs lank. They go about in a state of com- 
plete nudity, merely taking care to cover the entire body with a layer 
of yellow ochre or clay, which protects it from the sting of insects. 
They paint their faces and sprinkle their hair with red ochre. 

Their weapons are, however, manufactured with much cleverness. 
Their bows, which require a very strong pull, are made of a sort of iron- 
wood and gracefully shaped. Their arrows are tipped with fine 
points, some of them barbed, and they shoot them with much skill. 
They handle expertly their short paddles, marked with red ochre, and 
hollow their canoes with a rather rude implement formed of a hard 
and sharp stone fastened to a handle by means of a strong cord made 
from vegetable fibres. 

The Andamans are ichthyophagists, for the seas which wash their 
islands abound in excellent fish and palatable mollusks. Soles, 
mullets, and oysters constitute the staple of their food, and when 
during tempestuous weather fish runs short, they eat the lizards, rats, 
and mice which swarm in the woods. 

Though not cannibals, the Andamans are nevertheless a most 
savage race, who do not even exist in a state ot tribedom, but who 
are merely gathered into gangs. 

The bitterest contempt has been lavished on these rude in- 
habitants of the islands of Bengal, and people have been willing to 
consider them as brutes of the utmost cruelty, and most extreme 
ugliness ; but more recent observation, and the few facts which we 
have mentioned, show that this estimate should be somewhat 


Australian Blacks. — The wild state in which the aborigines of 
Australia exist is the result of the poverty of their country, which 
affords no other source of sustenance than animals. True, these 
abound there ; kangaroos, squirrels, opossums, wild cats, and birds of 
all kinds are so numerous, that the natives need, as it were, only 
stretch out their hands in order to take them. In this mild climate 
they can live without any shelter. 

The Australians are more nearly allied to the Papuans than any 
other race, yet they are not quite of the Negro type, their hair not 
being woolly, nor their jaws so prognathous. Some of the men are 
tall and well made. Their slow, lounging gait is not devoid ol 
dignity, and the solemnity of their step reminds one of the strut 
of a very " stagey" tragedian. 

The Australian blacks recognise family ties. None of them have 
more than one wife, but they do not marry within their own particular 
tribe. Their treatment of their wives is excessively brutal. They 
live encamped in bands, and now that they are reduced to small 
numbers, in entire tribes. They do not build permanent huts, but 
protect themselves in summer from the sun and hot winds merely by 
a heap of gum-tree branches, piled up against some sticks thrust in 
the ground. When winter comes on, they strip from the trees large 
pieces of bark, eight or ten feet high, and as wide as the whole 
circumference of the trunk, forming with these fragments a screen, 
which they place at the side whence the rain is blowing, and alter if 
the wind happens to change. Squatted on the bare earth, in the 
opossum skin which serves the double purpose of bed and clothing, 
each of them is placed before a hearth of his own. Fig. 239 is an 
engraving taken from a photograph of Australian natives. 

The Australians of the present day have guns, and employ little 
axes for chopping their wood and cutting bark ; but it is not so long 
since the only weapons they possessed were made of hard wood, and 
their hatchets consisted of sharp stones fastened to the end of sticks, 
like the flint instruments used by men before the Deluge. There is, 
in fact, little or no difference between the people of the age of stone 
and the Negroes of Australia, and consequently an acquaintance with 
the wild manners and customs of these races has been of great ad- 
vantage to naturalists of our day, in throwing light upon the history 
of primitive man. 

M. H. de Castella was greatly struck by the agility of the 
Australian blacks in climbing gum-trees, whose straight stems are 
often devoid of branches for twenty or thirty feet from their base, and 
are besides too thick to be clasped. When, by perfect prodigies o( 









acrobatism, the native reached the wild cats and opossums' nests, he 
seized the animals and threw them to his wife. 

Fig. 240. — Native Australian. 

This wife carried everything ; her last-born in a reed basket 
hanging from her neck, the slaughtered game in one hand, and in 
the other a blazing gum-branch, to light the fire when the family took 


up fresh quarters. The man walked in front, carrying nothing but 
his weapons ; then came the wife, and after her their children 
according to height. 

A batch of Australian blacks is never by any chance to be met 
walking abreast, even when in great numbers, and it a whole tribe is 
crossing the plains, only a long black file is to be seen moving above 
the high grass. 

M. de Castelh was a spectator of the curious sight which eel- 
tishing affords among these natives. Holding a spear in each hand, 
with which to rake up the bottom, they wade through the water up 
to their waists, balancing and regulating their movements to the even 
measure of one of theii chants. When an eel is transfixed by a stroke 
of one lance, they pierce it in another part of the hotly with the second, 
and then, holding the two points apart, throw the fish upon the 
ground, the quantity which they take in this manner being enormous. 
They dispense with saucepans and cooking utensils of all kinds in the 
preparation of their meals, simply placing the game or fish on bright 
coals covered over with a little ashes. 

Everyone has heard of the skill with which savages navigate their 
rivers in bark canoes ; but the people of whom we are now speaking 
render themselves remarkable above all others by their adroitness in 
guiding their little crafts over the rapids. Only two persons can sit 
in their boats, while a spear supplies the place of an oar, and is used 
with astonishing dexterity. 

The chief weapons of the Australian are the waddy, a large club, 
and the boomerang. This latter is a fiat piece of hard wood, so curved 
and fashioned that, when thrown in a skilful way, it will not only 
strike the object aimed at, but rebound almost to the feet of the 
thrower. One of the weapons depicted on the walls of the tombs of 
the ancient Theban kings is now believed to be a boomerang, and 
the use of this weapon amongst the Dravidian hill tribes of India is 
still known. It is curious that Professor Huxley, merely on ana- 
tomical grounds, classifies the ancient Egyptians, the Dravidian hill 
tribes, and the Australian aborigines together in one race. 

No one acquainted with this kind of barbarous life will be sur- 
prised to hear that the blacks of Australia are diminishing at a 
wonderfully quick rate. Of the whole Varra tribe, formerly a numerous 
one, M. de Castella could find no more than seventeen individuals. 

What most struck the author of an account of a journey from 
Sydney to Adelaide, which appeared in the " Tour du Monde," in 
[860, was the small number of aborigines which he met in a distance 
of more than 250 miles. Sturt and Mitchell, in the middle of the 



Fig. 241.— An Australian Grave. 


present century, had visited tribes on the higher tributaries of the 
Murray river, which then consisted of several hundred persons, but 
M. de Castella found them only represented by scattered groups of 
seven or eight famished individuals. Fig. 240 portrays one of the 
types sketched by this gentleman. 

Mitchell has given a description, in his "Travels," of the "groves 
of death " — those romantic burial-places of the Australians — but the 
writer in the " Tour du Monde " found them no longer in existence. 
The tombs of the natives of the present day are as wild and as rude 
as themselves. In the bleak deserts of the land of the West four 
branches driven into the ground and crossed at the top by a couple 
more (Fig. 241), support the mortal remains of the Australian 
aboriginal, whose only winding-sheet is the skin of a kangaroo. 


Ababdehs, 414. 

Abases, 234. 

Abipowes, 476. 

Abound, 412. 

Abruzzans, no. 

Abstraction, a faculty of man, I. 

Abyssinians, 408. 

Abyssinian Christians, 360. 

,, Family, 408. 

,, Religion, 412. 

,, Soldiers, 41 1. 

,, type, 408, 414. 

Adarymes, 588. 
Afghans, 227. 

Africa, Original Population of, II. 
Agglutinative Languages, 8. 
Agricultural Stage of Man, 35. 
Aguilots, 425. 
Ahts, 560 
Ainos, 242, 243. 
Akiens, 588. 
Akkas, 587. 
Albanians, 181. 
Algonquins, 523. 
Aloutis, 558. 
Alphabetic Writing, 32." 
Amakosas, 566. 
Amapendas, 566. 
Amathymbas, 566. 
Amazons, 589. 
Amazulas, 566. 
American Indians, 460 — 562. 
Anahuac, 514. 
Ancient Chinese Wriring, 322. 

Egyptians, *95- 

., Etruscans, 93, 101. 

,, Yncas, 462. 

,, Mexicans, 515* 

,, Peruvians, 462. 

,, Persian type, 216. 

Andaman Family, 602. 

,, Islanders, 605. 

Andian Family, 462 
Angles, 56, 59. 
Annamites, 371. 
Antis Indians, 466. 
Apaches, 534, 538, 545. 
Apontis, 503. 
Aquapems, 588. 
Aquamos, 588. 
Arabs, 208. 

,, Shegya, 21 1. 
Aramean Branch of White Race, 185. 
Araocas, 510. 
Arapahoes, 534. 
Araucanians, 470. 
Arcadians, 168. 
Aristocracy, English, 67. 
Armenians, 231. 

,, Religion, 231, 232. 

Artisans, French, 86. 
Aryan Race, 405, 8. 
Ashantis, 588. 

Asia, Original Population of, II. 
Assin Tribe, 588. 
Assyrians, 183. 
Atacamas, 466. 
Athenian Society, 174. 
Australian Aboriginals, 606 — 612, 

„ Native Customs, 606. 

,, ,, Tombs, 612. 

Aymaras, 465. 
Aztecs, 514. 

Babookis, 587. 
Halkaris, 566. 
Banyais, 586. 
Banians, 384. 
Barabras, 412 
Barbettes, "Uo, 513, 560. 



Baskirs, 140. 
Hattas, 424. 
Bechuanas, 566 — 568 
Bedouins, 20S. 
Behring's Straits, II. 
Beloochees, 227. 
Berbers, 185. 
Beyram, 288. 
Buddhism, 364 — 371. 
Bisharis, 414. 
Bielo Russians, 122. 
Big Bellies, 534. 
Blackfeet Indians, 528 
Black Race, 563. 
Bohemians, 121. 
Bonzes, 341, 344, 368. 
Boquera, 565. 
Bornus, 587. 
Bosniaks,. 121, 144 
Botocudos, 510. 
Bugis, 427. 
Brachycephaly, 25. 
Brahminism, 393. 
Brahmins, 384. 
Brahnis, 227. 
Brain of the Ape, 21. 

,, Man, 22. 

it the Negro, 575. 
Brazilian Indian Customs, 504 — 509 

„ ,, Dwellings, 504. 

Britons, 78. 
Brown Race, 383. 
Buddhism, 364. 
Bulgarians, 144. 
Buriats, 257. 
Burmans, 371. 
Bushmen, 568. 

Calabrians, 110. 
Califomian Indians, 562. 
Cannibalism, Fijian, 594. 

,, Maori, 422. 

,, New Caledonian, 596. 

Caprification of the Fig-tree, 191, 192. 
Capuans, 1 10. 
Caribs, 510. 

Caroline Islanders, 455. 
Caryis, 504. 
Caste, 384. 

Caucasian Race, 39, 40. 
Celebes, 427. 
Celtic Weapons, 76. 




Celts, 75. 

Central Africans, 584. 
Chaldeans, 186. 
Changos, 466. 

Characteristics of Man, Intellectual, 30. 
», ,, the White Race, 40. 

Charruas, 476. 
Chaymas, 510. 
Cheyennes, 534. 
Cherokees, 538. 
Chichimecas, 515. 
Chicksaws, 541. 
Chimehwebs, 546. 
Chinese Agriculture, 308, 318. 
Army, 343. 
Centralisation, 295. 
Corruption, 333. 
Court of Justice, 337—342. 
Dinner, 304. 
Drama, 326. 
Eating-house, 267. 
Education, 321, 324. 
Feet, 298. 
Fishing (River), 312. 

(Sea), 312. 
Gambling, 301. 
Horticulture, 316. 
Idleness, 300. 
Irrigation, 316. 
Jurisprudence, 330. 
Language, 324. 
Literature, 321, 326. 
Marionettes, 330. 
Marriages, 296. 
Opium Smoking, 308. 
,, Pisciculture, 311. 
„ Polygamy, 296. 

Printing, 325. 
,, Punishments, 333. 
,, Religion, 296. 
,, Religious Toleration, 296. 
,, Rice Fields, 316, 317. 
,, Tea Houses, 304. 
„ Theatres, 321, 328, 329. 
„ Type, 295. 
,, Women, 296. 
,, Writing (Ancient), 322. 
(Modern), 323. 
Chinooks, 562. 
Chippeway Indians, 528. 
Chiquitos, 476, 491. 
Chiriguanos, 503. 



Choctaws, 541. 
Cingalese Customs, 402 — 404. 
,, Costume, 404. 

,, of the Coast, 403. 
,, „ Hills, 404. 

» Type, 402. 
,, Women, 402. 

Circassian Family, 234. 
Circulatory System of Man, 30. 
Cirionos, 503. 
Classification of Man, Blumenbach's, 18. 

,, Bory de Saint Vincent's, 18. 

,, Buffon's, 17. 

,. Cuvier's, 18. 

„ Desmoulins', 18. 

.,, d'Omalius d'H alloys', 20. 

„ de Quatrefages', 19. 

,, Huxley's, 19. 

,, Lacepede's, 18. 

,, Latham's, 19. 

,, Pritchard's, 19. 

,, Virey's, 18. 
Colour, 572. 
Comanches, 534, 545. 
Communism (Red Indian), 534- 
Coras. 522. 
Cossacks, 130, 138. 
Cosninos, 546. 
Cowichaus, 560. 
Cranium, brachycephalous, 25. 

,, dolichocephalous, 25. 

,, of Man, 25. 

Creation, Animal Centres of, II. 

., in the Quaternary Period, 3. 

Creek Indians, 538. 
Croats, 121. 
Crow Indians, 533. 
Cutchanas, 546. 
Cymris, 76. 

Dacotas, 528. 
Dahomans, 578, 589. 
Danes, 44, 47. 
Daouria, Tunguses of, 258. 
Definition of Man, 1. 

,, „ Race, 13. 

,, ,, Species, 13. 

Dela wares, 538. 
Denmark, 46. 
Digger Indians, 562. 
Dolichocephaly, 25. 

Dongolawis, 412 

Dravidian Hill Tribes, 20. 

Druids, 79. 

Druzes, 216. 

Dutch, 55. 

Dyak Customs, 429. 

,, Head Cutters, 429, 430. 

,, Superstitions, 430. 
Dyaks, 429. 

Eastern Nubians, 414. 
Egyptian Dancing Girls, 204. 

,, Marriages, 200. 

Egyptians, Ancient, 195. 
,, Modern, 174. 

English, 56. 

,, Aristocracy, 67. 
„ Middle Class, 71. 
„ Origin of, 56. 
Type, 56—75. 
,, Women, 67. 
,, Working Class, 72. 
Esthonians, 144. 
Esquimaux Customs, 244 — 248. 
„ Dress, 250. 

„ Family, 243. 

„ Type, 243. 

Ethiopian Branch (Brown Race), 407. 
Etruscans, 108, no. 
European Branch (White Race), 40. 
Evolution, 7. 

Facial Angle, 26. 

„ „ of the Negro, 575. 

Falaeshas, 408. 
Fantis, 588. 
Fellahs, 199, 200. 
Fellans, 417. 
Fellatahs, 417. 
Fetishes, 578. 
Fiji, King of, 592. 
Fijian Cannibalism, 594 

„ Dances, 594. 

„ Government, 594, 595. 
Fijians, 520—525. 
Finns, 139.^ 

„ of Eastern Russia, 140 

„ of the Baltic, 143. 
Fionians, 47. 
Flathead Indians, 546. 



Flemish Language, 55. 
F rank Type, 75. 
French, 75. 

Artisans, 86. 

Bourgeois, 86. 

Peasant, 84. 

Soldier, 87. 

Women, 87. 
Friendly Islanders, 445. 
Frieslandic Language, 55. 

Gallas, 416. 
Gallic Customs, 79. 
Gauls, 75. 

Georgian Family, 232. 
,, Women, 232. 
Germans, 48 — 55. 
Gipsies, 405. 
Gold Coast Tribes, 588. 
Griinzer, 148, 155. 
Greek Family, 167. 

,, Peasants, 177. 
Guarani Family, 492. 
Guaranis (Western and Eastern), 503. 
Guarayis, 503. 
Guatos of Cuyaba, 438. 
Guayquerias, 510. 

Hadharebs, 414. 
Hawaiians, 454, 455. 
Hindoos, 384. 
Hindoo Castes, 384 — 386. 

,, Characteristics, 390. 

,, Civilisation, 384. 

,, Customs, 394. 
Food, 395. 

,, Ornaments, 393. 

„ Religion, 393. 

Society, 397—401. 

ti T)'P e . 3 86 - 

,, Village System, 386. 
Hispanians, 91. 
Hospodars, I IO. 
Hottentots, 568. 
Hottentot Venus, 569, 570. 
Hungarians, 121, 163. 
I lurons, 523. 
Hydalias, 560. 
Hybridism, 15. 
Hydahs, 560. 

Hyperborean Branch (Yellow Rao:), 
235. 236. 

Iberians, 75. 

Icelanders, 42. 

Indian (lames, North American, 53a 

Indo-Chinese Family, 371. 

Inflected Languages. 8. 

Intelligence of Man, I. 

,, ,, Brutes, 1. 
Irish, 25. 

Iroquois, 523, 528. 
Italians, 102. 
Italian Climate, 102. 
,, Types, 105 — ioy. 

Jakobites, 288. 
Japanese, 334— 371. 

„ Bonzes, 334, 368, 371. 

„ Characteristics, 345 — 347. 

„ Costume, 347, 348. 

„ Government, 348, 349. 

„ Literature, 334. 

„ Manufactures, 348. 

„ Religion, 334, 362. 

„ Soldiers, 301. 

m Tv P e > 346- 

„ Weapons, 360, 362. 
Writing, 334. 
Javanese, 420. 

„ Costume, 421. 

„ Dancing Girls, 421. 

„ Princes, 424. 

„ Trinkets, 422. 

„ Weddings, 423. 
Jews, 211. 
Jukaghirite Family, 251. 

Kabyles, 185, 186, 189, 190, 191. 

Kabylia, 185, 186. 
Kachintz, 140. 
Kaffir Family, 564. 
Kalmuks, 252. 
Kalmuk Customs, 253. 
Kambas, 566. 
Kamis, 364. 

„ Religion, 364. 
Kamtschadale Family, 241. 
Kandians, 402. 
Kayoways, 534. 
Kenous, 412. 
Khalkas, 254. 



Klialkasian Customs, 254. 

Khivans, 272. 

Kirghis, 275. 

Kodjai, 290. 

Koloches, 560. 

Kopts, 196. 

Koptic Language. 199. 

Koriak Family, 251. 

Koussas, 566. 

Kurds, 231. 

Kymes, 27. 

Kytches, 587. 

Ladrone Islanders, 455* 
Languages, Agglutinative, 8. 
„ Inflected, 8. 

,, Monosyllabic, 8. 

Laplanders, Nomadic, 236. 
,, Sedentary, 236. 

Lapp Family, 236. 

,, Customs, 236, 237. 

„ Type, 236. 

„ Women, 238. 
Latins, 49, 66, 72. 
Latin Family, 75. 
Lencas, 514, 522. 
Lenguas, 480 — 488. 
Libyan Family, 185. 
Lithuanians, 131. 

MacAskill Islanders, 457. 

Macassars, 427. 

Macedonians, 170. 

Machicuys, 480 — 488. 

Madagascar, 364. 

Madoc Prince, 560. 

Magachs, 435, 436. 

Magyars, 163. 

Magyar Type, 164. 

Mahometanism, 288. 

Makols, 566. 

Makkarikas, 587. 

Malabar Family, 406. 

Malay Branch (Brown Race), 418. 

,, Customs, 419. 
Man, Agricultural Stage of, 35. 

„ Birthplace of, 8 — II. 

„ Brain of, 22. 

„ Carriage of, 27. 

,, Colour of, 28. 

„ Cranium of, 25. 

,, Definition of, I. 

Man, Fundamental Languages of, 8. 

Types of, 8. 

Hand of, 23. 

Hunting Stage of, 34. 

Intelligence of, I, 30. 

Language of, 30. 

Migrations of, II. 

Moral Attributes of, 33. 

Nervous System of, 29. 

Origin of, 3 — 11. 

Pastoral Stage of, 34. 

Primitive Societies of, 34. 

Senses of, 22, 24. 

Stature of, 27. 

Unity of, 8, 12, 17. 

Writing of, 31. 
Manchus, 258. 
Mandan Indians, 560. 
Manganjas, 584. 
Manufactures, Primitive, 36. 
Maoris, 435. 

Maori Cannibalism, 422. 
,, Costume, 436. 
„ Language, 441. 
„ Religion, 441. 
„ Weapons, 441. 
„ Women, 436. 
Maronites, 215. 
Marquesans, 45c. 
Melanesians, 590. 
Messenians, 168. 
Metscheriaks, 140. 
Mexicans, 514. 

,, Ancient, 515. 
„ Modern, 518. 
Micronesians, 455. 
Military Confines, 144. 
Mingielians, 234. 
Mirdites, 182. 
Mixtecas, 522. 
Mnemonic Writing, 31. 
Moadueinites, 143. 
Mohavek Indians, 546. 
Mohicans, 523. 
Moldo-Wallachians, no. 
Mongolian Branch (Yellow Race), 252. 
Mongols, 254. 
Monogeny, 4 — 8. 
Montenegriners, 121. 
Moors, 195. 
Mora, La, 106. 
Aloxos, 491. 


IN ah A. 

Moyas, 514, 522. 
Mudir. 290. 
Mufti, 285. 
Mulatto, 573. 
Muscogulges, 524. 

Nahutalacas, 515. 
Natchez Indians, 523. 
Navajos, 534, 545. 
Nayas Indians, 546. 
Neapolitans, 109. 
Negroes, 570. 
Negro, Brain of, 575. 

„ Cross Breeds, 573. 

„ Cruelty, 578. 

„ Facial Angle of, 574, 575. 

,, Imitative Talent of, 582. 

„ Intellect, 575. 

„ Memory, 581. 

„ Music, 583. 

„ Physiognomy, 571. 

„ Religion, 578. 

„ Skeleton, 571. 

„ Skin, 572. 

„ Slavery, 576. 

„ Women, 578. 
Negroid Tribes, 584. 
Nestorians, 288. 
New Caledonians, 595* 
New Caledonian Cannibalism, 596, 602. 
New Zealanders, 435. 
Niam-Niams, 587. 
Nogays, 276. 

Northern Branch (Red Race), 451. 
„ North-Eastern Family of, 459. 
„ North-Western Family of, 493. 
„ Southern Family of, 451. 
Northern Italians, 101. 
Norwegians, 43, 44. 
Nubas, 412. 
Nouer Chief, 413. 
Nubians, 414. 

,, Eastern, 414. 
Nubian Customs, 414. 

„ Ruins, 414. 

Obbos, 586. 

Ocean Negroes, ;qo 

Octoroons, 573. 

Origin of Coloured Races, II. 

Man, 3, 4. 8. 
Orthognathism, 25. 

Osages, 538. 
Osmanlis, 276. 
Ossetines, 232. 
Ostiaks, 140. 

,, of Temisia, 2.7. 
Othomis, 522. 
Oualan, 456. 
Ouhil, 166. 
Ouragas, 509. 
Owas, 417. 

Pah-Utahs, 546 
Pampas, 476. 
Pampean Family, 476. 
Pandours, 16 1. 
Pannonians, 121. 
Papuan Family, 590. 
Papuans, 590, 591. 
Paraguay, 435. 
Parana, 435. 
Pariahs, 384, 404, 405. 
Patagonians, 476— 480. 
Patagonian Sacrifices, 480. 

„ Stature, 478. 

Pawnees, 534. 
Payaguas, 494 — 502. 
Payaguasian Stature, 497. 
Payes, 500, 502. 
Pekin Imperial College, 324. 
Pelasgians, 167. 
Permians, 143. 
Persians, 216. 
Persian Family, 216. 

,, Government, 219. 

,, Manufactures, 219. 

„ Population, 219, 220. 

„ Religion, 220. 

,, Type, Ancient, 216. 

„ „ Modern, 219. 

„ Women, 224. 
Peruvians, Ancient, 462. 
„ Modern, 464. 

Phanariots, 174. 
Phariagots, 520. 
Philippine Islanders, 374. 
Phoenicians, 183. 

Physiological Characteristics of Man, 29. 
Picherays, 474. 
Pilou-pilou, 598. 
Pitcairn Islanders, 16. 
Poles, 122. 
PolygenisU. Doctrines of, 4 — 8. 



Polynesian Family, 435. 

Pomotouans, 450. 

Populations of Africa, Original, II. 

,, America, Original, U, 460. 

„ Asia, Original, 12. 

„ Europe, Original, 12. 

Portuguese, 102. 

„ Women, 102. 

Pouls, 363. 
Primitive Manufactures, 36. 

„ Societies, 33. 
Procidans, no. 
Prognathism, 25. 
Prussians, 55. 
Puelches, 477. 
Pigmies, 27, 587. 

Quadroons, 573. 
Quarries, 129. 
Quichuas, 462. 
Quinteron, 573. 

Race, Black, 495. 

„ Brown, 335. 

„ Definition of, 12, 13, 14. 

„ Red, 460. 

„ White, 30. 

„ Yellow, 205. 
Races, Human, 38. 
Rajpoots, 384. 
Ramazan, 288. 
Rebosso, 454. 
Red Indian Characteristics, 460 — 562. 

„ ,, Communism, 534. 

„ „ Languages, 537. 

,, „ Type, 460. 
Reiss effendi, 247. 
Religiosity, 33. 
Rivobon-Sinton, 322. 
Romanians, 72. 
Romans, 105. 
Rousniaks, 130. 
Russian Houses, 130, 133. 

,, Women, 136. 
Russians, 130. 
Russians (Bielo), 122. 
Ruthenians, 121. 

Sachem, 524. 
Sagais, 140. 
Sahara, 172. 
Sahrong, 368, 371. 

Saltatras, 573. 
Samchow, 266. 
Samoiede Family, 24I. 
Sandwichians, 451. 
Sandwichian Women, 45 1. 
Sanskrit, 396. 
San-tse king, 284. 
Sarape, 455. 
Sarmatians, 121. 
Saxons, 56. 
Scandinavians, 41. 
Schiite Sect, 236. 
Scinde, Natives of, 353. 
Scythians, 121. 
Seminoles, 478. 
Semitic Family, 208. 
Senses of Animals, 22. 

,, Man, 22. 
Seraglio, 240. 
Servians, 121, 130. 
Shah, 219. 

Shamanism, 258, 264. 
Shamans, 264. 
Shawnees, 542. 
Sheilas, 194. 
Shir Tribe, 587. 
Siamese, 371. 

„ Agriculture, 379. 
,, Cambodia, 378. 
,, Concubinage, 376. 
„ Costume, 375. 
„ Government, 376. 
„ Harem Life, 3,6. 
„ Malacca, 331. 
„ Population, 371. 
Type, 372. 
Sichuana Language, 497. 
Sikhs, 390. 
Simnioles, 524. 

Sinaic Branch (Yellow Race) 234. 
Sioux, 528. 
Sivaism, 393. 

Skin of Man, Colours of, 29, 572. 
Slavonian Family, 1 18. 
Slavonians, 118. 

„ Northern, 122. 

„ Southern, 130. 

Slavonian Art, 129. 
Slovachians, 122. 
Society Islands, 447. 
Suakinys, 414. 
Southern Branch (Red Race), 407. 



Southern Branch (Italians), 103. 

„ (Italian Type), 103. 

Spaniards, 92. 
Spanish Dances, 102. 

„ Inquisition, 96. 

„ Intolerance, 96. 

„ Soldiers, 92. 

,, Women, 96. 
Spartans, 168. 
Spat has, 107. 
Species, Definition of, 13. 
Stature of Man, 27. 
Stieng Savages, 382. 
Sudras, 384. 
Swedes, 42. 
Syrians, 212. 

Taboo, 435. 437. 43 8 » 44^, 454- 

Tabayari, 504. 

Tadjiks, 216, 219. 

Tagales, 428. 

Tahitians, 447. 

Tahitian Customs, 447 — 450. 

,, Women, 448. 
Taicoon, 348. 
Tamanacs, 510. 
Tameyi, 504. 
Tamuls, 406. 
Tapigoas, 504. 
Tapinaqusi, 504. 
Tarascas, 522. 
Tattooing, 437, 445. 
Tchecks, 121. 
Tcheremissians, 143. 
Tchouvachians, 140. 
Teleouts, 140. 
Telingas, 406. 
Temisian Family, 250. 
Tennawas, 545. 
Tepanecas, 522. 
Teptiars, 140. 
Terceron, 573. 
Terra del Fuego, 416. 
Teutonic Family, 40. 
Thracians, 170. 
Tibboos, 416. 
Tigre Mountaineers, 41 1. 
Timmimnes, 504. 
Tobas, 480—488 
Toltecs, 515. 
Tongas 443. 
Totonacs, 522. 

Touaricks, 194. 
Tunguses, 258. 

Tupi Language, 504. 
Tupinambi, 504. 
Turcomans, 266. 

Turcoman Customs, 266, 267, 269. 
,, Religion, 270. 

„ Women, 268, 271. 

Turks, 276. 
Turkish Administration, 284. 

,, Agriculture, 290 

„ Corruption, 286. 

,, Education, 290. 

„ Family, 264. 

„ Jews, 288. 

„ Law, 283. 

„ Literature, 290. 

,, Manufactures, 290. 

„ Polygamy, 278. 

„ Religion, 283, 288. 

„ Temperance, 278. 

,, Type, Ancient, 264, 276. 

„ Type, Modern, 264, 276. 

„ Women, 280. 
Tuscans, 108. 
Tuscan Type, 108. 
Tzapotecas, 522. 

United States, 72. 
Unyoros, 587. 
Uscoks, 121. 
Uzbeks, 275. 

Varieties, 13. 
Vativas, 566. 
Venedians, 121. 
Vitians, 592. 
Vogouls, 140. 

Wagondos, 586. 

Wallachians, 110 — 1 1 3. 

Wallachian Towns, 115. 

Wanyamuezis, 586. 

Wassaws, 588. 

"Weeze Nation, 586. 

Western Branch (Black Race), 564 

White Race, 39. 

Writing, Alphabetic, 32. 

,, Mnemonic, 31. 

„ Ideographic, 32. 

„ Chinese, 322, 323. 

„ Symbolical, 32. 



Xicalaucas, 522. 

Yakuts, 258. 
Yakut Religion, 260. 
„ Women, 262, 
Yampas, 546. 
Yampasacos, 545. 

Yankees, 72. 
Yellow Race, 23^. 
Yncas, 462. 
Yutes, 534. 

Zingari, 405. 
Zulus, 566. 


Printed by CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, La Belle Sam-age, Lo.iion, H.C. 



Los Angeles 

ThLs.bon^is 1)1' E on the last date stamped below. 

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QL APR15 1996 

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